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Vocapedia > USA > Law, Justice

 

U.S. Attorney, State Attorney, County Attorney > Charges, Prosecutor, Prosecution

 

 

 

The United States Attorneys

serve as the nation's principal litigators

under the direction of the Attorney General.

 

There are 93 United States Attorneys

stationed throughout the United States,

Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam,

and the Northern Mariana Islands.

 

United States Attorneys are appointed by,

and serve at the discretion of,

the President of the United States,

with the advice and consent

of the United States Senate.

 

One United States Attorney

is assigned

to each of the 94 judicial districts,

with the exception of Guam

and the Northern Mariana Islands

where a single United States Attorney

serves in both districts.

 

Each United States Attorney

is the chief federal law enforcement officer

of the United States

within his or her particular jurisdiction.

 

United States Attorneys

conduct most of the trial work

in which the United States is a party.

 

The United States Attorneys

have three statutory responsibilities

under Title 28,

Section 547 of the United States Code:

the prosecution of criminal cases

brought by the Federal Government;

the prosecution and defense of civil case

in which the United States is a party;

and the collection of debts

owed the Federal Government

which are administratively uncollectible.

 

Although the distribution of caseload

varies between districts,

each U.S. Attorney’s Office

deals with every category of cases

and handles a mixture

of simple and complex litigation.

 

Each United States Attorney

exercises wide discretion

in the use of his/her resources

to further the priorities

of the local jurisdictions

and needs of their communities.

- 26 August 2014

https://www.justice.gov/usao/mission 

 

 

 

 

the U.S. Attorney > charge

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/01/06/
508559491/reports-of-shots-fired-at-airport-in-fort-lauderdale-fla

 

 

 

 

U.S. attorneys

http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2007-03-22-
us-attorneys-profiles_N.htm

 

 

 

 

U.S. Department of Justice > U.S. Attorneys

http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/

 

 

 

 

deputy attorney general

 

hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee /

hearing for deputy Attorney General nominee

http://www.npr.org/2017/03/07/
519063995/deputy-attorney-general-nominee-faces-questions-about-russia-probe

 

 

 

 

Samuel Hazard Gillespie Jr.        1910-2011

 

S. Hazard Gillespie

aggressively pursued securities fraud

as the United States attorney

for the Southern District of New York

in the last years

of the Eisenhower administration

and was a top litigator

for the Manhattan firm

of Davis, Polk & Wardwell

for nearly 50 years

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/09/nyregion/
09gillespie.html

 

 

 

 

attorney

http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-11-04-
terrorism-detainees_x.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prosecutor / State Attorney

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/09/01/
547985395/after-losing-in-court-florida-anti-death-penalty-prosecutor-charts-way-forward

http://www.npr.org/2017/03/17/
520535937/florida-gov-removes-state-attorney-from-death-penalty-case

 

 

 

 

state Attorney General Charles Foti

 

 

 

 

Chicago > Robert D. Boyle, the chief deputy special state’s attorney

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/20/us/
20chicago.html

 

 

 

 

Arizona’s attorney general

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/02/us/
executed-arizona-man-given-15-times-standard-dose-lawyers-say.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/25/us/
a-prolonged-execution-in-arizona-leads-to-a-temporary-halt.html

 

 

 

 

Arizona > Attorney general        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/oct/27/arizona-
execution-stay-lifted 

 

 

 

 

Pennsylvania’s Attorney General / top prosecutor

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/16/us/
trial-kathleen-kane-pennsylvania-attorney-general.html

 

 

 

 

State of Texas > Attorney General - the state’s chief law enforcement official

http://www.oag.state.tx.us/oagnews

https://www.oag.state.tx.us/index.shtml

https://www.oag.state.tx.us/oagnews/release.php?id=4431

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/21/us/
texas-attorney-general-invites-new-yorkers-to-bring-their-guns.html

 

 

 

 

California penal code

 

 

 

 

State of New York > Attorney general

 

the highest ranking law enforcement officer for the State,

responsible for representing New York

and its residents in legal matters.

