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Vocapedia > South Africa > Race relations > Racism, Apartheid

 

 

 

Union Of South Africa

 

Native carpenter Phillip Mbhele

wearing WE DON'T WANT PASSES tag,

angrily speaking against the white Afrikaner's pass system

which requires all Natives to carry one or more passes.

 

Location: Johannesburg, South Africa, Republic Of

Date taken: 1950

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

post-apartheid South Africa

 

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2016/jun/23/
south-africa-divided-cities-apartheid-photographed-drone

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/05/06/
310095463/20-years-after-apartheid-south-africa-asks-how-are-we-doing

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/17/
opinion/keller-south-africas-growing-pains.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/
opinion/molefe-mandelas-unfinished-revolution.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/07/world/africa/south-africas-
born-frees-move-past-apartheid.html

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/100000002587899/born-free.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/23/
southafrica.comment

 

 

 

 

black anger against white farmers

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/apr/29/
southafrica.andrewmeldrum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Africa 1974 Dec.

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1206.html

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/d24a15599fbe53ef.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Africa 1974 Dec.

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1206.html

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/a692d2462240c4e6.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Union Of South Africa

Portrait of typical Afrikaner farm couple

 

Location: Waterval, Urede, South Africa, Republic Of

Date taken: April 1950

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/e00635d6368f1900.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Africa profile / timeline        4th century - 2013

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

 

Whites / Afrikaner

≠ 

Blacks / Africans

Mixed race / coloureds / coloreds

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/14/
nelson-mandela-death-cape-coloureds

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/13/
opinion/cohen-gandhi-and-mandela.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/aug/04/
southafrica.rorycarroll

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/mar/21/
guardianobituaries.southafrica

http://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,105518,00.html 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/oct/02/
afrikaner-white-supremacist-terreblanche

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/60ec4e1f5182e444.html

 

 

 

 

coolies

≠ 

kaffir

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/13/
opinion/cohen-gandhi-and-mandela.html

 

 

 

 

Afrikaans

 

 

 

 

Afrikaner

 

 

 

 

Afrikanerdom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APARTHEID 46 YEARS IN 90 SECONDS - BBC NEWS        6 December 2013

 

 

 

 

APARTHEID 46 YEARS IN 90 SECONDS - BBC NEWS        6 December 2013

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2f2k6iDFCL4 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apartheid in South Africa        1948-1991

 

Living under racial segregation and discrimination        UK

 

The political system of apartheid

governed every aspect of life

in South Africa

from 1948 to 1991.

 

In practice,

apartheid enforced

a racial hierarchy

privileging white South Africans

and under this system

only they had the vote.

 

The programmes and documents

illustrate what life was like

for ordinary South Africans

as well as revealing

key moments in the struggle

against this political system.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/

 

 

 

 

apartheid        1948-1991        UK / USA

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0160mtw

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/22/
books/peter-abrahams-a-south-african-who-wrote-of-apartheid-and-identity-dies-at-97.html

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/09/14/
looking-at-white-privilege-under-apartheid/

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/07/13/
real-life-south-african-liberation-stories-santu-mofokeng/

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/16/
soweto-uprising-40-year-anniversary-photo-south-africa-apartheid

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/01/
theater/review-a-human-being-died-that-night-a-look-
at-an-apartheid-assassin-at-bam.html

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/
nelson-mandela-david-astor-observer

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/30/
south-africa-kleinfontein-apartheid-afrikaner

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/15/world/africa/
alf-kumalo-south-african-photographer-of-apartheid-dies-at-82.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/13/movies/13field.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/nov/01/southafrica.davidberesford

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/nov/01/southafrica.mainsection

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7205.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7208.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7201.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7217.shtml

 

 

 

 

anti-apartheid movement        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/08/
nelson-mandela-anti-apartheid-movement

 

 

 

 

struggle against apartheid / anti-apartheid struggle        UK / USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/13/world/africa/
recalling-the-other-heroes-of-the-anti-apartheid-struggle.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/
nelson-mandela-david-astor-observer

 

 

 

 

freedom fighter > Nelson Mandela    1918-2013        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/
nelson-mandela-freedom-fighter-john-carlin

 

 

 

 

African National Congress    A.N.C.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/05/world/africa/south-africa-
president-appeals-for-ex-backers-to-return-to-fold.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/02/south-africa-
election-anc-change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Documentaire > Photographes contre l'apartheid

 

Le Bang Bang Club        55mn        WDR        Allemagne

 

Sous l’apartheid,

le quotidien The Star,

qui prenait clairement position

contre le régime raciste,

était le plus puissant

organe de presse

d’Afrique du Sud.

