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Vocapedia > Africa, USA > Race relations > Slaves, slavery

 

 

 

 

Why Did Europeans Enslave Africans?        PBS        10 July 2018

 

Why were most slaves in America from West Africa?

 

Slavery has existed throughout history

in various forms across the globe,

but who became enslaved

was almost always based

on military conquest.

 

So why did Europeans travel thousands of miles

to enslave people from a particular geographic region?

 

Watch the episode to find out.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=opUDFaqNgXc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Kanye West Is Wrong About Slavery        NYT News        8 May 2018

 

 

 

 

Why Kanye West Is Wrong About Slavery        NYT News        8 May 2018

 

In perhaps his most shocking statement to date,

the rap superstar Kanye West said 400 years of slavery

sounded “like a choice.”

 

But history tells a different story.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=KMzmnAQhtzg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Digital ID: cph 3g05950

Source: color film copy transparency

Reproduction Number:

LC-USZC4-5950 (color film copy transparency) ,

LC-USZ62-89745 (b&w film copy neg.)

Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3g00000/3g05000/3g05900/3g05950v.jpg

 

Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom

From the Collections of the Library of Congress

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deep South > 19th century

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/
movies/a-discussion-of-steve-mcqueens-film-12-years-a-slave.html

 

 

 

 

colored

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/
a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

The famed 54th Massachusetts Infantry

of the United States Colored Troops

 

Close to 180,000 black men

served in the Union Army by war’s end.

 

Most of them

were slaves

who had fled

from the Confederate states.

 

Three-fourths

of all black Northern men volunteered,

virtually everyone who was eligible.

 

But they were segregated

in units initially led by white officers

and were often assigned

the most arduous jobs

and the most dangerous

combat roles.

 

To add insult to injury,

they were denied equal pay.

 

This imposed a double burden

to fight against enemy forces

and to protest against

the “friendly fire” of racial prejudice.

 

These inequities kept at least

some men from joining the Army,

but more often than not,

they eagerly enrolled

with a strong commitment

to serve their country

and rescue their people

from bondage.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/
a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

slave        UK / USA

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/19/
733996699/alabamas-africatown-hopes-for-revival-after-slave-ship-discovery

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/oct/27/
frederick-douglass-prophet-of-freedom-review-biography

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/20/
621750399/charleston-key-entry-for-slaves-in-america-apologizes-and-meditates-on-racism-to

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/may/26/
why-the-extraordinary-story-of-the-last-slave-in-america-has-finally-come-to-light

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/18/
nyregion/sims-sculpture-green-wood-cemetery.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/04/17/
603163394/-father-of-gynecology-who-experimented-on-slaves-no-longer-on-pedestal-in-nyc

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/19/
zora-neale-hurston-study-of-last-survivor-of-us-slave-trade-to-be-published

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/09/30/
554307300/slave-poets-lost-essay-on-individual-influence-resonates-through-centuries

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/09/13/
550736172/looking-beyond-the-big-house-and-into-the-lives-of-slaves

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/18/us/
robert-e-lee-slaves.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/15/
dining/jack-daniels-whiskey-slave-nearest-green.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/may/22/
narrative-life-frederick-douglass-american-slave-review

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/04/14/
523996988/woman-returns-to-her-slave-cabin-childhood-home-in-the-smithsonian

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/03/28/
521804754/a-woman-reconnects-with-her-ancestors-slave-past-at-james-madison-s-estate

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/06/us/
politics/ben-carson-refers-to-slaves-as-immigrants-in-first-remarks-to-hud-staff.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/18/us/
insurance-policies-on-slaves-new-york-lifes-complicated-past.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/10/16/
496770465/records-descendants-help-weave-stories-of-george-washingtons-slaves

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/09/15/
493980358/jack-daniels-heralds-a-slaves-role-in-its-origin-story

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/09/01/
492223040/georgetown-will-offer-an-edge-in-admissions-to-descendants-of-slaves

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/27/
487667955/slave-labor-and-the-longer-history-of-the-white-house

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/26/
dining/jack-daniels-whiskey-nearis-green-slave.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/25/
opinion/the-slaves-in-georgetowns-past.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/03/
opinion/sunday/why-slaves-graves-matter.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/10/23/
450826208/why-calling-slaves-workers-is-more-than-an-editing-error

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/03/
nyregion/sculpture-of-paradox-doctor-as-hero-and-villain.html

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jan/10/
12-years-slave-uncle-toms-cabin

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/20/
12-years-a-slave-wonderful

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/
movies/a-discussion-of-steve-mcqueens-film-12-years-a-slave.html

 

 

 

 

slave labor

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/27/
487667955/slave-labor-and-the-longer-history-of-the-white-house

 

 

 

 

forced labor

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/18/us/
robert-e-lee-slaves.html

 

 

 

 

slaves' graves

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/03/
opinion/sunday/why-slaves-graves-matter.html

 

 

 

