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Vocapedia > Ethnic violence / cleansing, Massacre, Genocide - Warning: graphic

 

 

 

 

Inside the Rohingya Crisis: Capturing Their Genocide on Cellphones | NYT - Opinion        27 August 2018

 

The Rohingya refugees of Myanmar

have enough raw footage

to make a case

at the International Criminal Court.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=OqNqICFcmto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forgive or forget:

survivors of genocide in the Holocaust, Rwanda & Cambodia        G        27 January 2014

 

 

 

 

Forgive or forget:

survivors of genocide in the Holocaust, Rwanda & Cambodia        G        27 January 2014

 

*Graphic Images*

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=KSgMLH4qKyQ&list=PLa_1MA_DEorGkBGoM7RIsnGMMKOitJZ0e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

warning: graphic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A corpse from a mass grave in Tomasica,

where there was remarkably little decomposition

because of the clay content in the soil.

 

Paolo Pellegrin/Magnum, for The New York Times

 

Life in the Valley of Death

NYT

29 May 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/05/29/
magazine/srebrenica-life-in-the-valley-of-death.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

evil

 

http://www.closetoevil.com/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ethnicity

 

 

 

 

ethnic violence        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/20/
opinion/david-brooks-are-there-lessons-for-iraq-in-rwanda.html

 

 

 

 

ethnic conflict        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2015/12/15/
459816270/
u-n-bases-turn-into-cities-for-the-desperate-and-displaced-in-s-sudan

 

 

 

 

ethnic fighting        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/12/world/africa/south-sudan-
civil-war.html

 

 

 

 

ethnic cleansing        UK / USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/11/22/
565907850/u-s-denounces-violence-against-rohingya-as-ethnic-cleansing

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/18/
world/asia/myanmar-rohingya-ethnic-cleansing.html

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/11/
un-myanmars-treatment-of-rohingya-textbook-example-of-ethnic-cleansing

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/world/
us-seeks-to-deport-bosnians-over-war-crimes.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/09/03/
345280297/amid-warnings-of-ethnic-cleansing-a-yazidi-mans-suicide-resonates

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2000/apr/03/
warcrimes.comment

 

 

 

 

anti-semitic

 

 

 

 

ghetto

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqMSfT9eI6o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

massacre / slaughter / mass killing > Srebrenica Massacre        1995

 

massacre of about 8,000 Muslim men and boys

 by Christian Serbs in the Bosnian town of Srebrenica        UK / USA

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/srebrenica-massacre

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/10/world/europe/
ljubisa-beara-dead-srebrenica-genocide.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/06/
bringing-up-the-bodies-bosnia

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2016/07/12/world/europe/the-srebrenica-
massacre-ceremony-marks-21st-anniversary-of-murder-of-more-than-8000/
s/071216-bosnia-ss-slide-MTS8.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/26/
471958003/bosnian-war-criminal-radovan-karodzic-convicted-after-13-years

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/25/
opinion/accountability-at-last-for-bosnias-agony.html

http://www.theguardian.com/law/video/2016/mar/24/
sarajevo-residents-respond-to-karadzic-sentence-video

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/03/24/
471762393/two-decades-after-the-war-a-genocide-conviction-for-radovan-karadzic

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/25/world/europe/
radovan-karadzic-verdict.html

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/24/
471713454/former-bosnian-serb-leader-radovan-karadzic-
guilty-of-crimes-against-humanity

http://www.theguardian.com/news/gallery/2016/mar/24/
photo-highlights-of-the-day-penitents-and-gauchos

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/10/world/europe/
zdravko-tolimir-general-tied-to-srebrenica-massacre-dies-at-67.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/11/12/
455804006/serbia-to-give-5-million-to-a-town-where-a-massacre-took-place

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/08/
bosnias-agony-continues-as-the-earth-endlessly-gives-up-its-dead-srebrenica

http://www.npr.org/2015/07/13/
422490056/bosnians-remember-when-their-city-became-one-big-concentration-camp

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/07/11/
422010098/20-years-after-srebrenica-anger-over-genocide-still-runs-hot

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/11/
opinion/are-the-lessons-of-srebrenica-being-forgotten.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/07/09/sunday-review/
12SREBRENICA.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/09/world/europe/
srebrenica-genocide-massacre.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2008/07/22/
92775717/timeline-the-political-life-of-radovan-karadzic

