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Vocapedia > UK, British empire > Race relations > Slavery, Black power, Blackness, Black British identity

 

 

 

Notting Hill Couple, London (1967)

 

Phillips’s image,

taken when mix-raced relationships were still relatively taboo,

ended up on the cover of London Is The Place for Me,

a compilation of British calypso

 

Photograph: Charlie Phillips (Born 1944)/

 

Charlie Phillips, Image Courtesy of Beetles+Huxley

 

Punks, prams and carparks:

British national identity – in pictures

G

Monday 1 August 2016        07.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2016/aug/01/
an-ideal-for-living-photography-exhibition-britain-class

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

coon, wog, nigger (racist)

http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2009/feb/06/
lenny-henry-career-family-othello

 

 

 

 

Sooty (racist)

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/jan/12/
prince-harry-racism

 

 

 

 

'the wrong colour'

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/the-northerner/2013/feb/11/
bradford-race-issues-school

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

African Liberation Day march through Handsworth in 1977.

 

The children of the Windrush generation were growing up,” said Burke,

“and their eyes were opening to a wider political agenda.

Everyone I knew was involved with the movement in some way.”

 

Photograph: Vanley Burke

 

Fightback: Vanley Burke's black Birmingham – in pictures

The Jamaica-born ‘godfather of black British photography’

spent the 70s and 80s documenting street protests in the city.

His work can be seen at Cardiff’s Diffusion festival until 31 May

 

G        Thursday 25 May 2017        07.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2017/may/25/
vanley-burke-birmingham-godfather-black-british-photography-jamaican-cardiff-diffusion-festival-#img-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untitled, from the series The Black House, 1973-1976

 

Photograph: Colin Jones/Courtesy Autograph

 

Beauty contests and Brixton fashion:

black Britain in the 1970s – in pictures

 

From the archive of arts agency Autograph,

these photos depict the lives of black Britons,

from sound systems to strident politics

G        Tue 21 Aug 2018        07.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/aug/21/
black-britain-in-the-1970s-autograph-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Power leader Michael X

speaking at a rally in London in 1972.

 

Photograph: Popperfoto/Getty Images

 

The story of the British Black Panthers

through race, politics, love and power

O        Sunday 9 April 2017        07.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/09/
british-black-panthers-drama-photography-exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

black

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/03/
housing-crisis-why-worse-for-black-families-social-housing

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/aug/01/
met-police-using-force-against-disproportionately-large-number-of-black-people

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2012/mar/25/
dennis-morris-growing-up-black-photography

 

 

 

 

black people

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/aug/01/
met-police-using-force-against-disproportionately-large-number-of-black-people

 

 

 

 

blackness

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jul/07/
how-survive-as-black-man-at-oxford-university-michael-donkor

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/may/19/
meghan-markles-wedding-was-a-celebration-of-blackness

 

 

 

 

UK's first black archbishop        2005

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/nov/30/
religion.uk

 

 

 

 

black Britain in the 1970s

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/aug/21/
black-britain-in-the-1970s-autograph-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

west London cafe > the Mangrove, Notting Hil

a symbol of black urban resistance

 

The Mangrove

was established in 1968 by Frank Crichlow,

an entrepreneur from Trinidad

who became a community activist

and symbol of black urban resistance

in the face of police persecution.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/sep/15/
remembering-the-mangrove-notting-hill-caribbean-haven

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/sep/15/
remembering-the-mangrove-notting-hill-caribbean-haven

 

 

 

 

Black English

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/programme3_4.shtml

 

 

 

 

The Voice

http://www.voice-online.co.uk/ 

 

 

 

 

black feminist politics

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/feb/01/
women-1980s-diane-abbott-black-women-radical-feminism

 

 

 

 

Britain's black power movement

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/09/
british-black-panthers-drama-photography-exhibition

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/27/
britain-black-power-movement-risk-forgotten-historians

 

 

 

 

Britain's black power movement

 

Darcus Howe

one of the most significant black activists

in Britain

http://www.theguardian.com/profile/darcus-howe

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/27/
britain-black-power-movement-risk-forgotten-historians

 

 

 

 

Britain's black power movement

 

Mangrove Nine:

the court challenge

against police racism in Notting Hill

http://www.theguardian.com/law/2010/nov/29/
mangrove-nine-40th-anniversary

 

 

 

 

John La Rose    1927-2006

 

intellectual, trades unionist, campaigner, poet
 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2006/mar/04/
guardianobituaries.socialexclusion  

 

 

 

 

British Black Panthers

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/09/
british-black-panthers-drama-photography-exhibition

 

 

 

 

black Britain

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/aug/07/
they-wanted-to-jail-us-all-black-panthers-photographer-neil-kenlock-looks-back

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2008/feb/24/race

 

 

 

 

black British identity

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2017/may/05/
eddie-chambers-black-british-identity-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

Fightback: Vanley Burke's black Birmingham – in pictures

 

The Jamaica-born

‘godfather of black British photography’

spent the 70s and 80s

documenting street protests in the city.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2017/may/25/
vanley-burke-birmingham-godfather-black-british-photography-
jamaican-cardiff-diffusion-festival-

 

 

 

 

Black History Month

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/blackhistorymonth

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/01/
barnardos-black-history-victorian-archive-children-photos-testimonials

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/oct/11/
blackhistorymonth-race1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Lives Matter

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/gallery/2016/aug/05/
black-lives-matter-uk-rally-in-three-cities-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TITLE: Stowage of the British slave ship Brookes

under the regulated slave trade act of 1788

REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-44000 (b&w film copy neg.)

LC-USZ62-34160 (b&w film copy neg.)

SUMMARY: Illustration showing deck plans

and cross sections of British slave ship Brookes.