 

enslave

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/09/19/
551356878/starting-school-at-the-university-that-enslaved-her-ancestors

 

 

 

 

enslaved people

http://takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/07/17/
what-the-country-owes-harriet-tubman/

 

 

 

 

be born a slave

http://www.npr.org/blogs/ed/2015/03/05/
388443431/the-legacy-of-booker-t-washington-revisited

 

 

 

 

be born into slavery

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/13/
us/father-augustus-tolton-sainthood.html

 

 

 

 

 be born into a free black family

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/26/
467805819/written-behind-bars-this-1850s-memoir-links-prisons-to-plantations

 

 

 

 

slave man

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/
a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

enslavement

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/04/
625329085/opinion-what-zora-neale-hurstons-best-seller-taught-this-african-about-slavery

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/27/us/
chokwe-lumumba-66-dies-activist-who-became-mayor-in-mississippi.html

 

 

 

 

slaver

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/
opinion/abolitionist-or-terrorist.html

 

 

 

 

slave trade        UK / USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/04/
625329085/opinion-what-zora-neale-hurstons-best-seller-taught-this-african-about-slavery

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/03/
opinion/sunday/cadavers-slavery-medical-schools.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/19/
zora-neale-hurston-study-of-last-survivor-of-us-slave-trade-to-be-published

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/16/
america-has-done-a-terrible-job-of-telling-the-truth-about-racism

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/12/28/
507253486/historian-goes-underground-to-shed-light-on-richmonds-role-in-slave-trade

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/21/
482874478/forgotten-history-how-the-new-england-colonists-embraced-the-slave-trade

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/17/us/
georgetown-university-search-for-slave-descendants.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/07/18/
423803204/remembering-new-orleans-overlooked-ties-to-slavery

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/06/
306249298/richmond-va-wrangling-over-future-of-historic-slave-trade-site

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/nov/26/
race.immigrationpolicy

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/nov/26/
race.immigrationpolicy3 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/nov/26/
race.immigrationpolicy2 

 

 

 

 

slave trader

 

 

 

 

trade

 

 

 

 

cadaver trade

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/03/
opinion/sunday/cadavers-slavery-medical-schools.html

 

 

 

 

slaveholder

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/
474983292/treasury-decides-to-put-harriet-tubman-on-20-bill

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
opinion/sunday/slaverys-enduring-resonance.html

 

 

 

 

slave owner

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/02/10/
514385071/frederick-douglass-on-how-slave-owners-used-food-as-a-weapon-of-control

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/18/us/
insurance-policies-on-slaves-new-york-lifes-complicated-past.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/01/15/
262431646/a-woman-comes-to-terms-with-her-familys-slave-owning-past

 

 

 

 

slave ownership

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

 

 

Charleston, South Carolina

key port for slaves In America

— the entry point for nearly half the slaves

who were brought from Africa to the U.S.

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/20/
621750399/charleston-key-entry-for-slaves-in-america-apologizes-and-meditates-on-racism-to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the last ship

that carried slaves

across the Atlantic

https://www.npr.org/2018/05/08/
609126378/in-zora-neale-hurstons-barracoon-language-is-the-key-to-understanding

 

 

 

 

Clotilda,

the last American slave hhip

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/19/
733996699/alabamas-africatown-hopes-for-revival-after-slave-ship-discovery

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/03/
opinion/sunday/americas-last-slave-ship-and-slaverys-stain.html

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/01/25/
580052897/reporter-may-have-discovered-clotilda-the-last-american-slave-ship

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

plantation

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/09/
469670174/new-tv-drama-recounts-heroic-escapes-on-the-underground-railroad

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/26/
467805819/written-behind-bars-this-1850s-memoir-links-prisons-to-plantations

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
opinion/sunday/slaverys-enduring-resonance.html

 

 

 

 

commodity

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/18/
us/insurance-policies-on-slaves-new-york-lifes-complicated-past.html

 

http://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2014/11/19/
slavery-economy-baptist

 

 

 

 

commodity > cotton

http://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2014/11/19/
slavery-economy-baptist

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

African slave burial ground

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/25/nyregion/
south-bronx-students-may-have-found-site-of-slave-burial-ground.html

 

 

 

 

freeborn daughter

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/
a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bondage

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/27/
487667955/slave-labor-and-the-longer-history-of-the-white-house

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/
a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

human bondage

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/18/us/
insurance-policies-on-slaves-new-york-lifes-complicated-past.html

 

 

 

 

servitude

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/27/
487667955/slave-labor-and-the-longer-history-of-the-white-house

 

 

 

 

post-civil war 'neo slavery'

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=89051115 - March 25, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

slavery        UK /USA

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/slavery

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/02/
opinion/sunday/nuns-slavery.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/04/16/
713925992/david-brion-davis-who-helped-remake-the-study-of-slavery-dies-at-92

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/11/16/
668557179/texas-students-will-soon-learn-slavery-played-a-central-role-in-the-civil-war