 

Dans les années 1990,

il employait

une équipe de photojournalistes

dont les clichés spectaculaires

ont fait le tour du monde,

et hantent aujourd’hui encore

l’inconscient collectif.

 

Ken Oosterbroek,

Greg Marinovich,

Kevin Carter et João Silva

formaient le « Bang Bang Club »,

qui couvrit les événements

depuis la libération de Nelson Mandela

jusqu’aux élections de 1994.

 

Quatre années durant lesquelles

20 000 personnes furent tuées

dans des combats rapprochés

entre partisans de l’ANC

et de l’Inkatha, le parti adverse.

 

Persuadés de la nécessité

de rendre compte de ces assassinats,

mus par l’ivresse du danger,

ces « voyous » de la photographie

ont été jusqu’à accompagner

les auteurs des massacres

pour documenter leurs crimes.

 

Si ces expériences

sont profondément traumatiques,

elles suscitent également

des controverses d’ordre éthique :

face à la mort d’autrui,

comment rester simple spectateur ?

 

Kevin Carter en a fait les frais :

sa célèbre image

couronnée du Prix Pulitzer

– un enfant soudanais épuisé,

guetté par un vautour –

essuya un flot de critiques.

 

Hanté par les horreurs vues

et par la mort de Ken Oosterbroek,

tué dans un échange de tirs

il se suicide l’année suivante.

 

Quant à João Silva,

il a perdu ses deux jambes en 2010

après avoir sauté

sur une mine en Afghanistan,

l’appareil à la main.

 

À travers leurs récits

et ceux de leurs proches,

ce film propose un portrait saisissant

de ces quatre écorchés vifs,

chroniqueurs d’une histoire sanglante.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/048230-000/photographes-contre-l-apartheid

 

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/048230-000/
photographes-contre-l-apartheid - broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hendrik Verwoerd    1901-1966

the man who created apartheid South Africa        UK

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7207.shtml

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/aug/11/
southafrica.zimbabwe/print 

 

 

 

 

Apartheid Legacy’s in South African Schools        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/20/world/africa/20safrica.html

 

 

 

 

Ernest Cole photographs

the beauty and the ugliness

of segregated South Africa        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/nov/25/
ernest-cole-david-goldblatt-apartheid-photography

 

 

 

 

segregation        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/nov/01/
southafrica.mainsection 

 

 

 

 

Apartheid killer > Louis van Schoor        UK

 

Hired to protect

white-owned businesses

in the 1980s,

he is thought

to have shot 101 people,

killing 39,

in a three-year spree.

 

Some were burglars;

others were passers-by

dragged in from the street.

 

All were black

or coloured,

the term

for those of mixed race.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/aug/04/southafrica.rorycarroll

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/aug/04/southafrica.
rorycarroll 

 

 

 

 

Dr Death / Wouter Basson

the apartheid regime's notorious chemical warfare expert        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/apr/12/
research.internationaleducationnews 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1999/oct/05/
features11.g21 

 

 

 

 

apartheid laws

http://teachers.guardian.co.uk/Guardian_RootRepository/
Saras/ContentPackaging/UploadRepository/
learnpremium/Lesson/learnpremium/histor~00/keystage4/
southa~00/theimp~00/theapa~00/theapa~00/default.htm

 

 

 

 

homeland / Black homeland

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyDv7d0Mm-Q

http://teachers.guardian.co.uk/Guardian_RootRepository/Saras/
ContentPackaging/UploadRepository/
learnpremium/Lesson/learnpremium/histor~00/keystage4/southa~00/
theimp~00/thehom~00/thehom~00/default.htm

 

 

 

 Inkatha Freedom Party hit squads

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/19/
world/south-african-hit-squads-tied-to-homeland.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mixed race

 

 

 

 

classified

 

 

 

 

coloured

 

 

 

 

passbook

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,105518,00.html 

 

 

 

 

Polaroid's ID-2 camera > South Africa        UK

 

