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Vocapedia > Arts > Photography > Invention of photography

 

 

 

 

The Wet Plate Collodion Process        Video        21 October 2012

 

Honza Hronek photographer in Paris

 

YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKtE_j9jmtk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Brief History of Photography: Innovations in Chemistry - Bytesize Science    14 November 2012

 

 

 

 

A Brief History of Photography: Innovations in Chemistry - Bytesize Science        Video        14 November 2012

 

The history of photography

is rich with chemical innovations and insights,

producing hundreds of different processes to develop images

in unique and often beautiful ways.

 

But these historical images can be difficult to conserve,

especially since each type of photograph

requires a different preservation technique.

 

While two photos could look very similar,

they may differ chemically in dramatic ways.

 

This is where photo conservation scientists like Art Kaplan

at the Getty Conservation Institute come into the picture.

 

Art spends his days studying different styles of photographs,

their materials and the chemistry that gave life to still life

in the early days of photography.

 

His office is loaded with drawers of photographic samples,

scientific instruments and a clear passion for frozen history.

 

In our latest video,

Art explains the developmental processes

of several types of photographs

including daguerreotypes,

ambrotypes and tintypes.

 

YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mh42xZQL6-k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Gelatin Silver Print: Photographic Processes        2 August 2012

 

 

 

 

The Gelatin Silver Print: Photographic Processes        Video        2 August 2012

 

Photography has shaped the way we remember

and how we are reminded.

 

Photography has created an incredible cultural shift

--our communication and expression forever changed.

 

In a completely new way,

we could reveal what was important to us,

who we were and who we loved.

 

YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSBFrPWPS80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alice Liddell

as The Beggar Maid (circa 1859),

a Albumen silver print

from a glass negative by Lewis Carroll.

 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Met Museum Acquires Gilman Trove of Photos

New York Times, Randy Kennedy, Published: March 17, 2005

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/17/arts/design/17gilm.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

black and white film photography chemistry

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZo1_hO5i-s

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPj0716_XAo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EnhICjXGho

 

 

 

 

chronophotograph        USA

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/
athletes-on-the-field-in-the-moment/

 

 

 

 

The First Photograph

is a one-of-a-kind permanent positive-image process,

secured upon the surface of a pewter plate in 1826        USA

http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/wfp/2.html

 

 

 

 

heliograph

 

 

 

 

photography > digital / silver-gelatin process

http://www.economist.com/books/displaystory.cfm?story_id=5466822

 

 

 

 

Unveiling the new wetplate camera from Black Art Woodcraft.

 

A modern modification

of an authentic mid-19th century camera,

with a variety of plate sizes up to 8x10.

 

The entire process

from first contact

to a finished, delivered camera

took seven months,

but the wait

was entirely worth it.

 

Check it out

and see for yourself!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_PiyIAsCHM

http://www.blackartwoodcraft.com/wet-plate-cameras/Price-List.aspx - broken URL

 

 

 

 

Invented in 1851,

the wet collodion photographic process

produced a glass negative

and a beautifully detailed print.

 

Preferred for the quality of the prints

and the ease with

which they could be reproduced,

the new method thrived

from the 1850s until about 1880.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MiAhPIUno1o

 

 

 

 

making glass plate negs >  wet plate (collodion) / dry plate

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6c7RT7BsIbc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKtE_j9jmtk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nE5_vyqSTXs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78tfSJhoTQA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gyf8fQOdvDs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JODnXqKaYbQ

 

 

 

 

plate holder

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MiAhPIUno1o

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--PAAJZRbn8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1890 in glorious colour:

the magic of photochromes – in pictures        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2016/jul/04/
photochromes-swiss-camera-museum-hans-jakob-schmid-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stereo-view camera > stereograph        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/oct/31/
from-daguerreotypes-to-glass-plates-australias-oldest-images-photo-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the dawn of photography        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/17/
arts/design/barnes-foundation-photography.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A new dawn:

19th-century photography awakens – in pictures    UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2016/jun/07/
a-new-dawn-19th-century-photography-seizing-the-light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During their earliest period,

the first photographs were one-off,

singular, direct positive images (...).

 

William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877),

one of photography’s

foremost proponents,

was the first to realise

the importance of the negative

as part of a two-stage,

image-making process,

whereby multiple positives

could be made

from a single negative.

 

By placing a sheet of paper

coated with light-sensitive silver salts

in a camera and exposing it to light,

Talbot produced, by further development

and fixing of the latent camera image,

a negative (calotype) of his subject.

 

The negative,

when placed in contact

with a similarly sensitized paper

and further exposed to light,

inverted the values of the negative

to produce the positive print.

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/journals/conservation-journal/spring-2012-issue-60/positive-negative/

 

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/journals/conservation-journal/spring-2012-issue-60/
positive-negative/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

wet-plate collodion process

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--PAAJZRbn8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=78tfSJhoTQA&feature=c4-overview&list=LLta-8f4Qj-jzPb61Ua8D_6Q

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_Graphic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wet-plate was first detailed

by Frederick Scott Archer in 1851,

less than three decades

after the dawn of photography,

and was known ominously

as the "black art",

partly on account of the potential perils

- death from cyanide explosions

and blinding from silver among them.