MEDIUM: 1 print: etching.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1788(?)]

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg. LC-USZ62-44000) cph 3a44236 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a44236

(b&w film copy neg. LC-USZ62-34160) cph 3a34658 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a34658

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?pp/ils:@FIELD(NUMBER(3a44236))

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/ils:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a44236)):displayType=1:m856sd=cph:m856sf=3a44236

Library of Congress > Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom

From the Collections of the Library of Congress

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html 

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

slave

 

 

 

 

slave trade

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/apr/30/
cambridge-university-inquiry-slave-trade-nation

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jul/26/
communists-capitalism-stalinism-economic-model

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/10/08/
are-transatlantic-slave-trade-reparations-due

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/25/
politics.religion

 

 

 

 

slave trader

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jun/19/
slave-traders-portrait-removed-from-bristol-lord-mayors-office

 

 

 

 

slave owner

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/08/
european-racism-africa-slavery

 

 

 

 

British slave ownership

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/12/
british-history-slavery-buried-scale-revealed

 

 

 

 

slave memoir

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/aug/07/
the-interesting-narrative-of-the-life-of-olaudah-equiano-
100-best-nonfiction-books-robert-mccrum

 

 

 

 

slavery        UK / USA

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/may/07/
cambridge-university-britain-slavery

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/apr/30/
cambridge-university-inquiry-slave-trade-nation

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jul/26/
communists-capitalism-stalinism-economic-model

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/10/08/
are-transatlantic-slave-trade-reparations-due

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/30/
david-cameron-slavery-caribbean

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/15/travel/
londons-legacy-in-the-slave-trade.html

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jan/12/
bristols-streets-history-horror-slavery

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2005/feb/12/
featuresreviews.guardianreview2

 

 

 

 

UK > The Anti-Slavery Society Convention of 1840        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/15/travel/londons-
legacy-in-the-slave-trade.html

 

 

 

 

enslavement

 

 

 

 

 

Abolition of Slavery Act        1833

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_Abolition_Act_1833

 

 

 

 

Abolition of the Slave Trade Act

An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade       1807

http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/abolition/index.asp 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/derby/content/articles/2007/03/02/
abolition_nyatanga_2007_feature.shtml

 

 

 

 

British slave ship "Brookes"

after the Regulation Act of 1788 > allowed to carry 454 Slaves 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html 

 

 

 

 

Regulated slave trade act of 1788

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_Trade_Act_1788 

 

 

 

 

William Wilberforce    1759-1833

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilberforce_william.shtml 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_wilberforce.shtml

 

 

 

 

Slavery Abolition Act 1833

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

 

 

 

British Abolitionists

http://www.brycchancarey.com/abolition/index.htm

 

 

 

 

William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield    1705-1793

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Murray,_1st_Earl_of_Mansfield

 

 

 

 

 

In 1787

a small fleet set sail

from London to Sierra Leone.

 

For the hopeful black passengers

and their white abolitionist benefactors,

it was an extraordinary, utopian venture

- to establish the first colony of freed slaves

in Africa.

 

In an exclusive extract

from his new book,

Simon Schama reveals

how that dream of a new life

turned into a nightmare

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/aug/31/
race.bookextracts

 

 

 

 

Somersett's Case (R. v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett)        1772

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somersett's_Case

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Somersett

 

 

 

 

William Cowper    1731-1800

http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/cowperpoems.htm

http://www.luminarium.org/eightlit/cowper/negroscomplaint.htm

http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp01072

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/people/williamwilberforce_4.shtml

 

 

 

 

William Cowper > THE NEGRO'S COMPLAINT

[Written Feb. (?), 1788.

Published in The Gentleman's Magazine, Dec., 1793;

afterwards in 1800.]

http://www.luminarium.org/eightlit/cowper/negroscomplaint.htm

 

 

 

 

William Wilberforce    1759-1833

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/people/williamwilberforce_4.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilberforce_william.shtml

http://www.brycchancarey.com/abolition/wilberforce.htm

http://www.brycchancarey.com/abolition/wilberforce2.htm

 

 

 

 

William Wilberforce's 1789 Abolition Speech

http://www.brycchancarey.com/abolition/wilberforce2.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain's slaving past

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/mar/26/religion.race

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/25/politics.religion 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/25/humanrights.britishidentity 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/mar/24/race.britishidentity 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/mar/21/humanrights.london 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2007/mar/24/featuresreviews.guardianreview25 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/feb/02/politics.britishidentity  

 

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2005/jun/30/museums 

 

 

 

 

Britain's slaving past > a female slave called Myrtilla

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2007/mar/21/
communities.raceintheuk 

 

 

 

 

West African coast > Bunce Island        1670

 

the most important and busiest

of about 40 British slave forts

from where millions of African captives

were loaded on to slave ships

from Bristol, Liverpool and London

and transported to the West Indies

and the Americas

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/
world/africa/article1567095.ece - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racism Charges

Put a Sport on Edge

 

December 21, 2011

The New York Times

By JERÉ LONGMAN

 

John Terry, captain of England’s national soccer team and the powerful club Chelsea, faces a criminal charge over accusations that he made a racial slur during an October match, apparently becoming the first player to be prosecuted for remarks said on the field.

The accusation against Terry, which he denied, represents an escalation in the attempt to stem the persistent and widespread problem of racism in European soccer.

On Tuesday, the Uruguayan forward Luis Suárez, who plays for Liverpool of the English Premier League, was suspended for eight matches and fined about $63,000 for making abusive remarks in an October game toward Patrice Evra, a black defender from France who plays for Manchester United.

On Wednesday, the Crown Prosecution Service, the agency responsible for laying criminal charges, said it had charged Terry.