(it) had a "boost" button

to increase the flash

– enabling it

to be used to photograph

black people

for the notorious passbooks,

or "dompas",

that allowed the state

to control their movements.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2013/jan/25/
racism-colour-photography-exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

township        USA

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/07/13/
real-life-south-african-liberation-stories-santu-mofokeng/

 

 

 

 

township > Soweto        UK / USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/19/travel/in-soweto-
history-from-those-who-live-it.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/09/world/africa/
nelson-mandela-south-africa.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/soweto-
apartheid-tribute-mandela-south-africa-township

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7210.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7209.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

racial divide

 

 

 

 

white minority        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/23/southafrica.
comment 

 

 

 

 

while rule        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/12/world/south-africa-
s-new-era-mandela-freed-urges-step-up-in-pressure-to-end-white-rule.html

 

 

 

 

white areas

 

 

 

 

'whites-only' beach        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/mar/21/
guardianobituaries.southafrica

 

 

 

 

“Europeans only”, “Coloureds only”        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/nov/12/
peter-magubane-best-photograph-white-girl-black-maid-apartheid-south-africa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sophiatown        UK

 

The bulldozers

arrived in Sophiatown

at five o’clock

on the morning

of 9 February, 1955.

 

Behind them

in the darkness,

police commanders

lined up with piles of paper

– lists of names and addresses,

eviction notices,

and assignments to new plots

in the Meadowlands suburb,

15 kilometres away

on the northern edge of Soweto.

 

Behind the commanders,

an army of 2,000 police

carried rifles and batons,

ready to enforce the eviction

and clear Sophiatown

of its black residents.

 

“Maak julle oop!”

they shouted in Afrikaans.

“Open up!”

 

By sunrise,

110 families had been forced

to remove all belongings

from their homes,

pile into police trucks

and move out

to the Meadowlands,

where hundreds

of matchbox homes

awaited them.

 

Sophiatown

was one

of the last remaining areas

of black home-ownership

in Johannesburg.

 

Five years earlier,

the South African parliament

had passed the Group Areas Act,

which sought to purge

black South Africans

from developed neighbourhoods

and establish “urban apartheid”.

 

In Johannesburg,

the act gave license

to the city’s government

to push middle-class black residents

out of northern areas including Sophiatown

into southern townships such as Soweto,

where the majority of poor black residents

already lived.

http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/apr/11/
story-cities-19-johannesburg-south-africa-apartheid-purge-sophiatown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

civil disobedience

 

 

 

 

boycott

 

 

 

 

strike

 

 

 

 

massacre

50th anniversary of the Sharpeville massacre - 21 March 1960

 

Audio slideshow:

David Smith visits the township

and re-lives

the events of 21 March 1960

through the account

of survivor Ikabot 'Ike' Makiki
 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/audioslideshow/2010/mar/19/
southafrica

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/19/south-africa-sharpeville-
massacre-anniversary

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/19/sharpeville-
massacre-south-africa-archive

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/audioslideshow/2010/mar/19/southafrica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1948

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_in_South_Africa

 

 

 

 

National Party is founded        1914

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

 

Native National Congress founded,

later renamed the African National Congress (ANC)        1912

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela (C)

walks free from prison

1990

http://www.jamati.com/online/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/nelson_mandela-fist_in_air.jpg

http://www.jamati.com/online/lifestyle/nelson-mandela-hitting-broadway/

added 2.1.2009

primary source

http://www.nelsonmandela.org/index.php/news/article/commemorating_18_years_of_freedom/

 

Related

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/11/newsid_2539000/2539947.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Behind the Scenes with the President & The First Lady at Robben Island    2 July 2013

 

 

 

 

On Board: Behind the Scenes with the President & The First Lady at Robben Island        White House        2 July 2013

 

Go behind the scenes

with President Barack Obama

and First Lady Michelle Obama

as they visit Robben Island.

 

From the 1960s through the 1990s,

this Island housed a maximum security prison.

 

Many of the prisoners there were activists who worked to bring down Apartheid,

the South African government's policies that discriminated against people of color

including Nelson Mandela and current South African President Jacob Zuma.

 

Narrated by the First Lady, Michelle Obama.