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/11/07/
665295736/colorado-votes-to-abolish-slavery-2-years-after-similar-amendment-failed

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/21/
us/interracial-slavery-love.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=opUDFaqNgXc - PBS - 10 July 2018

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html  *****

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/
opinion/editorials/monticello-sally-hemings-black-family.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/04/
625329085/opinion-what-zora-neale-hurstons-best-seller-taught-this-african-about-slavery

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/03/
opinion/protest-fourth-july.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/24/
opinion/second-amendment-slavery-james-madison.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=KMzmnAQhtzg - NYT - May 8, 2018

 

https://www.nytimes.com/video/arts/music/
100000005880261/kanye-west-likened-slavery-to-a-choice-history-says-otherwise.html - May 5, 2018

 

https://www.theguardian.com/music/2018/may/02/
kanye-west-slavery-comments-backlash-duvernay-william-spike-lee-choice

 

https://www.theguardian.com/music/2018/may/02/
i-miss-the-old-kanye-what-has-happened-to-raps-most-complex-star

 

https://www.theguardian.com/music/2018/may/01/
kanye-west-on-slavery-for-400-years-that-sounds-like-a-choice

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2018/02/04/
582468315/why-schools-fail-to-teach-slaverys-hard-history

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2017/11/10/
563110377/annotated-african-american-folktales-reclaims-stories-passed-down-from-slavery

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/11/
opinion/south-slavery-confederate-states.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/18/us/
robert-e-lee-slaves.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/04/24/
525441632/in-new-orleans-officials-remove-first-of-4-confederate-monuments

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/05/
arts/confronting-academias-ties-to-slavery.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/02/10/
514385071/frederick-douglass-on-how-slave-owners-used-food-as-a-weapon-of-control

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/05/06/
476890004/churchill-downer-the-forgotten-racial-history-of-kentuckys-state-song

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/28/nyregion/yale-
defies-calls-to-rename-calhoun-college.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/24/
opinion/sunday/georgetown-and-the-sin-of-slavery.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/17/
471622218/horrors-pile-up-quietly-in-the-other-slavery

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/09/
469670174/new-tv-drama-recounts-heroic-escapes-
on-the-underground-railroad

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/22/
463977451/controversial-picture-books-surface-struggle-
to-help-children-understand-slavery

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/22/
opinion/how-texas-teaches-history.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/16/
opinion/constitutionally-slavery-is-no-national-institution.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/07/18/
423803204/remembering-new-orleans-overlooked-ties-to-slavery

 

http://takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/07/17
/what-the-country-owes-harriet-tubman/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/23/
us/obama-racism-marc-maron-podcast.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/22/
opinion/paul-krugman-slaverys-long-shadow.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/19/
opinion/an-apology-for-slavery.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/05/24/
409286733/in-new-england-recognizing-a-little-known-history-of-slavery

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/01/
opinion/black-culture-is-not-the-problem.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
opinion/sunday/slaverys-enduring-resonance.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/
magazine/building-the-first-slave-museum-in-america.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/01/
travel/on-slaverys-doorstep-in-ghana.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/
opinion/abolitionist-or-terrorist.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/nov/18/
slavery-gone-with-the-wind

 

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2013/oct/18/
steve-mcqueen-12-years-a-slave

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/09/17/
223420533/how-slavery-shaped-americas-oldest-and-most-elite-colleges

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/video/2013/jan/16/
samuel-l-jackson-django-unchained-video

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/05/
opinion/blow-escaping-slavery.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=105850676 - June 24, 2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

glorify slavery

http://www.npr.org/2017/04/24/
525441632/in-new-orleans-officials-remove-first-of-4-confederate-monuments

 

 

 

 

Born into slavery

in Thomasville, Georgia,

on March 21, 1856,

Henry Ossian Flipper

is appointed

to the U.S. Military Academy

at West Point, New York        1873

http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
featured_documents/henry_o_flipper/ - broken link

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Ossian_Flipper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Native American slaves / Indian slaves

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/17/
471622218/horrors-pile-up-quietly-in-the-other-slavery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

freedom-seeking slaves

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/02/24/
387457733/the-courage-and-ingenuity-of-freedom-seeking-slaves-in-america

 

 

 

 

buy freedom

http://www.npr.org/2017/09/30/
554307300/slave-poets-lost-essay-on-individual-influence-resonates-through-centuries

 

 

 

 

run away

 

 

 

 

escaped slave        UK / USA

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/oct/27/
frederick-douglass-prophet-of-freedom-review-biography

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/18/
463164866/when-ancestry-search-led-to-escaped-slave-
all-i-could-do-was-weep

 

 

 

 

fugitive slave

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/
a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

underground railroad        UK / USA

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/jul/07/
colson-whitehead-underground-railroad

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/03/29/
from-slavery-to-freedom-revealing-the-underground-railroad/

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/02/24/
travel/underground-railroad-slavery-harriet-tubman-byway-maryland.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/12/28/
507253486/historian-goes-underground-to-shed-light-on-richmonds-role-in-slave-trade

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/oct/09/
the-underground-railroad-colson-whitehead-revie-luminous-furious-wildly-inventive

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/09/
469670174/new-tv-drama-recounts-heroic-escapes-on-the-underground-railroad

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/18/
463164866/when-ancestry-search-led-to-escaped-slave-all-i-could-do-was-weep

 

 

 

 

Florida’s Forgotten ‘Above-Ground’ Railroad

The Daily 360 | The New York Times

 

Escaped slaves

and Native Americans

created a thriving community

in the Florida Panhandle,

but hundreds were killed

when U.S. forces attacked it

in 1816.