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/world/europe/
27hague.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/10/29/world/
massacre-in-bosnia-srebrenica-the-days-of-slaughter.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > massacre of Indian women and children

in Idaho by 19th century white settlers        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/04/
opinion/who-are-we.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mass killings        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/27/
genocide-survivors-cambodia-rwanda-holocaust-memorial-day

 

 

 

 

mass murder and eliminationism        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

assembly line killing        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

killing field        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/
opinion/sunday/the-killing-field.html

 

 

 

 

movies > The Killing Fields (1984)

NYT review by VINCENT CANBY - November 2, 1984

https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/02/
movies/screen-tale-of-death-and-life-of-a-cambodian.html 

 

 

 

 

death factory        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

genocide        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/27/
un-claim-of-myanmar-genocide-is-a-litmus-test-for-global-justice

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/27/
myanmars-military-accused-of-genocide-by-damning-un-report

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2005/feb/18/2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

genocide        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/12/20/
675582639/is-genocide-predictable-researchers-say-absolutely

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/15/
world/asia/khmer-rouge-cambodia-genocide.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=OqNqICFcmto - NYT - 27 August 2018

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/02/
opinion/i-saw-a-genocide-in-slow-motion.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/11/22/
566024325/remembering-the-monstrous-legacy-of-ratko-mladic

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/11/22/
565672709/tribunal-finds-ratko-mladic-guilty-of-genocide-crimes-against-humanity-in-bosnia

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/sep/12/
americas-secret-role-in-the-rwandan-genocide

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/12/29/
506734121/global-powers-commitment-to-intervene-in-genocides-may-be-waning

 

http://www.gocomics.com/robert-ariail/2016/12/21

 

http://www.gocomics.com/jimmorin/2016/12/16

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/11/30/
documenting-the-genocide-of-iraqs-yazidi/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/17/world/middleeast/
isis-genocide-yazidi-un.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/
books/review/an-american-genocide-by-benja.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/16/
opinion/isis-crimes-of-genocide.html

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/04/21/
survivors-of-the-armenian-genocide/

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/03/24/
471762393/two-decades-after-the-war-a-genocide-conviction-for-radovan-karadzic

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/18/
opinion/genocide-and-the-islamic-state.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/03/17/
470801112/john-kerry-isis-is-carrying-out-genocide

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/02/27/
468250146/confronting-his-brothers-killers-and-vying-for-an-oscar

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/
opinion/sunday/the-next-genocide.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/25/
world/europe/armenian-genocide-100th-anniversary.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/13/
world/europe/pope-calls-killings-of-armenians-genocide-provoking-turkish-anger.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/
world/asia/decades-after-khmer-rouges-rule-2-senior-leaders-
are-convicted-in-cambodia.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/12/
opinion/all-justice-is-local.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/05/29/
magazine/srebrenica-life-in-the-valley-of-death.html

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/04/
the_rwandan_genocie_20_years_later.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/06/
magazine/06-pieter-hugo-rwanda-portraits.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/05/
opinion/following-orders-in-rwanda.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2012/05/16/
152817980/at-trial-serb-gen-mladic-taunts-survivors-with-throat-cutting-gesture

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/world/europe/
27hague.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > Indian genocide > California        USA

 

The state of sunshine and pleasure

is drenched in the blood of Indians,

the victims of mass killings.

 

These peaked between 1846,

when Americans conquered

California from Mexico,

and 1873,

when they snuffed out

the last group resistance

by natives in the state.

 

The slaughter

of California’s Indians

was rapid and thorough

even by the grim standards

prevailing elsewhere

in North America.

 

Before 1846,

California’s native peoples

suffered great losses

from diseases and dispossession.

 

But Spanish colonizers

and their Mexican successors

wanted to preserve Indians

as mission inmates

or as cheap and dependent

farm labor.