 June 30, 2013

 

YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m0CME8oLvU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barclays        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/business/2005/may/09/southafrica.money 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/business/2004/sep/24/southafrica.money

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian > South Africa

https://www.theguardian.com/world/southafrica 

 

 

 

 

The Boer War begins        October 11 1899

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1899/oct/13/
fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

The Boer War (1899-1902) > concentration camps

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/513944.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/513944.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basil D’Oliveira,

a Symbol for Cricket

and for Equality,

Dies at 80

 

November 26, 2011

The New York Times

By DOUGLAS MARTIN

 

Just as Jesse Owens and Jackie Robinson pursued their athletic dreams and developed superlative skills before altering history, Basil D’Oliveira, who was classified as colored under South African apartheid, wanted only to play at the highest levels of his sport, cricket. His struggle to do that in a country of government-enforced racial segregation became a powerful symbol in the ultimately successful fight against apartheid.

D’Oliveira had to move far from South Africa before his experience could shine a light on its system of racial injustice. Unable to perform there in competition commensurate with his skills, he moved to England, became a British citizen and joined England’s national cricket team. He rose to international prominence when, in 1968, South Africa canceled a much-anticipated visit by the English team because it wanted to include him in the contests, against whites.

Because of its refusal, South Africa, long a cricket power, did not play another international cricket match until 1994. Nelson Mandela, who led the fight against apartheid, called the D’Oliveira episode decisive in his movement’s eventual triumph.

D’Oliveira, who had Parkinson’s disease, died at 80 on Nov. 19 in England, according to the governing organization Cricket South Africa. Because he may have lied about his age, he may have been as many as three or four years older. Cricket South Africa gave no other details.

D’Oliveira was an accomplished player for England, participating in 44 major international competitions, or test matches. A powerful, focused batsman, he scored 19,490 runs in the top English cricket league and 1,859 in test matches. The numbers are considered impressive, but experts reckon that he could have doubled them had he immigrated to England sooner.

Paul Yule, who made a 2006 documentary about the D’Oliveira episode, “Not Cricket,” said in an interview on D’Oliveira’s Web site that his significance came from his role in “a pivotal point in 20th-century politics,” not from his sporting skills, though they were indisputable.

“Here was a man who didn’t look particularly dark-skinned,” Yule said, “but the inequality of the South African system meant you were classified either white or nonwhite, and since he was classified as nonwhite, he could play no part in the national sporting life of his country.”

D’Oliveira, who was of Indian-Portuguese heritage was easily classified as colored. Many other nonwhite cricketers were subjected to what was called the pencil test to determine which segregated league they would play in. A pencil was placed in a player’s hair, and if the pencil fell out, the player was called colored and placed in the colored league. If it stayed put, he was judged black and placed in the black league.

South Africa was ostracized in global sports beginning in the 1950s with table tennis. By 1964 antiapartheid organizers had succeeded in getting the country barred from that year’s Olympics, and in 1970 the International Olympic Committee expelled the country from the Olympic movement.

The country’s absence from international sports rankled South Africans; by 1977 they ranked it in a poll as one of the three most damaging consequences of apartheid.

South Africa had been selecting exclusively white cricket teams for test matches since 1889. As the game blossomed in places like the Caribbean, India and Pakistan, South Africa found itself playing only all-white teams from England, Australia and New Zealand. Peter Osborne, in the 2004 book “Basil D’Oliveira, Cricket and Conspiracy: The Untold Story,” said the cricket authorities justified this by saying that cricket was a sport for whites, and that if blacks or coloreds did take it up, they “played at an abysmally low level.”

Basil Lewis D’Oliveira, a tailor’s son, disproved this by excelling on the cricket fields around Cape Town, where he was most often said to have been born on Oct. 4, 1931. He went on to become a star performer on nonwhite teams, in one year captaining a black team on a trip to Kenya.

But he was well into his 30s when he realized he had no hope of taking part in top competition in South Africa. A vaunted West Indian team was scheduled to tour the country in matches against a team composed of blacks and coloreds, of which D’Oliveira was captain, but when antiapartheid forces protested that such a high-profile sports event might give credibility to the regime, the trip was canceled.

Deciding to leave the country, D’Oliveira wrote to John Arlott, a prominent cricket commentator in England, asking for help. Arlott got him a contract with a minor league team in the Lancashire League.

At first D’Oliveira was lonely and poverty-stricken. Having lived so long under apartheid, he found himself searching in vain for playing-field entrances and facilities for nonwhites. After a slow start, his play picked up, and his wife and son, who survive him, joined him. He eventually earned a spot on England’s national team.