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=sZ5Lw_lkAlw - NYT - 27 February 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourteenth Amendment    ratified on July 9, 1868

Amendment XIV        Section 1.

 

All persons born or naturalized in the United States,

and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,

are citizens of the United States

and of the state wherein they reside.

 

No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge

the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;

nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property,

without due process of law;

 

nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction

the equal protection of the laws.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

 

 

 

 

The 14th Amendment to the Constitution

was ratified on July 9, 1868,

and granted citizenship

to “all persons born

or naturalized in the United States,”

which included former slaves

recently freed.

 

In addition,

it forbids states from denying any person

"life, liberty or property, without due process of law"

or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction

the equal protection of the laws.”

 

By directly mentioning the role of the states,

the 14th Amendment greatly expanded

the protection of civil rights to all Americans

and is cited in more litigation

than any other amendment.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/14thamendment.html

 

 

http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/14thamendment.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul28.html

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-v-board/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

slavery > Ghosts of a Christmas Past > Macon, Ga., Dec. 24, 1860

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/12/23/
ghosts-of-a-christmas-past/

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Born in Slavery:

 

Slave Narratives

from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938

contains more than 2,300

first-person accounts of slavery

and 500 black-and-white photographs

of former slaves.

 

These narratives

were collected in the 1930s

as part of the Federal Writers'

Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA)

and assembled and microfilmed in 1941

as the seventeen-volume

Slave Narratives:

A Folk History of Slavery in the United States

from Interviews with Former Slaves.

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Voices from the Days of Slavery

Former Slaves Tell Their Stories

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/voices/

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom

From the Collections of the Library of Congress

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slav2.html

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Conflict of Abolition and Slavery

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam007.html

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

From Slavery to Freedom:

The African-American Pamphlet Collection        1822-1909

presents 396 pamphlets

from the Rare Book

and Special Collections Division,

published from 1822 through 1909,

by African-American authors and others

who wrote about slavery, African colonization,

Emancipation, Reconstruction, and related topics

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aapchtml/aapchome.html

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Slaves and the Courts        1740-1860

 

contains just over a hundred pamphlets and books

(published between 1772 and 1889)

concerning the difficult and troubling experiences

of African and African-American slaves

in the American colonies and the United States.

 

The documents, most from the Law Library

and the Rare Book and Special Collections Division

of the Library of Congress,

comprise an assortment of trials and cases,

reports, arguments, accounts,

examinations of cases and decisions,

proceedings, journals, a letter,

and other works of historical importance

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/sthtml/sthome.html

 

 

 

 

slavery reparations

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-07-09-
slavery-reparations_x.htm

 

 

 

 

slavery    1619-1865

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/

 

 

 

 

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3b.html 

 

 

 

 

slavery in America

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-02-27-slavery_N.htm

 

 

 

 

slavery and the making of America > Timeline

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chiefs from Anomabo listen as Phillip Yawson,

a guide at the fort in Anomabo,

talks about the slave dungeons.

 

Jane Hahn for The New York Times

 

On Slavery’s Doorstep in Ghana

By RUSSELL SHORTO        NYT        JAN. 30, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/01/
travel/on-slaverys-doorstep-in-ghana.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Slavery’s Doorstep in Ghana

By RUSSELL SHORTO        NYT        JAN. 30, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/01/
travel/on-slaverys-doorstep-in-ghana.html

 

 

 

 

Ghana

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/04/
625329085/opinion-what-zora-neale-hurstons-best-seller-taught-this-african-about-slavery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senegal        Island of Goree / The island of slaves

 

The island of Gorée lies

off the coast of Senegal,

opposite Dakar.

 

From the 15th

to the 19th century,

it was the largest

slave-trading centre

on the African coast.

 

Ruled in succession

by the Portuguese, Dutch,

English and French,

its architecture

is characterized by the contrast

between the grim slave-quarters

and the elegant houses

of the slave traders.

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/26

 

 

 

 

 

On Board: Behind the Scenes with The President & The First Lady at Gorée Island        28 June 2013

 

President Barack Obama & First Lady Michelle Obama

visit Gorée Island off the coast of Senegal

and tour the Masion des Esclaves (House of Slaves) Museum.