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/contact.html

http://www.oag.state.ny.us/about.html

 

 

 

 

United States attorney

for the Southern District of New York > Preet Bharara

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/preet-bharara  

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/11/
business/11fraud.html

 

 

 

 

The attorney general of Connecticut

 

 

 

 

United States Attorney > Southern District of New York

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/
20090520-bomb-plot-arrests/press-release.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California's Attorney General

http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/technology/2006-10-04-
hp-charges_x.htm

 

 

 

 

Louisiana attorney general

 

 

 

 

Colorado Attorney General John Suthers

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-07-28-colorado-
killer_x.htm

 

 

 

 

state attorney general

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/25/us/
holder-says-state-attorneys-general-dont-have-to-defend-gay-marriage-bans.html

 

 

 

 

Ramsey County Attorney

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/11/16/
502314905/minn-police-officer-who-killed-philando-castile-is-charged-with-manslaughter

 

 

 

 

be charged

with second-degree manslaughter

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/11/16/
502314905/minn-police-officer-who-killed-philando-castile-is-charged-with-manslaughter

 

 

 

 

be charged with manslaughter

by the state attorney's office

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/23/
753929898/florida-man-found-guilty-of-manslaughter-despite-stand-your-ground-defense

 

 

 

 

be on trial (...)

on a charge of involuntary manslaughter

in the death of N

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/06/us/
suicide-texting-manslaughter-trial.html

 

 

 

 

charges

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/04/30/us/
what-happened-freddie-gray-arrested-by-baltimore-police-department-map-timeline.html

 

 

 

 

shooting > U.S. Attorney > charges

 

The charges issued include:

"Performing an act of violence

against a person at an airport,"

"using and carrying a firearm

during and in relation

to a crime of violence"

and "causing the death of a person

through the use of a firearm

in the course of a violation."

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/01/06/
508559491/reports-of-shots-fired-at-airport-in-fort-lauderdale-fla

 

 

 

 

charges > misdemeanor

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/03/us/
probation-sounding-light-can-land-hard.html

 

 

 

 

be elected county attorney

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baltimore’s chief prosecutor / state’s attorney for Baltimore City

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/02/us/
freddie-gray-autopsy-report-given-to-baltimore-prosecutors.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/02/us/
marilyn-mosby-prosecutor-in-freddie-gray-case-seen-as-tough-on-police-misconduct.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

black elected prosecutors

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/us/
a-study-documents-the-paucity-of-black-elected-prosecutors-zero-in-most-states.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prosecutor Files

Charge of 2nd-Degree Murder

in Shooting of Martin

 

April 11, 2012

The New York Times

By LIZETTE ALVAREZ

and MICHAEL COOPER

 

JACKSONVILLE, Fla. — More than six weeks after he shot and killed Trayvon Martin, an unarmed 17-year-old with no criminal record, George Zimmerman, the neighborhood watch coordinator at a small gated community in Sanford, Fla., was charged by a special prosecutor on Wednesday evening with second-degree murder and taken into custody.

The charges, which Mr. Martin’s family praised but called overdue, opened a new chapter in a case that set off a searing national discussion of racial profiling, Florida’s expansive self-defense law and the fairness of the criminal justice system.

The charges against Mr. Zimmerman were announced by Angela B. Corey, the state attorney for the Jacksonville area, who was appointed as a special prosecutor in the case after the local state attorney stepped aside in the wake of criticism that the case had been moving too slowly. Ms. Corey took pains to praise the local law enforcement officials at a news conference in Jacksonville, and pledged to pursue justice for the Martin family.

Asked about the racial overtones of the case — Mr. Martin, who was black, was shot and killed by Mr. Zimmerman, a Hispanic man who was not immediately arrested by the local police — Ms. Corey said that law enforcement officials were committed to justice for all, regardless of race, gender or background.

“We only know one category as prosecutors, and that’s a ‘V,’ ” Ms. Corey said. “It’s not a ‘B,’ it’s not a ‘W,’ it’s not an ‘H.’ It’s ‘V,’ for victim. That’s who we work tirelessly for. And that’s all we know, is justice for our victims.”

If convicted of second-degree murder, Mr. Zimmerman, 28, could face life in prison. It is the toughest charge he could have faced. First-degree murder would have required a finding of premeditation and a grand jury review, which Ms. Corey decided against this week.

Mr. Martin’s parents, Sybrina Fulton and Tracy Martin, praised the decision to arrest and charge Mr. Zimmerman at an emotional news conference in Washington, where they had been meeting with their lawyers and supporters. “We simply wanted an arrest,” Ms. Fulton said. “We wanted nothing more and nothing less, we just wanted an arrest. And we got it. And I say, ‘Thank you, thank you, Lord, thank you, Jesus.’ ”

Mr. Zimmerman arrived at the Seminole County Jail around 8:25 p.m. and stepped out of a black S.U.V. in the custody of law enforcement agents.

The killing of Trayvon Martin incited outrage and protest marches across the country. He was shot on the evening of Feb. 26 as he returned from buying Skittles and iced tea at a 7-Eleven, bound for the home in a gated community in Sanford, a small city just north of Orlando, where he and his father were guests. .

Mr. Zimmerman, the founder of the local neighborhood watch, called 911 that evening to report that Mr. Martin looked like “a real suspicious guy.” Some questioned whether Mr. Martin attracted Mr. Zimmerman’s attention simply because he was black. Others were outraged by the slow reaction of the local police and prosecutors, who did not immediately arrest and charge Mr. Zimmerman, saying that Florida’s self-defense law could make it difficult to prove a criminal case against him.