When he sought to join the squad for the trip to South Africa, however, the sport’s governing body in England, the Marylebone Cricket Club, turned him down. Its officials said he had been passed over for athletic reasons, an assertion British newspapers called outlandish. It later emerged that the president of South Africa, John Vorster, had threatened to cancel the event if D’Oliveira was part of the team.

Still, when another player was injured, the cricket club had a change of heart and named D’Oliveira to replace him. D’Oliveira said the South African government offered him a sizable bribe and a coaching job in South Africa if he would withdraw. When he refused, it terminated the competition rather than accept him.

Queen Elizabeth made D’Oliveira an officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1969 and promoted him to a commander in 2005. In 2000 he was named one of the 10 South African cricketers of the century, despite not having played for South Africa. The trophy for the test series between England and South Africa is named for him.

D’Oliveira played in the top division of English cricket into his late 40s. Most cricketers retire in their early 30s. He just wished that he could have hit the big stage sooner, say in his 20s, he said in 1980.

“I was some player then,” he said. “I was over the hill when I came to England.”

Basil D’Oliveira, a Symbol for Cricket and for Equality, Dies at 80,
NYT,
26.11.2011,
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/27/
sports/cricket/basil-doliveira-a-symbol-for-cricket-and-for-equality-dies-at-80.html

 

 

 

 

 

April 28 1994

 

Vote of the century

opens era of hope

 

From The Guardian archive

 

April 28 1994
The Guardian

 

As dawn broke over Zone 9 of Meadowlands, Soweto, yesterday, the Mwale family was preparing for power.

First there was water to boil, since the rumour had spread that the rightwing AWB might poison Meadowlands' main tank. Esther Mwale said "most people with sense" in Zone 9 were boiling water. Then, there was the huge pot of mealies to cook. Finally, there were the ID documents to find. No one could say the Mwales were not ready for democracy.

As they set off at 7am, joining a stream of hundreds on the main road, it seemed that all of Zone 9 had the same idea — first watch Nelson Mandela cast his vote in Durban on the television and then get down to the polling station at Maponyane school quickly to beat the rush.

The clientele of Johannes' shebeen had discussed this the night before. At the beginning of the evening, Jacob's solution to avoiding Tuesday's chaos was to get there early. A few beers later, the prospect of waking up at 5am and queuing for two hours looked unattractive.

Johannes said he was voting ANC "for his children". But nobody else was prepared to say. The talk was of logistics, not politics. Nevertheless, the sight of a white woman, who had cast her vote abroad, saying tearfully on television, "I'm just scared about the future", aroused fierce emotion.

"What are you scared of? That a black man will run the country," shouted Mzimasi, slightly blowing his cover.

If Mzimasi was right about the woman's fears, the sight at Maponyane school yesterday morning would have confirmed them. Long queues of black people were waiting to have a say in their country's future. Many had dressed up for the occasion as if they were going to church.

People queued for about two hours before they could vote. There was a keen sense of relief. "It was easy. Just like they have been telling us on the television. I feel good now it's over," said Esther.

By the time the Mwales had finished voting, the queue was twice as long. On the way home we saw Jacob, looking the worse for wear and being ribbed by friends at the bus stop. He had woken up late but was insisting he would make it to the polling booths.

At the shebeen, Johannes had devised a plan to make sure Jacob kept his promise. No beer would be served to people without the white, fluorescent strip on their hand, which proved they had voted. With a smile, he said: "How can there be a free and fair election if drunk people are going to vote?"

 

Gary Younge

    From The Guardian archive > April 28 1994 >
    Vote of the century opens era of hope, G,
    Republished 28.4.2007, p. 34,
    http://digital.guardian.co.uk/guardian/2007/04/28/pages/ber34.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

April 27 1994

 

The day apartheid died

 

From The Guardian archive

 

April 27 1994
The Guardian

 

South Africans defied organisational chaos, personal hardship and long queues to throng polling stations yesterday for the historic all-race election that crowned their long march towards democracy.

While the authorities were under pressure last night to extend the three-day poll after serious problems in the first day of voting, the momentum for freedom looked unstoppable, with a new nation coming into effect at midnight when the old flag was lowered and the new constitution took effect.