 

The American newcomers,

however,

came by the thousands

and treated natives

as menaces best destroyed,

the sooner the better.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/
books/review/an-american-genocide-by-benja.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/
books/review/an-american-genocide-by-benja.html

 

 

 

 

'slow-motion genocide'        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/06/us/
as-iraqi-christians-in-us-watch-isis-advance-they-see-a-slow-motion-genocide.html

 

 

 

 

 Indonesian massacre of 1965-1966,

during which at least 1 million people,

targeted as communists,

died at the hands

of the government and the military.        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/02/27/
468250146/confronting-his-brothers-killers-and-vying-for-an-oscar

 

 

 

 

commit genocide        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/17/world/middleeast/
isis-genocide-yazidi-un.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2015/07/08/
420909686/the-spotlight-on-darfur-is-gone-but-not-the-abuses

 

 

 

 

genocidal assaults        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

eliminationist assaults        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tigranuhi Asatryan, born in 1910,

Kagizman town, Kars Province. 2010.

 

Nazik Armenakyan

 

Survivors of the Armenian Genocide

NYT

Apr. 21, 2016

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/04/21/
survivors-of-the-armenian-genocide/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

genocide survivors        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/14/
surviving-holocaust-didnt-allow-hatred-grow-memorial-day

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/05/24/
409286734/its-for-you-to-know-that-you-forgive-says-holocaust-survivor

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/27/
genocide-survivors-cambodia-rwanda-holocaust-memorial-day

 

 

 

 

genocide survivors        USA

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/04/
obituaries/aharon-appelfeld-dies.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/monkeysee/2017/05/12/
528137066/actor-curt-lowens-a-holocaust-survivor-known-for-nazi-roles-dies-at-91

 

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/04/21/
survivors-of-the-armenian-genocide/

 

 

 

 

 

survive the Holocaust        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/video/obituaries/
100000004508169/elie-wiesel-dies-at-87.html - Jul. 3, 2016

 

 

 

 

Auschwitz survivor        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/
world/europe/elie-wiesel-auschwitz-survivor-
and-nobel-peace-prize-winner-dies-at-87.html

 

 

 

 

Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel        1928-2016

http://www.nytimes.com/video/obituaries/
100000004508169/elie-wiesel-dies-at-87.html - Jul. 3, 2016

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/07/02/
166184644/elie-wiesel-holocaust-survivor-and-nobel-laureate-dies-at-87

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1997/10/02/
opinion/a-prayer-for-the-days-of-awe.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1981/04/07/
books/wiesel-no-answers-only-questions.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

horror        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/27/
genocide-survivors-cambodia-rwanda-holocaust-memorial-day

 

 

 

 

crimes againt humanity        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/
opinion/sunday/the-killing-field.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A refugee camp in Tanzania in 1994,

near the border with Rwanda.

 

Credit Gilles Peress/Magnum Photos

 

Rwanda Marks 25 Years Since the Genocide.

The Country Is Still Grappling With Its Legacy.

NYT

April 6, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/06/
world/africa/rwanda-genocide-25-years.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Rwandan girl sat among her family’s possessions

on the road to Goma, Zaire,

as she fled the factional violence.

 

Credit David Turnley/Corbis, via Getty Images

 

Rwanda Marks 25 Years Since the Genocide.

The Country Is Still Grappling With Its Legacy.

NYT

April 6, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/06/
world/africa/rwanda-genocide-25-years.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rwanda: 25 ans après le génocide        Mediapart        13 June 2019

 

Il y a un quart de siècle,

une logique génocidaire s'enclenchait contre les Tutsis du Rwanda.

 

Dans cette séquence historique,

le rôle de la France fait toujours l'objet de controverses.

 

On en parle avec Fabrice Arfi (journaliste à Mediapart),

Justine Brabant (journaliste)

et Florent Piton

(historien, auteur de l’ouvrage «Le Génocide des Tutsi du Rwanda»).