 

For roughly three hundred years until the mid-1840s,

countless men, women and children from Africa

were kidnapped from their homes and communities

and brought to this island to be sold as slaves.

 

Narrated by the First Lady, Michelle Obama.

 

YouTube > White House channel

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69T24RQgZ9Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://whc.unesco.org/sites/26.htm

http://webworld.unesco.org/goree/en/visit.shtml

http://www.dakar.unesco.org/goree_patrimoine/bref/

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69T24RQgZ9Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The South Doesn’t Own Slavery

 

SEPT. 11, 2017

The New York Times

Opinion | OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR

By TIYA MILES

 

The violent furor that erupted this summer over the removal of Confederate monuments in several cities was a stark reminder that Americans remain trapped in the residue of slavery and racial violence. In confronting this difficult truth, our attention is naturally drawn to the South. And rightfully so: The South was the hotbed of race-based labor and sexual exploitation before and after the Civil War, and the caldron of a white supremacist ideology that sought to draw an inviolable line between whiteness and blackness, purity and contagion, precious lives and throwaway lives. As the author of three histories on slavery and race in the South, I agree that removing Confederate iconography from cities like New Orleans, Baltimore and Charlottesville, Va., is necessary and urgent.

However, in our national discourse on slavery’s legacy and racism’s persistent grip, we have overlooked a crucial fact: Our history of human bondage and white supremacy is not restricted to the South.

By turning the South into an island of historical injustice separate from the rest of the United States, we misunderstand the longstanding nationwide collusion that has produced white supremacist organizers in Fargo, N.D., and a president from New York City who thinks further research is needed to determine the aims of the Ku Klux Klan. Historians of the United States are continually unearthing an ugly truth: American slavery had no bounds. It penetrated every corner of this country, materially, economically and ideologically, and the unjust campaign to preserve it is embedded in our built environments, North and South, East and West. Detroit is a surprising case in point.

Detroit’s legacy is one of a “free” city, a final stop on the Underground Railroad before Canada, known by the code word “Midnight.” Yet its early history is mired in a slave past. Near the start of the Revolutionary War, William and Alexander Macomb, Scots-Irish traders from New York, illegally purchased Grosse Isle from the Potawatomi people. William Macomb was the largest slaveholder in Detroit in the late 1700s. He owned at least 26 black men, women and children. He kept slaves on his Detroit River islands, which included Belle Isle (the current city park) and Grosse Isle, and right in the heart of the city, not far from where the International Underground Railroad Memorial now rises above the river view. When Macomb died, his wife, Sarah, and their sons inherited the family fortune, later becoming — along with other Detroit slaveholding families — among the first trustees of the University of Michigan.

The Macomb surname and those of numerous Detroit slave sellers, slaveholders and indigenous-land thieves cover the region’s map. Men who committed crimes against humanity in their fur trade shops and private homes, on their farms, islands and Great Lakes trading vessels, are memorialized throughout the metropolis, on street signs, school buildings, town halls and county seats. The Detroit journalist Bill McGraw began a catalog of these names in his 2012 article “Slavery Is Detroit’s Big, Bad Secret” — Macomb, Campau, Beaubien, McDougall, Abbott, Brush, Cass, Hamtramck, Gouin, Meldrum, Dequindre, Beaufait, Groesbeck, Livernois, Rivard. And that’s just a start.

Belle Isle, for instance, was named for Isabelle Cass, a daughter of Lewis Cass, a Detroit politician and governor of Michigan in the early 1800s. Lewis Cass, a supporter of slavery, negotiated the sale of a woman he had enslaved named Sally to a member of the Macomb family in 1818, according to his biographer, Willard Carl Klunder. The Cass family name is attached to a county in Michigan as well as one of Detroit’s best public schools, Cass Tech. Detroiters and visitors alike speak and elevate the names of these slaveholders whenever they trace their fingers across a map or walk the streets in search of the nearest Starbucks.

Detroit is just one example of the hidden historical maps that silently shape our sense of place and community. Place names, submerged below our immediate awareness, may make us feel that slavery and racial oppression have faded into the backdrops of cities, and our history. Yet they do their cultural and political work.

The embedded racism of our streetscapes and landscapes is made perhaps more dangerous because we cannot see it upon a first glance. In Detroit and across the country, slaveholder names plastered about commemorate a social order in which elite white people exerted inexorable power over black and indigenous bodies and lives. Places named after slaveholders who sold people, raped people, chained people, beat people and orchestrated sexual pairings to further their financial ends slip off our tongues without pause or forethought. Yet these memory maps make up what the University of Michigan historian Matthew Countryman has called “moral maps” of the places that we inhabit together.

It is our duty to confront our ugly history in whole cloth. Confederate monuments in the South, in all of their artistic barbarity and weighty symbolism, are but one kind of commemoration of slavery and white power among many that shape our everyday environments, influence our collective identities and silently signal what our national culture validates. While the past does not change, our interpretations of it as we gain new evidence and insight can and should. Collectively determining what we valorize in the public square is the responsibility of the people who live in these stained places now. We can and must recover them.