Antiracism officials said they were encouraged by the actions taken against Terry and Suárez. But they cautioned that international soccer had lately sent mixed messages about discrimination despite a campaign over the past five years to reduce racial smears made on the field and in the stands. Fans in some European countries have been known to throw bananas and peanuts, and direct monkey chants, toward black players.

Sepp Blatter, the embattled president of FIFA, soccer’s world governing body, was widely criticized last month after trying to minimize the extent of racism on the field and suggesting that any player who felt affronted should settle the matter with a postgame handshake.

The Terry and Suárez cases represent “a very important step that sends two messages,” said Lord Herman Ouseley, chairman of the London-based antidiscrimination organization called Kick It Out. “If you are inclined to behave like that, you are not going to get away with it,” he said. “And it’s encouraging to black players, who have often felt, ‘Why bother, it’s a waste of time.’ Most thought nothing would come out of these allegations.”

At the same time, Ouseley said in a telephone interview that he would withhold judgment on English soccer’s long-term determination to stamp out racism until Terry’s case played out through the judiciary and Suárez decided whether to appeal his ban by England’s soccer federation, known as the Football Association. He has 14 days to file an appeal.

“We will have to wait and see whether there is consistency and durability in application of a high standard of conduct, backed by strong investigation and discipline with penalties, or whether this is a one-off, and we go back to leniency and complacency,” Ouseley said.

The English Premier League is considered the world’s best club competition and features many of the top international players. Two-thirds are foreign-born. Racial sensitivity in the league has increased substantially in recent years, and the atmosphere is considered far more embracing than leagues in Spain and Italy. Yet, the Terry and Suárez cases indicate that English officials are still troubled by some abusive on-the-field behavior.

Terry, who is 31, appears to be the first player to face a criminal charge of racism, said Ouseley and Howard Holmes, founder of another London-based antidiscrimination group called Football Unites, Racism Divides.

“I can’t find any other case where the police were involved,” Holmes said in a telephone interview. “There have been a number of instances that have gone to court, but they’ve been fan-based.”

Terry, who is white, is accused of making a racist remark during an October match toward Anton Ferdinand, a black defender who plays for Queens Park Rangers, a London rival of Chelsea.

A hearing for Terry is scheduled for Feb. 1. He is charged with violating Britain’s Crime and Disorder Act (of) 1998, which focuses on antisocial behavior. If found guilty, the maximum fine he faces is about $4,000, but a conviction could cost Terry the captaincy of his club and national team, his reputation and his ability to earn endorsement money.

“I am satisfied there is sufficient evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction and it is in the public interest to prosecute this case,” Alison Saunders, London’s chief crown prosecutor, said in a statement.

Terry has denied the charge, saying the context of his remarks was misunderstood. He said in a statement Wednesday, “I have never aimed a racist remark at anyone and count people from all races and creeds among my closest friends.”

According to The Guardian newspaper of London, Ferdinand did not immediately realize what Terry had said to him during the October match. Rather, Ferdinand grew concerned later when the encounter between the two players drew widespread attention on social media sites. He later saw footage of the confrontation that had been posted on the Internet.

Terry has said that he thought Ferdinand was accusing him of making a racial slur during their encounter and responded to Ferdinand by saying he would never use such a term.

The situation is complicated because Ferdinand’s brother, Rio, is a partner of Terry’s in central defense for England’s national team. And it was Rio Ferdinand who scathingly challenged Blatter’s suggestions last month that players should resolve racial tensions with handshakes. Via Twitter, Rio Ferdinand, who plays with Evra for Manchester United, called Blatter’s remarks “condescending” and “almost laughable.”

Blatter was widely ridiculed and Hugh Robertson, the British sports minister, urged him to resign. Blatter declined to step down but said he regretted his remarks and promised “zero tolerance” of racist behavior in soccer. A FIFA campaign against racism began at the 2006 World Cup in Germany.

The widespread reaction against Blatter’s remarks in England, as well as the social media response to the Terry incident, undoubtedly influenced the Suárez suspension and the decision to prosecute Terry, said Holmes, the antidiscrimination official.

“We can’t adopt a holier-than-thou attitude and, when it’s in our backyard, wash our hands of it,” Holmes said.

Suárez, the Liverpool forward, was accused of using a racial term 10 times against Evra in an October match against Manchester United. Suárez has said that he did not realize that language that was acceptable in his native Uruguay was considered racist in England.

“I understand the point about cultural differences,” Gordon Taylor, chief executive of the union for England’s professional soccer players, told British reporters Wednesday. “But if you come to this country, all players have to abide by not just the laws of the game, but the laws of the land as well.”

Liverpool has vigorously defended Suárez. During warm-ups for their match against Wigan on Wednesday, his teammates wore white T-shirts with an image of Suárez on the front and his name and his number, 7, on the back.
 

Rob Hughes contributed reporting from London.

Racism Charges Put a Sport on Edge,
NYT,
21.12.2011,
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/22/sports/soccer/
in-england-star-players-accused-of-racist-comments.html

 

 

 

 

 

April 22, 1968

 

Enoch Powell dismissed

for 'racialist' speech

 

From the Guardian archive

 

Monday April 22, 1968

Guardian

Ian Aitken

 

Mr Heath last night dismissed Mr Enoch Powell from the Shadow Cabinet. It became clear that the members of Mr Heath's Shadow Cabinet were unanimous that Mr Powell would have to go. Several Front Bench members let it be known that they would resign if Mr Powell remained. Two of the leading figures in the drama appear to have been Mr Maudling, deputy leader of the party, and Mr Hogg, chief home affairs spokesman. Both are understood to have been appalled by Mr Powell's inflammatory speech.