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=nUhtLz6WcZ0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rwanda        1994        FR

 

Genocide

 

Sexual violence in conflict / Wartime sex violence

 

https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/dossier/
rwanda-vingt-cinq-ans-apres-le-genocide - 2019

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=nUhtLz6WcZ0 - Mediapart - 13 June 2019

 

https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/060419/
rwanda-un-million-de-morts-et-une-tache-sur-le-drapeau-francais

 

https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/culture-idees/060419/
genocide-des-tutsis-au-rwanda-l-histoire-en-terrain-mine

 

https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/040419/
genocide-au-rwanda-les-trop-petits-gestes-d-emmanuel-macron

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=50uxB_RNfUw - Médiapart 12 July 2017

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Jx5cdP1WU-w - Médiapart - 16 May 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rwanda        1994        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/sep/12/
americas-secret-role-in-the-rwandan-genocide

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/12/
rwanda-genocide-20-years-on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rwanda        1994        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/04/07/
710821937/rwandas-genocide-victims-remembered-25-years-later

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/06/
world/africa/rwanda-genocide-25-years.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/08/
world/africa/genocide-commemorations-begin-in-rwanda-with-curtailed-french-role.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

atrocities committed throughout Bosnia

between 1992 and 1995 > Srebrenica        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/10/world/europe/
zdravko-tolimir-general-tied-to-srebrenica-massacre-dies-at-67.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/05/29/
magazine/srebrenica-life-in-the-valley-of-death.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cambodia

 

(...) 1975 (...) Cambodia > rise of the Khmer Rouge.

 

The hard-line communist regime

aimed to deport an entire nation

into the countryside

and form an agrarian utopia

— but their experiment failed.

 

People were forced to work,

and they were also tortured,

starved and executed.

 

In the end,

around a quarter

of the country's population

— roughly 2 million people —

died.

http://www.npr.org/2017/09/13/
550651635/-this-is-their-film-angelina-jolie-tells-a-story-of-khmer-rouge-survival

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/05/
748158149/nuon-chea-top-khmer-rouge-leader-dies-at-93-while-serving-life-sentence

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/15/
world/asia/khmer-rouge-cambodia-genocide.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/09/13/
550651635/-this-is-their-film-angelina-jolie-tells-a-story-of-khmer-rouge-survival

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Path to Nazi Genocide        USHMM        13 January 2014

 

 

 

 

The Path to Nazi Genocide        United States Holocaust Memorial Museum        13 January 2014

 

Using rare footage,

the film examines the Nazis' rise

and consolidation of power in Germany

as well as their racist ideology, propaganda,

and persecution of Jews and other innocent civilians.

 

It also outlines the path by which the Nazis

led a state to war, and with their collaborators,

killed millions -- including systematically

murdering 6 million Jewish people.

 

This 38-minute resource

is intended to provoke reflection and discussion

about the role of ordinary people, institutions, and nations

between 1918 and 1945.

 

 YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRcNq4OYTyE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Holocaust by bullets”        USA

https://www.npr.org/2019/05/22/
725728990/more-than-1-000-holocaust-victims-are-buried-in-belarus-after-mass-grave-discove

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/world/europe/
a-light-on-a-vast-toll-of-jews-killed-away-from-the-death-camps.html

 

 

 

 

the Holocaust

https://www.theguardian.com/world/holocaust

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/04/23/
604398292/as-american-awareness-fades-holocaust-museum-refreshes-the-story

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/13/
obituaries/sala-kirschner-94-whose-trove-of-letters-told-of-the-holocaust-dies.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/may/24/
how-facebook-flouts-holocaust-denial-laws-except-where-it-fears-being-sued

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/31/
lessons-holocaust-being-forgotten-prince-charles-world-jewish-relief

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/07/02/
166184644/elie-wiesel-holocaust-survivor-and-nobel-laureate-dies-at-87

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/16/
hitlers-world-may-not-be-so-far-away

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/06/
books/review/timothy-snyders-black-earth.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/27/world/middleeast/
palestinian-leader-shifts-on-holocaust.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/27/
genocide-survivors-cambodia-rwanda-holocaust-memorial-day

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/02/world/
israel-gutman-who-survived-and-documented-holocaust-dies-at-90.html 

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-11-19-
holocaust-papers_x.htm

http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-11-25-
holocaust-archive_x.htm

 

 

 

 

Holocaust survivor        UK / USA

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/13/
obituaries/gena-turgel-holocaust-survivor-with-a-love-story-dies-at-95.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/us/
hedy-epstein-rights-activist-and-holocaust-survivor-dies-at-91.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/apr/16/
holocaust-survivors-like-me-are-dying-but-you-can-protect-our-memories