Tiya Miles is a professor of American culture and history at the University of Michigan and the author of the forthcoming book “The Dawn of Detroit: A Chronicle of Slavery and Freedom in the City of the Straits.”

Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook and Twitter (@NYTopinion), and sign up for the Opinion Today newsletter.

A version of this op-ed appears in print on September 11, 2017, on Page A21 of the New York edition with the headline: The South Doesn’t Own Slavery.

The South Doesn’t Own Slavery,
NYT,
SEPT. 11, 2017,
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/11/
opinion/south-slavery-confederate-states.html

 

 

 

 

 

Obama Visit to Slave Fort

Steeped in Symbolism

 

July 10, 2009

Filed at 11:03 a.m. ET

The New York Times

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
 

 

CAPE COAST, Ghana (AP) -- From the rampart of a whitewashed fort once used to ship countless slaves from Africa to the Americas, Cheryl Hardin gazed through watery eyes at the path forcibly trodden across the sea by her ancestors centuries before.

''It never gets any easier,'' the 48-year-old pediatrician said, wiping away tears on her fourth trip to Ghana's Cape Coast Castle in two decades. ''It feels the same as when I first visited -- painful, incomprehensible.''

On Saturday, Barack Obama and his family will follow in the footsteps of countless African-Americans who have tried to reconnect with their past on these shores. Though Obama was not descended from slaves -- his father was Kenyan -- he will carry the legacy of the African-American experience with him as America's first black president.

For many, the trip will be steeped in symbolism.

''The world's least powerful people were shipped off from here as slaves,'' Hardin said Tuesday, looking past a row of cannons pointing toward the Atlantic Ocean. ''Now Obama, an African-American, the most powerful person in the world, is going to be standing here. For us it will be a full-circle experience.''

Built in the 1600s, Cape Coast Castle served as Britain's West Africa headquarters for the trans-Atlantic slave trade, which saw European powers and African chiefs export millions in shackles to Europe and the Americas.

The slave trade ended here in 1833, and visitors can now trek through the fort's dungeons, dark rooms once crammed with more than 1,000 men and women at a time who slept in their own excrement. The dank air inside still stings the eyes.

Visiting for the first time, Hardin's 47-year-old sister Wanda Milian said the dungeons felt ''like burial tombs.''

''It felt suffocating. It felt still,'' said Milian, who like her sister lives in Houston, Texas. ''I don't know what I expected. I didn't expect to experience the sense of loss, the sense of hopelessness and desolation.''

Those who rebelled were packed into similar rooms with hardly enough air to breath, left to die without food or water. Their faint scratch marks are still visible on walls.

Down by the shore is the fort's so-called ''Door of No Return,'' the last glimpse of Africa the slaves would ever see before they were loaded into canoes that took them to ships that crossed the ocean.

Today, the door opens onto a different world: a gentle shore where boys freely kick a white soccer ball through the surf, where gray-bearded men sit in beached canoes fixing lime-green fishing nets, where women sell maize meal from plates on their heads.

Behind them is Africa's poverty: smoke from cooking fires rises from a maze of thin wooden shacks, their rusted corrugated aluminum roofs held down by rocks. Children bathe naked in a tiny dirt courtyard.

''I just can't wrap my mind around this,'' said Milian, who works at a Methodist church. ''If it weren't for all this'' -- for slavery -- ''I wouldn't be standing here today. I wouldn't be who I am. I wouldn't have the opportunities I do. I wouldn't practice the religion I do.''

Milian also grappled with the irony that fort housed a church while the trade went on, and that African chiefs and merchants made it all possible, brutally capturing millions and marching them from the continent's interior to be sold in exchange for guns, iron and rum.

''It's mixed up,'' Milian said. ''It's not an easy puzzle to put together.''

Though slavery in the U.S. ended after the Civil War in 1865, its legacy has lived on. The U.S. Senate on June 18 unanimously passed a resolution apologizing for slavery and racial segregation.

''This is part of our history,'' said Hardin, who first visited Ghana in the late 1980s and later married a Ghanaian engineer she met in the U.S.

Her 15-year-old son was along for the first time. ''I want him to understand what his liberty really means, who he really is,'' Hardin said.

But racism, both sisters agreed, would not end with Obama's visit.

''Let's not be naive. When your skin is darker, you are still going to be treated differently,'' Hardin said. But Obama's trip ''will be a turning point, not just for America but for the world.''

Milian said Obama's journey would also bear a message to those who organized the trade.

''It will say they failed, it all failed,'' she said. ''The human mind is capable of horrible things, but the fact that we're standing here, the fact Obama will be standing here, proves we are also capable of great resilience.''

Obama Visit to Slave Fort Steeped in Symbolism,
NYT,
10.7.2009,
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2009/07/10/world/
AP-AF-Obama-Slaverys-Legacy.html

 

 

 

 

 

Op-Ed Contributor

Native Sons of Liberty

 

August 6, 2006

The New York Times

By HENRY LOUIS GATES Jr.