Certainly there were intensive consultations between members of the Shadow Cabinet and between many of them and Mr Heath. By the end of the afternoon it must have been apparent that Mr Heath would receive the full support of his colleagues if he dismissed Mr Powell. It was emphasised, however, that the decision to dismiss Mr Powell belonged to Mr Heath personally. He appears to have spent most of the day at Broadstairs brooding on the situation created by Mr Powell's highly emotive speech on the Race elations Bill, and to have telephoned Mr Powell at Wolverhampton at about 9pm.

A statement issued by Mr Heath said: "I have told Mr Powell that I consider the speech he made in Birmingham yesterday to have been racialist in tone and liable to exacerbate racial tensions. This is unacceptable from one of the leaders of the Conservative Party."

Friends of Mr Heath insisted that this was a decision which could not be delayed once it had been reached. The sense of relief expressed by several of My Heath's colleagues late last night underlined this point.

But there is no doubt that a major factor in making up Mr Heath's mind was the certainty of a further 24 hours of unfavourable press comment - even from normally Conservative newspapers.

Mr Powell is certain to receive the impassioned support of Right-wing Tories for his expression of views on the race question which are widely popular among sections of the electorate. As one Tory MP put it last night, with an eye to public opinion: "You could call him Mr National Opinion Powell."

[Powell said Commonwealth immigration policy must be "mad, literally mad", adding: "It is like watching a nation busily engaged in heaping up its own funeral pyre" and "Like the Roman, I seem to see the River Tiber foaming with much blood."]

From the Guardian archive,
Enoch Powell dismissed for 'racialist' speech,
April 22, 1968,
G,
Republished 22.4.2006,
https://www.theguardian.com/news/1968/apr/22/mainsection.ianaitken 

 

 

 

 

 

Bill for Abolition

of the British Slave Trade

 

ANNO QUADRAGEISIMO SEPTIMO

GEORGII III. REGIS

CAP. XXXVI.

An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

[25th March 1807.]
 


From May 1, 1807, the Slave trade shall be abolished.
Penalty for trading in or purchasing Slaves, &c. £100 for each Slave.
Vessels fitted out in this Kingdom or the Colonies, &c. for carrying on the Slave Trade shall be forfeited.
Persons prohibited from removing as Slaves Inhabitants of Africa, the West Indies, or America, from one Place to another, or being concerned in receiving them &c.
Vessels employed in such Removal, &c. to be forfeited, as also the Property in the Slaves.
Owners, &c. so employed to forfeit £100 for each Slave.
Subjects of Africa, &c. unlawfully carried away and imported into any British Colony, &c. as Slaves, shall be forfeited to His Majesty.
Insurances on Transactions concerning the Slave Trade not lawful. penalty £100 and treble the Amount of the Premium.
Act not to affect the trading in Slaves, exported from Africa in Vessels cleared on or before May 1, 1807, and landed in the West Indies by March 1, 1808, &c.
Silver taken as Prize of War, or seized as Forfeitures how to be disposed of.
Bounty to be paid for such Slaves to the Captors in the Manner Head Money is paid under 45G.3.C.72. so as the Sums shall not exceed the Rates herein mentioned.
Certificates to be produced to entitle to Bounty.
Doubts of Claim to Bounty to be determined by the Judge of Admiralty.
On Condemnation of Forfeitures of Slaves for Offences against this Act, the Rates herein mentioned shall be paid, &c.
Counterfeiting Certificates Felony.
Penalties and Forfeitures how to be recovered and applied.
4G.3.C15.
Seizures may be made by Officers of Customs or Excise, &c.
Offences to be inquired of as if committed in Middlesex.
His Majesty may make Regulations for Disposal of Negroes after the Expiration of their Apprenticeship.
Negroes enlisted in His Majesty's Forces not entitled to the Benefits of limited Service, &c.
General Issue may be pleaded.
 

 


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Whereas the Two Houses of Parliament did, by their Resolutions of the tenth and Twenty-fourth days of June One Thousand eight hundred and six, severally resolve, upon certain Grounds therein mentioned, that they would, with all practicable Expedition, take effectual Measures for the Abolition of the African Slave Trade in such Manner, and at such Period as might be deemed advisable And whereas it is fit upon all and each of the Grounds mentioned in the said Resolutions, that the same should be forthwith abolished and prohibited, and declared to be unlawful; be it therefore enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That from and after the First Day of May One thousand eight hundred and seven, the African Slave Trade, and all and all manner of dealing and trading in the Purchase, Sale, Barter, or Transfer of Slaves, or of Persons intended to be sold, transferred, used, or dealt with as Slaves, practiced or carried on, in, at, to or from any Part of the Coast or Countries of Africa, shall be, and the same is hereby utterly abolished, prohibited, and declared to be unlawful; and also that all and all manner of dealing, either by way of Purchase, Sale, Barter, or Transfer, or by means of any other Contract or Agreement whatever, relating to any Slaves, or to any Persons being removed or transported either immediately or by Trans-shipment at Sea or otherwise, directly or indirectly from Africa or from any island, Country, Territory, or Place whatever, in the West Indies, or in any part of America, not being in the Dominion, Possession, or Occupation of His Majesty, to any other island, Country, Territory, or place whatever, in like Manner utterly abolished, prohibited, and declared to be unlawful; and if any of His majesties Subjects, or any Person or persons resident within this United Kingdom, or any of the Islands, Colonies, Dominions, or Territories thereto belonging, or in His Majesties Occupation or Possession, shall, from and after the Day aforesaid, by him or themselves, or by his or their Factors or Agents or otherwise howsoever , deal or trade in, purchase, sell, barter, or transfer, or contract or agree for the dealing or trading in, purchasing, selling, bartering, or transferring of any Slave or Slaves, or any Person or persons intended to be sold, transferred, used, or dealt with as a Slave or Slaves contrary to the Prohibitions of this Act, he or they so offending shall forfeit and pay for every such Offence the Sum of One hundred Pounds of lawful Money of Great Britain for each and every Slave so purchased, sold, bartered, or transferred, or contracted or agreed for as aforesaid, the One Moiety thereof to the Use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, and the other Moiety to the Use of any Person who shall inform, sue, and prosecute for the same.