President Obama weighed in on the case at one point, saying, “If I had a son, he’d look like Trayvon.” After television commentators suggested that Mr. Martin might have looked suspicious because he was wearing a hooded sweatshirt, people around the country began donning them in solidarity. LeBron James and other members of the Miami Heat basketball team posed in them for a photograph they posted on Twitter. Representative Bobby L. Rush, Democrat of Illinois, even wore one on the floor of the House, saying “Just because someone wears a hoodie does not make them a hoodlum.”

The case drew attention to Florida’s Stand Your Ground Law, which was enacted seven years ago after lobbying by the National Rifle Association, over the objections of many law enforcement officials. The law gives the benefit of the doubt to people who claim self-defense, even if they are not in their homes; it says that people who feel that they are in danger do not need to retreat, even if it would seem reasonable to do so.

In this case, Mr. Zimmerman, who had founded a neighborhood watch over the summer after a string of burglaries in the area, saw Mr. Martin, began following him, and called 911, telling the dispatcher that he appeared “suspicious.”

The dispatcher asked if Mr. Zimmerman was following him. “Yeah,” Mr. Zimmerman said.

“O.K.., we don’t need you to do that,” the dispatcher said. Mr. Zimmerman said: “O.K.”

The case will probably hinge on what happened next.

A lawyer for Mr. Martin’s parents, Benjamin Crump, has said that Mr. Martin was speaking on his cellphone at the time with his girlfriend, and told her that he was being followed. Mr. Crump said that the girl heard him being asked what he was doing before the line went dead.

Mr. Zimmerman’s father, Robert Zimmerman, gave a different account: he has said that his son had lost sight of Mr. Martin, who then appeared from behind and challenged him.

Witnesses then told 911 that they saw two men fighting. Then Mr. Martin was shot in the chest and killed.

The Sanford police came under heavy criticism when they did not arrest Mr. Zimmerman, saying that they had no evidence to dispute his claim of self-defense. The police chief, Bill Lee, eventually stepped down from his post. The state appointed a special prosecutor. And the Justice Department announced that it would open a federal civil rights investigation.

Ms. Corey, the special state prosecutor who announced the charges, said that if Mr. Zimmerman’s lawyers invoke the state’s Stand Your Ground law in his defense, and prosecutors do not believe the shooting was justified, they will challenge the claim.

“This case is just like many of the shooting deaths we’ve had in our circuit,” she said. “If Stand Your Ground becomes an issue, we fight it if we believe it’s the right thing to do.”

Mr. Zimmerman changed his lawyers this week, and his old legal team held an odd news conference on Tuesday to say that they were withdrawing from the case and had not heard from him since the weekend. Mr. Zimmerman’s new lawyer, Mark M. O’Mara, a well-known criminal lawyer, said in a brief interview Wednesday night that his client would plead not guilty at a hearing on Thursday.

Mr. O’Mara also said that he hoped the judge would take up a bond motion at the hearing, but that he expected the judge would wait for a more extensive hearing in the near future.

One of Mr. Zimmerman’s former lawyers, Craig A. Sonner, said after the murder charge was announced that he would use the Stand Your Ground law as a defense if he were still representing Mr. Zimmerman.

Mr. Sonner said that although he had not seen evidence in the case first hand, he believed that “when all the evidence arrives in its totality, and all the circumstances are viewed in their totality, everything will show, I believe, that George Zimmerman was acting in self defense.”

As she announced the charge, Ms. Corey, the prosecutor, praised Mr. Martin’s “sweet parents.” But she stressed that the decision to charge was made based on the law, not on pressure. “Let me emphasize that we do not prosecute by public pressure or by petition,” she said. “We prosecute based on the facts of any given case, as well as the laws of the State of Florida.”

 

Lizette Alvarez reported from Jacksonville,

and Michael Cooper from New York.

Serge F. Kovaleski contributed reporting from Sanford,

Michael S. Schmidt from Washington,

and Timothy Williams from New York.

Jack Styczynski contributed research.

Prosecutor Files Charge of 2nd-Degree Murder in Shooting of Martin,
NYT,
11.4.2012,
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/12/us/
zimmerman-to-be-charged-in-trayvon-martin-shooting.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

district / county attorney > charges, prosecution

 

 

U.S. Constitution,

U.S. Supreme Court, State Supreme Courts

 

 

justice, law > USA

 

 

justice, law > death penalty > USA

 

 

prison, jail > USA

 

 

justice > courtroom artists / miscarriage of justice > UK / USA

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Documents

 

historical documents > USA