 

Oak Bluffs, Mass.

ON June 11, 1823, a man named John Redman walked into the courtroom of Judge Charles Lobb in Hardy County, Virginia, to apply for a pension, claiming to be a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Redman, more than 60 years old, testified that he had been in the First Virginia Regiment of Light Dragoons from Christmas 1778 through 1782, serving initially as a waiter to Lt. Vincent Howell.

The Light Dragoons fought mainly on horseback, using sabers, pistols, and light carbines. They marched from Winchester, Va., to Georgia, where, in the fall of 1779, they laid siege to Savannah. The following year, they fought in Charleston, S.C., narrowly escaping capture in a rout by the British. Redman’s regiment fought the Creek Indians and the British early in 1782, ultimately triumphing over them in June at Sharon, Ga., near Savannah. After the war, Redman settled in Hardy County, where he and his wife kept a farm.

Four decades later, a neighbor and fellow veteran named John Jenkins affirmed Redman’s court testimony. A few weeks later, Redman was granted his Certificate of Pension, receiving the tidy sum of $8 a month until his death in 1836.

Yet standing before Judge Lobb in his courtroom that morning in 1823, John Redman had every reason to be nervous, for his appeal was anything but ordinary. Redman was the rarest of breeds: not just a patriot, but a black patriot — both a free Negro in a nation of slaves and a black man who had fought in a white man’s war.

In 1790, only 1.7 percent of Virginia’s population consisted of free people of color; in the 13 former colonies and the territories of Kentucky, Maine and Vermont, the combined figure was even smaller. Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.

The story of John Redman is illuminating because it opens a window on an aspect of the Revolutionary War that remains too little known: the contributions and sacrifices of a band of black patriots. But it is particularly fascinating to me because, as I learned just recently, John Redman was my ancestor.

I have been obsessed with my family tree since I was a boy. My grandfather, Edward Gates, died in 1960, when I was 10. After his burial at Rose Hill Cemetery in Cumberland, Md. — Gateses have been buried there since 1888 — my father showed me my grandfather’s scrapbooks. There, buried in those yellowing pages of newsprint, was an obituary, the obituary, to my astonishment, of our matriarch, a midwife and former slave named Jane Gates. “An estimable colored woman,” the obituary said.

I wanted to know how I got here from there, from the mysterious and shadowy preserve of slavery in the depths of the black past, to my life as a 10-year-old Negro boy living blissfully in a stable, loving family in Piedmont, W.Va., circa 1960, in the middle of the civil rights movement.

I peppered my father with questions about the names and dates of my ancestors, both black and white, and dutifully recorded the details in a notebook. I wanted to see my white ancestors’ coat of arms. Eventually, I even allowed myself to dream of discovering which tribe we had come from in Africa.

More recently, in part to find my own roots, I started work on a documentary series on genetics and black genealogy. I especially wanted to find my white patriarch, the father of Jane Gates’s children. The genealogical research into my family tree uncovered, to my great wonder, three of my fourth great-grandfathers on my mother’s side: Isaac Clifford, Joe Bruce and John Redman.

All were black and born in the middle of the 18th century; two gained freedom by the beginning of the Revolutionary War. All three lived in the vicinity of Williamsport, a tiny town in the Potomac Valley in the Allegheny Mountains, in what is now West Virginia.

I am descended from these men through my maternal grandmother, Marguerite Howard, whom we affectionately called “Big Mom.” When Jane Ailes, a genealogist, revealed these discoveries to me, I could scarcely keep my composure. In searching for a white ancestor, I had found — improbably — a black patriot instead.

Frankly, it had never occurred to me that I, or anyone in the many branches of my family — Gateses, Colemans, Howards, Bruces, Cliffords, and Redmans — had even the remotest relationship to the American Revolution, or to anyone who had fought in it. If anyone had told me a year ago that this summer I would be inducted into the Sons of the American Revolution as the descendant of a black patriot — 183 years almost to the day after John Redman proved his claim — I would have laughed. I had long supposed that slavery had robbed my ancestors of the privilege of fighting for the birth of this country.

Like most African-Americans of my generation, I had heard of the Daughters of the American Revolution, unfortunately, because of their refusal in 1939 to allow the great contralto, Marian Anderson, the right to perform at Constitution Hall. Anderson responded to the group’s racism with sonorous defiance, holding her Easter Sunday concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial instead.

In part to make amends for their treatment of Anderson, the Daughters of the American Revolution have begun counting the number of black patriots; so far they have documented about 3,000. Harvard’s Du Bois Institute and the Sons of the American Revolution are now researching the 80,000 pension and bounty land warrant applications of Revolutionary War veterans to compare these names to census records from 1790 to 1840.