And be it further enacted, that from and after the said First Day of May One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seven, it shall be unlawful for any of His Majesty's Subjects, or any Person or persons resident within this United Kingdom, or any of the Islands, Colonies, Dominions, or Territories thereto belonging, or in His Majesty's Possession or Occupation, to fit out, man, or navigate, or to procure to be fitted out, manned, or navigated, or to be concerned in the fitting out manning, or navigating, or in the procuring to be fitted out, manned, or navigated, any Ship or Vessel for the Purpose of assisting in, or being, employed in the carrying on of the African Slave Trade, or in any other the Dealing, Trading, or Concerns hereby prohibited and declared to be unlawful, and every Ship or Vessel which shall, from and after the Day aforesaid, be fitted out, manned, navigated, used, or employed by any such Subject or Subjects, person or Persons, or on his or their Account, or by his or their Assistance or procurement for any of the Purposes aforesaid, and by this Act prohibited, together with all her Boats, Guns, Tackle, Apparel, and Furniture, shall become forfeited, and may and shall be seized and prosecuted as herein-after is mentioned and provided.

And be it further enacted, That from and after the said First Day of May, One thousand eight hundred and seven, it shall be unlawful for any of His Majesty's Subjects, or any Person or persons, resident in this United Kingdom, or in any of the Colonies, Territories, or Dominions thereunto belonging or in His Majesty's Possession, or Occupation, to carry away or remove, or knowingly and willfully to procure, aid, or assist in the carrying away or removing, as Slaves, or for the purpose of being sold, transferred, used, or dealt with as Slaves, any of the Subjects or Inhabitants of Africa, or any Island, Country, Territory, or place in the West Indies, or any part of America whatsoever, not being in the Dominion , Possession, or Occupation of his Majesty, either immediately or by Trans-shipment at Sea or otherwise, directly or indirectly from Africa or from any such island, Country, Territory, or place as aforesaid, to any other island, Country, Territory, or place whatever, and that it shall also be unlawful for any of His Majesty's Subjects, or any Person or Person's resident in this United Kingdom, or in any of the Colonies, Territories, or Dominions thereunto belonging, or in His Majesty's Possession or Occupation, knowingly and willfully to receive, detain, or confine on board, or to be aiding, assisting, or concerned in the receiving, detaining, or confining on board of any Ship or Vessel whatever, any such Subject or Inhabitants aforesaid, for the Purpose of his or her being so carried away or removed as aforesaid, or of his or her being sold, transferred used, or dealt with as a Slave, in any Place or Country whatever; and if any Subject or Inhabitant, Subjects or Inhabitants of Africa, or of any Island, Country, Territory, or Place in the West Indies or America, not being in the Dominion, Possession, or Occupation of His Majesty, shall from and after the Day aforesaid, be so unlawfully carried away or removed, detained, confined, trans-shipped, or received on board of any Ship or Vessel belonging in the Whole or in Part to, or employed by any Subject of His Majesty, or Person residing in His Majesty's Dominions or Colonies, or any Territory belonging to or in the Occupation of His Majesty, for any of the unlawful Purposes aforesaid, contrary to the Force and Effect, true Intent and Meaning of the Prohibitions in this Act contained, every such ship or Vessel in which any such person or Persons shall be so unlawfully carried away or removed, detained, confined, trans-shipped, or received on board for any of the said unlawful Purposes, together with all her Boats, Guns, tackle, Apparel, and Furniture, shall be forfeited, and all Property or pretended Property in any Slaves or Natives of Africa so unlawfully carried away or removed, detained, confined, trans-shipped or received on board, shall also be forfeited, and the same respectively shall and may be seized and prosecuted as herein-after is mentioned and provided; and every Subject of His Majesty, or Person resident within this United Kingdom, or any of the Islands, Colonies, Dominions, or Territories thereto belonging, or in His Majesty's Possession or Occupation who shall, as Owner, part Owner, Freighter or Shipper, Factor or Agent, Captain, Mate, Supercargo, or Surgeon, so unlawfully carry away, or assisting, detain, confine, trans-ship, or receive on board, or be aiding or assisting in the carrying away, removing, detaining, confining, trans-shipping, or receiving on board for any of the unlawful Purposes aforesaid, any such Subject or Inhabitant of Africa, or of any Island, Country, Territory, or Place, not being in the Dominion, Possession, or Occupation of His Majesty, shall forfeit and pay for each and every Slave or person so unlawful carried away, removed, detained, confined, trans-shipped, or received on board, the Sum of one hundred Pounds of lawful Money of Great Britain, One Moiety thereof to the Use of His Majesty, and the other Moiety to the Use of any Person who shall inform, sue, and prosecute for the same.