'Today is a day like no other before it … today marks the dawn of our freedom,' said Nelson Mandela, the African National Congress leader who is expected to become the country's first black president. Mr Mandela spent 27 of his 75 years in jail for fighting apartheid.

'Years of imprisonment could not stamp out our determination to be free. Years of intimidation and violence could not stop us and we will not be stopped now,' he said.

President F. W. de Klerk, whose decision in 1990 to abandon apartheid opened the way to the new South Africa, said: 'I wanted this election to take place … that is what I have been working for.'

Around the country, the infirm, elderly and sick defied a rightwing bomb ing campaign and problems at polling stations in an extraordinary demonstration of hunger for the franchise.

The poll commission vice-chairman, Dikgang Moseneke, said [it] had hopelessly underestimated the problems of running free and fair elections, particularly in KwaZulu-Natal.

Problems with polling resulted largely from delays in the delivery of indelible ink to mark voters' hands, ballot papers and even polling stations.

A member of the Inkatha central committee, Joe Matthews, said: 'In quite a large number of polling stations the administration didn't turn up and the stations were closed. Then we started getting reports that the IFP sticker wasn't there. It affects other parties too, because if the sticker's not there it's a spoilt paper.'

President De Klerk promised action to smooth the next days of voting. 'We dare not deprive any South African of the right to vote,' he said. The Transkei leader, Major General Bantu Holomisa, an ANC candidate, joined in appeals for an extension to the election, reporting that 602 polling stations in the homeland had no voting equipment.

But the ballot went on. In hospitals, patients clutching their saline drip bags queued to vote. Nurses were seen holding patients upright.

Friday Mavuso, aged 45, crippled by a police bullet when he was 22, added: 'I have said all my life we shall overcome, and we have.'


David Beresford

From The Guardian archive > April 27 1994 >
The day apartheid died, G, Republished 27.4.2007, p. 34,
http://digital.guardian.co.uk/guardian/2007/04/27/pages/ber34.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

April 17 1970

 

Why I'm off the air

 

From The Guardian Archive

 

April 17 1970

The Guardian

 

I shall not broadcast on the matches of the South African cricket tour of England arranged for 1970. The B.B.C. has accepted my decision with understanding and an undertaking that my standing with them will not be affected.

This action has not been dictated by mass influences. Apartheid is detestable to me, and I would always oppose it. On the other hand, I am not satisfied that the cricket tour is the aspect which should have been selected as the major target. It would have seemed to me more justifiable, and more effective, to mount a trade embargo or to picket South Africa House. Surely the Nationalist South African Ambassador is a thousand times more guilty of the inhuman crime of apartheid than Graeme Pollock who, throughout the English summer of 1969, played cricket for the International Cavaliers XI with eight or nine West Indians and, before he went home said: "What great chaps — there couldn't have been a better bunch to play with."

Jack Plimsoll, the manager of this touring team, was an intimate friend of mine on the South African tour of England in 1947, before the election of the first — Malan — Nationalist Government and the introduction of apartheid. Every South African [player] of my acquaintance has already played with, and against, non-white cricketers. Only a multi-racial match before the Vorster (Verwoerd) Government banned such fixtures for ever, provided the expert assessment of Basil D'Oliveira's ability which enabled me to persuade Middleton to give him a contract to play in England. Not all South Africans are pro-apartheid

Crucially, though, a successful tour would offer comfort and confirmation to a completely evil regime. The Cricket Council has failed fairly to represent those British people — especially cricketers — who genuinely abominate apartheid. The council might have determined — and been granted — terms which would have demonstrated its declared disapproval of apartheid. It did not do so. To persist with the tour seems to me a social, political and cricketing error. It is my limitation and advantage that I can only broadcast as I feel. Commentary on any game is pleasure; it can only be satisfactorily broadcast in terms of shared enjoyment. This series cannot, to my mind, be enjoyable. It seems unfair for me to broadcast about the tour in a manner uncritical of its major issues, while retaining the right to be critical of them in this newspaper.

It is my hope to write and talk about cricket in which the minor issue of a game is not overshadowed by the major issue of principle.


John Arlott

From The Guardian Archive > April 17 1970 > Why I'm off the air,
G,
Republished 17.4.2007,
p. 34,
http://digital.guardian.co.uk/guardian/2007/04/17/pages/ber34.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

South Africa > 20th, early 21st century