Already, in just a few weeks, we have discovered almost a dozen African-Americans who served in the war and whose racial identity had been lost or undetected. With this systematic approach, we hope to expand substantially our knowledge of African-Americans who served in the Continental Army and, eventually, to reach a definitive number.

Once the research is completed, we will advertise for descendants of these individuals and encourage them to join the Sons or Daughters of the American Revolution, thus increasing the organizations’ black memberships beyond the meager few dozen or so the two groups have now. (If all of my aunts, uncles and cousins who are also descended from John Redman join, we will quadruple the number of black members in both organizations!)

We want to establish the exact number of descendants of African-Americans who served in the Continental Army, great American patriots, defenders of liberty to which they themselves were not entitled.

OF course, it is perfectly irrelevant, in one sense, what one’s ancestors did two centuries ago; but re-imagining our past, as Americans, can sometimes help us to re-imagine our future. In doing so, it may help to understand that the founding of this Republic was not only red, white and blue, it was also indelibly black.

 

Henry Louis Gates Jr., a professor at Harvard University,

was an executive producer of the PBS series

“African American Lives.”

Native Sons of Liberty,
NYT,
6.8.2006,
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/06/
opinion/06gates.1.html

 

 

 

 

 

HM's ships liberate

1,876 slaves in Africa

August 10, 1822

 

From the Guardian archive

 

Saturday August 10, 1822

Guardian

 

On Wednesday morning we were surprised with the novel circumstance of the arrival of a French brig, of 240 tons, called the Vigilante, as a prize.

She [was] captured, with several others, in the act of slave trading (having 343 on board), on 15th of April last, in the river Bonny (northward of the line), by the boats of his Majesty's ships Iphigenia and Myrmidon, manned with about 150 seamen, and commanded by Lieutenant G. Wm. St John Mildmay, after a most severe contest, in which two seamen were killed and seven were wounded.

It is not known how many of the slaves suffered in this vessel as they jumped overboard, and were destroyed by the sharks; and the crew mixing with the slaves in the hold, after our seamen were in the possession of the upper deck, several slaves were also killed.

One poor girl, about 10 years of age, had both her legs amputated, and was doing well.

This vessel, with six others, formed a little slave-trading squadron, which was discovered by boats dispatched to reconnoitre the river Bonny, moored across the stream of the river, with springs on their cables, all armed, with apparently about 400 men on board, and perfectly prepared to resist the approach of boarders.

Lieut. Mildmay pushed on with his boats, and as they got within range of the slavers, they all opened a heavy fire of canister and grapeshot and musketry; but as nothing could withstand the coolness and undaunted courage of our seamen, all the vessels were soon in their possession.

The state of the unhappy slaves on board these vessels it is impossible to describe; some were linked in shackles by the leg; some of them were bound in chords [sic]: and many of them had their arms so lacerated that the flesh was completely eaten through!

The crew of one of the captured vessels, which the slavers deserted, placed a lighted match in the magazine in the hope that, so soon as our men had boarded, the vessel would blow up with them, and the 300 slaves chained together in the hold.

Providentially one of the men discovered it, very coolly put his hat under it, and carried it safely on deck.

We regret very much to state, that on the passage of the prizes from the Bonny river to Sierra Leone, the fine schooner Yeatam (drawing 17 feet water), with 500 slaves on board, and 23 seamen, upset in a tornado, and all on her perished except eight seamen.

The number of slaves liberated by the capture of these vessels was 1,876, about 200 of whom died on the passage to Sierra Leone.

From the Guardian archive,
August 10, 1822,
HM's ships liberate 1,876 slaves in Africa,
G,
Republished 10.8.2006,
https://www.theguardian.com/news/1822/aug/10/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

How we saw the issues in 1791

 

From The Observer Archive



The Observer


William Wilberforce, born in 1759 and an MP at 21,

became leader of the anti-slavery movement in 1787.

The trade was abolished in the British colonies in 1807,

slavery itself in 1833, the year he died.

This is how The Observer supported his campaign,

in an editorial published on Christmas Day 1791.

 

With every argument in support of humanity, with every argument in support of trade and commerce; with every argument in support of national honour; of abstract improvement; and of individual advantage; Mr Wilberforce brings forward his religious, moral, and politic Bill for the abolition of the odious slave trade, early in the ensuing session of Parliament. That just, that merciful, that benignant great Being, whose creatures of every colour, and of every nation, are equally dear, will surely support this true patriot in a measure of so sublime a nature; will, surely, inspire him with zeal, and eloquence, to prostrate the opinions and sophistry of men, who, slaves themselves to temporary interest, would persecute, torment, and entail perpetual slavery on others. Should the divine Power, for the purpose of trying the virtue of a favoured nation, suffer the intentions of this illustrious senator, to be delayed, can there be a doubt, but associations will form in every part, and a great majority unite in abstaining from the use of rum and sugar, until the object is accomplished.

From The Observer Archive,
How we saw the issues in 1791,
O,
Republished 26.11.2006,
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/nov/26/
race.immigrationpolicy3 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

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