And be it further enacted, That if any Subject or inhabitant, Subjects or Inhabitants of Africa, or of any Island, Country, Territory, or Place, not being in the Dominion, possession, or Occupation of his Majesty, who shall, at any Time from and after the Day aforesaid, have been unlawfully carried away or removed from Africa, or from any island, Country, Territory, or place, in the West Indies or America, not being in the Dominion, Possession, or Occupation of His Majesty, contrary to any of the Prohibitions or Provisions in this Act contained, shall be imported or brought into any island, Colony, Plantation, or territory, in the Dominion, possession, or Occupation of his Majesty, and there sold or disposed of as a Slave or Slaves, or placed, detained, or kept in a State of Slavery, such Subject or Inhabitant, Subjects or Inhabitants, so unlawfully carried away, or removed and imported, shall and may be seized and prosecuted, as forfeited to His Majesty, by such Person or persons, in such Courts, and in such Manner and Form, as any Goods or merchandize unlawfully imported into the same Island, Colony, Plantation, or Territory, may now be seized and prosecuted therein, by virtue of any Act or Acts of parliament now in force for regulating the Navigation and Trade of his Majesty's Colonies and Plantations, and shall and may, after his or their Condemnation, be disposed of in Manner herein-after mentioned and provided.

And be it further enacted, That from and after the said First Day of may One Thousand eight hundred and seven, all Insurances whatsoever to be effected upon or in respect to any of the trading, dealing, carrying, removing, trans-shipping, or other Transactions by this Act prohibited, shall be also prohibited and declared to be unlawful; and if any of His Majesty's Subject's, or any Person or Persons resident within this United Kingdom, or within any of the Islands, Colonies, Dominions, or Territories thereunto belonging, or in His Majesty's Possession or Occupation, shall knowingly and willfully subscribe, effect, or make, or cause or procure to be subscribed, effected, or made, any such unlawful Insurances or Insurance, he or they shall forfeit and pay for every such Offence the Sum of One hundred Pounds for every such Insurance, and also Treble the Amount paid or agreed to be paid as the Premium of any such Insurance, the One Moiety thereof to the Use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, and the other Moiety to the Use of any Person who shall inform, sue, and prosecute for the same.

Provided always, That nothing herein contained shall extend, or be deemed or construed to extend, to prohibit or render unlawful the dealing or trading in the Purchase, Sale, barter, or Transfer, or the carrying away or removing for the Purpose of being sold, transferred, used, or dealt with as Slaves, or the detaining or confining for the Purpose of being so carried away or removed, of any Slaves which shall be exported, carried, or removed from Africa, in any Ship or Vessel which, on or before the said First Day of may One thousand eight hundred and seven, shall have been lawfully cleared out from Great Britain according to the Law now in force for regulating the carrying of Slaves from Africa, or to prohibit or render unlawful the manning or navigating any such Ship or Vessel, or to make void any Insurance thereon, so as the Slaves to be carried therein shall be finally landed in the West Indies on or before the First Day of March One thousand eight hundred and eight, unless prevented by Capture, the Loss of the Vessel, by the Appearance of an Enemy upon the Coast, or other unavoidable Necessity, the Proof whereof shall lie upon the Coast, or other unavoidable Necessity, the proof whereof shall lie upon the Party charged; any Thing herein-before contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

And whereas it may happen, That during the present or future Wars, Ships or Vessels may be seized or detained as Prize, on board whereof Slaves or natives of Africa, carried and detained as Slaves, being the Property of His Majesty's Enemies, or otherwise liable to Condemnation as Prize of War, may be taken or found, and it is necessary to direct in what manner such Slaves or natives of Africa shall be hereafter treated and disposed of: And whereas it is also necessary to direct and provide for the Treatment and Disposal of any Slaves or natives of Africa carried, removed, treated or dealt with as Slaves, who shall be unlawfully carried away or removed contrary to the Prohibitions aforesaid, or any of them, and shall be afterwards found on board any Ship or Vessel liable to Seizure under this Act, or any other Act of parliament made for restraining or prohibiting the African Slave Trade, or shall be elsewhere lawfully seized as forfeited under this or any other such Act of Parliament as aforesaid; and it is expedient to encourage the Captors, Seizors, and Prosecutors thereof; be it therefore further enacted. That all Slaves and all Natives of Africa, treated, dealt with, carried, kept, or detained as Slaves which shall at any Time from and after the said First Day of may next be seized or taken as Prize of War, or liable to Forfeiture, under this or any other Act of Parliament made for restraining or prohibiting the African Slave Trade, shall and may, for the Purposes only of Seizure, Prosecution, and Condemnation as Prize or as Forfeitures, be considered, treated, taken, and adjudged as Slaves and property in the same manner as Negro Slaves have been heretofore considered, treated, taken, and adjudged, when seized as Prize of War, or as forfeited for any Offence against the Laws of Trade and Navigation respectively, but the same shall be condemned as Prize of War, or as forfeited to the sole Use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, for the Purpose only of divesting and bearing all other Property, Right, Title, or Interest whatever, which before existed, or might afterwards be set up or claimed in or to such Slaves or natives of Africa to seized, prosecuted, and condemned; and the fame nevertheless shall in no case be liable to be sold, disposed of, treated or dealt with as Slaves, by or on the Part of His Majesty, His Heirs or Successors, or by or on the Part of any Person or persons claiming or to claim from, by, or under His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, or under or by force of any such Sentence or Condemnation: Provided always, that it shall be lawful for His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, and such Officers, Civil or Military, as shall, by any General or Special Order of the King in Council, be from Time to Time appointed and empowered to receive, protect, and provide for such Natives of Africa as shall be so condemned, either to enter and enlist the same, or any of them, into His Majesty's Land or Sea Service, as Soldiers, Seamen, or Marines, or to bind the same, or any of them, whether of full Age or not, as Apprentices, for any Term not exceeding Fourteen Years, to such Person or Persons, in such Place or Places, and upon such Terms and Conditions, and subject to such Regulations, as to His Majesty shall seem meet, and shall by any General of Special Order of His Majesty in Council be in that Behalf directed and appointed; and any Indenture of Apprenticeship duly made and executed, by any Person or person to be for the Purpose appointed by any such Order in Council, for any Term not exceeding Fourteen Years, shall be of the same Force and Effect as if the party thereby bound as an Apprentice had himself or herself, when of full Age upon good Consideration, duly executed the same; and every such Native of Africa who shall be so enlisted or entered as aforesaid into any of His Majesty's Land or Sea Forces as a Soldier, Seaman, or Marine, shall be considered, treated, and dealt with in all respects as if he had voluntarily so enlisted or entered himself.