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/28/world/europe/
wladyslaw-bartoszewski-polish-auschwitz-survivor-who-fought-for-jews-dies-at-93.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/world/
breaking-silence-survivor-sets-out-to-meet-holocaust-past.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/14/world/europe/
a-holocaust-survivor-tells-of-auschwitz-at-18-and-again-at-90.html
 

 

 

 

 

anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/world/europe/
a-light-on-a-vast-toll-of-jews-killed-away-from-the-death-camps.html

 

 

 

 

Holocaust denier        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/02/us/
willis-carto-far-right-figure-and-holocaust-denier-dies-at-89.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/27/world/middleeast/
palestinian-leader-shifts-on-holocaust.html

 

 

 

 

Holocaust denial        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/may/24/
how-facebook-flouts-holocaust-denial-laws-except-where-it-fears-being-sued

 

 

 

 

nazi

 

 

 

 

the Nazis

 

 

 

 

deport        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/world/
breaking-silence-survivor-sets-out-to-meet-holocaust-past.html

 

 

 

 

be selected for hard labor        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/14/world/europe/
a-holocaust-survivor-tells-of-auschwitz-at-18-and-again-at-90.html

 

 

 

 

be sent to the gas chambers        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/14/world/europe/
a-holocaust-survivor-tells-of-auschwitz-at-18-and-again-at-90.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prison camp

 

 

 

 

death camp        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/world/europe/
a-light-on-a-vast-toll-of-jews-killed-away-from-the-death-camps.html

 

 

 

 

barbed wire

 

 

 

 

watchtower        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/world/europe/
a-light-on-a-vast-toll-of-jews-killed-away-from-the-death-camps.html

 

 

 

 

WW2 (1939-1945) > nazi concentration camps        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/05/
movies/german-concentration-camps-factual-survey-review.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

concentration camps        USA

 

The term "concentration camp"

is most associated with Nazi Germany

and the systematic killing of Jews

during World War II.

 

But colonial powers

used concentration camps

at the turn of the 19th century

to crush rebellions.

 

In this episode,

how a war between Britain

and South African Boers

gave rise to some of the first camps.

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/07/
749043160/scorched-earth

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/07/
749043160/scorched-earth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auschwitz: the Nazis and the Final Solution        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/28/
secondworldwar.iantraynor 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1945/may/14/
secondworldwar.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

Buchenwald        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1945/may/14/
secondworldwar.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

Belsen        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/apr/14/
secondworldwar.germany 

 

 

 

 

gas chamber

 

 

 

 

be gassed

 

 

 

 

scream

 

 

 

 

crematorium, crematories        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/world/europe/
a-light-on-a-vast-toll-of-jews-killed-away-from-the-death-camps.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Auschwitz

Is Misunderstood

 

JAN. 24, 2015

the New York Times

SundayReview

Opinion

By DANIEL JONAH GOLDHAGEN

 

AUSCHWITZ was liberated 70 years ago, on Jan. 27, 1945, and news of its existence shocked the world. With its principal killing center at one of its main camps, Auschwitz-Birkenau, becoming fully operational in 1942, it was Germany’s largest and the most notorious extermination site. There the Germans slaughtered approximately 1.1 million people, a million of whom were Jews. Its mention evokes notions of evil and instant horror. Auschwitz was a death factory, an oxymoron that would have made no sense before the Holocaust, but that now is effortlessly comprehensible.

But Auschwitz is also misunderstood — and that misunderstanding distorts what we think about the Holocaust, and about the Nazis themselves.

Historical and popular accounts of the Holocaust tend to emphasize its brutal, bureaucratic efficiency, with Auschwitz as its technological pinnacle, whose industrial scale was not only emblematic of, but also necessary for, its success. But as existentially troubling as Auschwitz was and is, and as lethally portentous as it would have been had Nazi Germany won World War II, it was technically unnecessary for the commission of the Holocaust.

Had the Nazis never created gassing installations at Auschwitz, Treblinka, Sobibor and elsewhere, they would still have killed around the same number of Jews and non-Jews. About half of the roughly six million Jews whom the Germans and their European collaborators slaughtered, and virtually all the millions of non-Jews the Germans murdered, they killed by nonindustrial means, mainly by shooting or starving them to death.