Provided also, and be it further enacted, That where any Slaves or Natives of Africa, taken as Prize or War by any of His Majesty's Ships of War, or privateers duly commissioned, shall be finally condemned as such to His Majesty's Use as aforesaid, there shall be paid to the Captors thereof by the Treasurer of His Majesty's Navy, in like Manner as the Bounty called Head Money is now paid by virtue of an Act of Parliament, made in the Forty-fifth Year of His Majesty's Reign, intituled, An Act for the Encouragement of Seamen, and for the better and more effectually manning His Majesty's Navy during the present War, such Bounty as His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, shall have directed by any Order in Council, so as the same shall not exceed the Sum of Forty Pounds lawful Money of Great Britain for every Man, or Thirty Pounds of like Money for every Woman, or Ten Pounds of like Money for every Child or Person not above Fourteen Years old, that shall be so taken and condemned, and shall be delivered over in good Health to the proper Officer or Officers, Civil or Military, so appointed as aforesaid to receive, protect, and provide for the same; which Bounties shall be divided amongst the Officers, Seamen, Marines, and Soldiers on Board His Majesty's Ships of War, or hired armed Ships, in Manner, Form, and proportion, as by His Majesty's Proclamation for granting the Distribution of Prizes already issued, or to be issued for the Purpose is or shall be directed and appointed, and amongst the Owners, Officers, and Seamen of any private Ship or Vessel of War, in such Manner and Proportion as, by an Agreement in Writing that they shall have entered into for that Purpose, shall be directed.

Provided always, and be it further enacted, That in order to entitle the Captors to receive the said Bounty Money, the Numbers of men, Women, and Children, so taken, condemned, and delivered over, shall be proved to the Commissioners of His Majesty's Navy, by producing, instead of the Oaths and Certificates prescribed by the said Act as to Head Money, a Copy, duly certified, of the Sentence or Decree of Condemnation, whereby the Numbers of men, Women, and Children, so taken and condemned, shall appear to have been distinctly proved; and also, by producing a Certificate under the Hand of the said Officer or Officers, Military or Civil, so appointed as aforesaid, and to whom the same shall have been delivered, acknowledging that he or they hath or have received the same, to be disposed of according to His Majesty's Instructions and regulations as aforesaid.

Provided also, and be it further inacted, That in any Cases in which Doubts shall arise whether the party or parties claiming such Bounty Money is or are entitled thereto, the same shall be summarily determined by the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, or by the Judge of any Court of Admiralty in which the prize shall have been adjudged, subject nevertheless to an Appeal to the lord Commissioners of Appeals in Prize Causes.

Provided also, and be it further enacted, That on the Condemnation to the Use of his Majesty, His heirs and Successors, in Manner aforesaid, of any Slaves or Natives of Africa, seized and prosecuted as forfeited for any Offence against this Act, or any other Act of Parliament made for the restraining or prohibiting the African Slave Trade (except in the Case of Seizures made at Sea by the Commanders or Officers of His Majesty's Ships or Vessels or War) there shall be paid to and to the Use of the Person who shall have sued, informed, and prosecuted the same to Condemnation, the Sums of Thirteen Pounds lawful Money aforesaid for every Man, of Ten Pounds like Money for every Woman, and of Three Pounds like Money for every Child or person under the Age of Fourteen Years, that shall be so condemned and delivered over in good Health to the said Civil or military Officer so to be appointed to receive, protect, and provide for the same, and also the like Sums to and to Use of the Governor or Commander in Chief of any Colony or plantation wherein such Seizure shall have been made; but in Cases of any such Seizures made at Sea by the Commanders or Officers of His Majesty's Ships or Vessels of War, for Forfeiture under this Act, or any other Act of Parliament made for the restraining or prohibiting the African Slave Trade, there shall be paid to the Commander of Officer who shall so seize, inform, and prosecute for every man so condemned and delivered over, the Sum of Twenty Pounds like Money, for every Woman the Sum of Fifteen Pounds like Money, and for every Child or person under the Age of Fourteen Years the Sum of Five Pounds like Money, subject nevertheless to such Distribution of the said Bounties or rewards for the said Seizures made at Sea as His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, shall think fit to order and direct by any other Order of Council made for that Purpose; for all which Payments so to be made as Bounties or rewards upon Seizures and Prosecutions for Offences against this Act, or any other Act of Parliament made for restraining the African Slave Trade, the officer or Officers, Civil or Military, so to be appointed as aforesaid to receive, protect, and provide for such Slaves or Natives of Africa so to be condemned and delivered over, shall, after the Condemnation and Receipt thereof as aforesaid, grant Certificates in favour of the Governor and Party seizing, informing, and prosecuting as aforesaid respectively, or the latter alone (as the Case may be) addressed to the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury; who, upon the Production to them of any such Certificate, and of an authentic Copy, duly certified, of the Sentence of Condemnation of the said Slaves or Africans to His Majesty’s Use as aforesaid, and also of a Receipt under the Hand of such Officer or Officers so appointed as aforesaid, specifying that such Slaves or Africans have by him or them been received in good Health as aforesaid, shall direct Payment to be made from and out of the Consolidated Fund of Great Britain of the Amount of the Monies specified in such Certificate, to the lawful Holders of the fame, or the Persons entitled to the Benefit thereof respectively.

And be it further enacted, That if any Person shall willfully and fraudulently forge or counterfeit any such Certificate, Copy of Sentence of Condemnation, or Receipt as aforesaid, or any Part thereof, or shall knowingly and willfully utter or publish the same, knowing it to he forged or counterfeited, with Intent to defraud His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, or any other Person or Persons whatever, the Party so offending shall, on Conviction, suffer Death as in Cases of Felony, without Benefit of Clergy.

And be it further enacted, That the several Pecuniary Penalties or Forfeitures imposed and inflicted by this Act, shall and may be sued for, prosecuted, and recovered in any Court of Record in Great Britain, or in any Court of Record or Vice Admiralty in any Part of His Majesty's Dominions wherein the Offence was committed, or where the Offender may be found after the Commission of such Offence; and that in all Cases of Seizure of any Ships, Vessels, Slaves or pretended Slaves, Goods or Effects, for any Forfeiture under this Act, the same shall and may respectively be sued for; prosecuted and recovered in any Court of Record in Great Britain or in any Court of Record or Vice Admiralty in any Part of His Majesty’s Dominions in or nearest to which such Seizures may be made, or to which such Ships or Vessels, Slaves or pretended Slaves, Goods or Effects (if seized at Sea or without the Limits of any British Jurisdiction) may most conveniently be carried for Trial, and all the said Penalties and Forfeitures, whether pecuniary or specific (unless where it is expressly otherwise provided for by this Act) shall go and belong to such Person and Persons in such Shares and Proportions, and shall and may be sued for and prosecuted, tried, recovered, distributed, and applied in such and the like Manner and by the same Ways and Means, and subject to the same Rules and Directions, as any Penalties or Forfeitures incurred in Great Britain, and in the British Colonies or Plantations in America respectively, by force of any Act of Parliament relating to the Trade and Revenues of the said British Colonies or Plantations in America, now go and belong to, and may now be sued for, prosecuted, tried, recovered, distributed and applied respectively in Great Britain or in the said Colonies or Plantations respectively, under and by virtue of a certain Act of Parliament made in the Fourth Year of His present Majesty, intituled:

An Act for granting certain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations in America, for continuing amending, and making perpetual an Act passed in the Sixth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the second, intituled:

"An Act for the better securing and encouraging the 'Trade of His Majesty’s Sugar Colonies in America; for applying the Produce of such Duties to arise by virtue of the said Act towards defraying the Expences of defending, protecting, and securing the said Colonies and Plantations;

for explaining an Act made in the Twenty-fifth Year of the Reign of King Charles the Second, intituled:

"An Act for the Encouragement of the Greenland and Eastland Trades, and for the better securing the Plantation trade, and for altering and disallowing several Drawbacks on Exports from the Kingdom, and more effectively presenting the clandestine Conveyance of Goods to and from the said Colonies and plantations, and improving and securing the Trade between the same and Great Britain."

And be it further enacted, That all Ships and Vessels, Slaves or Natives of Africa, carried, conveyed, or dealt with as Slaves, and all other Goods and. Effects that shall or may become forfeited for any Offence committed against this Act, shall and may be seized by any Officer of His Majesty’s Customs or Excise, or by the Commanders or Officers of any of His Majesty’s Ships or Vessels of War, who, in making and prosecuting any such Seizures, shall have the Benefit of all the Provisions made by the said Act of the Fourth Year of His present Majesty, or any other Act of Parliament made for the Protection of Officers seizing and prosecuting for any Offence against the said Act, or any other Act of Parliament relating to the Trade and Revenues of the British Colonies or Plantations in America.

And be it further enacted, That all Offences committed against this Act may be inquired of, tried, determined, and dealt with as Misdemeanors, as if the fame had been respectively committed within the Body of the County of Middlesex.

Provided also, and be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for his Majesty in Council, from Time to Time to make such Orders and Regulations for the future Disposal and Support of such Negroes as shall have been bound Apprentices under this Act, after the term of their Apprenticeship shall have expired, as to His Majesty shall seem meet, and as may prevent such Negroes from becoming at any Time chargeable upon the Island in which they shall have been so bound Apprentices as aforesaid.

Provided always, and be it further enacted, That none of the Provisions of any Act as to enlisting for any limited Period of Service, or as to any Rules or Regulations for the granting any Pensions or Allowances to any Soldiers discharged after certain Periods of Service, shall extend, or be deemed or construed in any Manner to extend, to any Negroes so enlisted and serving in any of His Majesty’s Forces.

And be it further enacted, That if any Action or Suit shall be commenced either in Great Britain or elsewhere, against any Person or Persons for any Thing done in pursuance of this Act, the Defendant or Defendants in such Action or Suit may plead the General Issue, and give this Act and the Special Matter in Evidence at any Trial to be had thereupon, and that the same was done in pursuance and by the Authority of this Act; and if it shall appear so to have been done, the Jury shall find for the Defendant or Defendants; and if the Plaintiff shall be nonsuited or discontinue his Action after the Defendant or Defendants shall have appeared, or if Judgement shall be given upon any Verdict or Demurrer against the Plaintiff, the Defendant or Defendants shall recover Treble Costs and have the like Remedy for the same, as Defendants have in other Cases by Law.

 

LONDON:

Printed by GEORGE EYRE

and ANDREW STRAHAN.

Printers to the King’s most Excellent Majesty.

1807.

Bill for Abolition of the British Slave Trade,
http://www.wilberforcecentral.org/wfc/
Resources/ResourcesBritishBill.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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