The cliché “assembly line killing” belies the fact that rounding up Jews and shipping them, sometimes for many hundreds of miles, to a death factory was far less efficient than merely killing them where the Germans found them. The Nazi leadership created death factories not for expeditious reasons, but to distance the killers from their victims.

Previous and subsequent genocidal assaults also belie the once reflexively intoned notion that modern technology made the Holocaust possible. Regimes and their executioners around the globe have conducted broad eliminationist assaults against targeted peoples, with the perpetrators’ using a variety of means, including mass murder, expulsion, forced conversion and the prevention of reproduction to rid themselves of hated or unwanted groups. In Rwanda in 1994, the Hutu perpetrators killed 800,000 Tutsi at a more intensive daily rate than the Germans did the Jews, using only the most primitive technological means, mainly machetes, knives and clubs.

Focusing on Auschwitz’s mechanistic qualities as a precondition for the Holocaust’s vast destructiveness allows people to see the Nazis’ eliminationism as something uniquely modern — to believe that it takes a technically proficient, bureaucratically expert state to carry out such violence. And even though we all recognize that genocides can be unleashed without such advanced systems, people still too often assume that true eliminationism, with the intention of completely destroying another group, takes a relatively rare constellation of a state apparatus and technological means.
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Continue reading the main story

But that’s not true. To understand the politics of mass murder and eliminationism, the technical means of carrying out the deed are almost never the central issue. Rather, the crucial elements are the political leaders’ decision to commit genocide, the willing participation of a large population of perpetrators, the sympathy of an even broader civilian population — in the case of the Holocaust, principally ordinary Germans, but also many other Europeans — and, above all, the ideology that motivates them all to believe that annihilating the targeted people is necessary and right.

This, rather than its technical specifications, is why Auschwitz is so important. Auschwitz is a symbol of the broader, and little understood, racist revolution that the Germans were bringing about in Europe that sought to overturn the fundamentals of Western civilization, including its core notion of a common humanity.

The gassing installations that became Auschwitz’s emblem were but one part of Auschwitz’s system of more than 40 camps and sub-camps. These were run by thousands of German overlords who drove and brutalized hundreds of thousands of Jews, Russians and other “subhumans,” whom they used as slaves to work under horrifying conditions in the camps’ extensive and varied production facilities, making everything from agricultural products to chemicals to armaments.

Auschwitz was thus much more than just the gas chambers and crematories — taken as a whole, it was a microcosm, not so much of the specific mechanisms of the Holocaust, but of the Nazis’ ideological vision of a world to be ruled by a master race, resting on the collective graves of the Jewish people and of tens of millions of additional victims the Germans deemed demographically expendable, and served by an enormous population of slaves. It reveals that during the Holocaust, mass annihilation, as genocide always is, was part of a larger eliminationist agenda and, at its core, a mechanism for social and political transformation.

This commonality notwithstanding, Auschwitz still had its singular quality: It expressed the Nazis’ unparalleled vision that denied a common humanity everywhere, and global intent to eliminate or subjugate all nonmembers of the “master race.” Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS and the man most responsible for putting the Germans’ plans in action, proudly announced in an address in 1943: “Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only insofar as we need them as slaves for our culture.”

Such was the Nazis’ moral and mental mutation, the most profound in the history of Europe, that Auschwitz was built upon, and that, better than any other place, it symbolizes. When Europe’s leaders assemble at Auschwitz on Tuesday for the 70th anniversary commemoration, they should of course remember and mourn the Jewish and non-Jewish victims. They should also realize that they are gazing into the abyss that would have consumed their Continent and the world.

Daniel Jonah Goldhagen is the author of “Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust” and, most recently, “The Devil That Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Anti-Semitism.”

A version of this news analysis appears in print on January 25, 2015, on page SR3 of the New York edition with the headline: How Auschwitz Is Misunderstood.

How Auschwitz Is Misunderstood,
NYT,
JAN 24, 2015,
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/
sunday-review/how-auschwitz-is-misunderstood.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, espionage, torture

 

 

countries > Myanmar

 

 

Myanmar -> Bangladesh, Australia > Rohingya refugees

 

 

Native Americans > mass killings

 

 

conflicts, wars > civilians > migrants, refugees

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century

 

World War 2 - 1939-1945

 

Germany, Europe > Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, Nazi era, Holocaust