 

While Brady's

revelatory civil war images

documented

the faces and realities of conflict,

Carleton Watkins

and Eadweard Muybridge

produced stunning images

of Yosemite National Park

by lugging mammoth

wet-plate cameras

high into the mountains,

and Julia Margaret Cameron

created ethereal shots

which promoted photography

as an art form.

 

Production died swiftly, however,

as the insatiable desire

for photographic innovation

saw the emergence

of dry-plate technology

and collodion emulsion,

followed by handheld

cameras and film.

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/jul/22/
photography-art

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

calotype        UK

 

a salted print from a paper negative

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/oct/31/
from-daguerreotypes-to-glass-plates-australias-oldest-images-photo-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicéphore Niépce    1765-1833

 

The first photograph    1827

 

https://www.telerama.fr/scenes
/ils-ont-fait-la-photo-1-nicephore-niepce-l-homme-qui-a-tout-declenche,71329.php

 

https://journals.openedition.org/etudesphotographiques/92

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

gelatin silver

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSBFrPWPS80

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Q9ow8pIa6g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cool Science: Silver Chloride Photochemistry

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8e0-AbwBDYM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EnhICjXGho

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AyIhbNtCHpY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fv2BQ968A4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

collodion positive process / ambrotype

 

Collodion positives

first appeared in about 1853.

 

By the 1860s

the process

had largely disappeared

from high street studios,

but it remained popular

with itinerant open-air

photographers

until the 1880s,

because portraits

could be made

in a few minutes

while sitters waited.

 

The collodion positive process,

which was based

on the collodion negative process

invented by Frederick Scott Archer,

reversed a negative image

by bleaching the silver salts.

 

The dark areas

which would normally form

the highlights in a printed image

turned pale,

and the clear areas

which would form the shadows

in the print appeared to be dark.

 

When presented

against a black background,

the dark areas of the original negative,

which had been bleached

with nitric acid or bichloride of mercury,

appeared as highlights.

 

The black backing,

visible through

the clear areas of the plate

that originally formed the highlights,

appeared as shadows.

 

Although

the so-called collodion positive

was in fact a negative,

the emulsions were too thin

to make satisfactory prints on paper.

 

When the collodion positive

was held to the light

without the backing material,

the image still looked like a negative,

though paler than the standard required

to make a satisfactory positive print.

http://blog.nationalmediamuseum.org.uk/2013/04/24/
find-out-when-a-photo-was-taken-identify-collodion-positive-ambrotype/

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--PAAJZRbn8

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/oct/31/
from-daguerreotypes-to-glass-plates-australias-oldest-images-photo-essay

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/16/
lens/these-portraits-of-metalheads-go-to-11.html

 

http://blog.nationalmediamuseum.org.uk/2013/04/24/
find-out-when-a-photo-was-taken-identify-collodion-positive-ambrotype/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cyanotype

 

Cyanotype is a photographic printing process

that produces a cyan-blue print.

 

Engineers used the process

well into the 20th century

as a simple and low-cost process

to produce copies of drawings,

referred to as blueprints.

 

The process uses two chemicals:

ferric ammonium citrate

and potassium ferricyanide.

- 30 September 2020

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanotype 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mathew Brady

the most famous photographer in the United States > Civil War        1861-1865

 

“Whatizzit Wagons,” or Whatsits

- mobile darkrooms (which)

were an early predecessor

of the news-gathering vehicle

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/
the-all-seeing-eye/

 

 

 

 

wet plate > Sally Mann

https://vimeo.com/25115631 

 

 

 

 

Ed Drew's Afghanistan:

the first wet-plate conflict photos in 150 years        2013

 

US military gunner Ed Drew

used methods

from the early days of photography

to create striking portraits

that recall images

from the American civil war.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/jul/22/
photography-art 

 

 

 

 

glass plate photography        USA

http://www.archives.gov/preservation/storage/glass-plate-negatives.html

http://www.archives.gov/preservation/holdings-maintenance/moving-glass-plate.html

http://archives.syr.edu/exhibits/glassplate_about.html

http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/kempland/glassplate.htm

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/cdnhome.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2015/may/01/
richard-j-arnold-rare-photos-of-19th-century-californians-in-pictures

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

 

 

Glass Plate Negatives: A Brief History

 

 Glass plate negatives

comprise two formats:

collodion wet plate negatives

and gelatin dry plate negatives.

 

Both types

have a light sensitive emulsion

with a binder thinly layered

on one side of a glass plate.

 

Frederick Scott Archer,

a British inventor and photographer,

made the first collodion

wet plate negative

in 1851.

 

In order to prepare a negative,

a photographer coated

a clean sheet of glass

with collodion,

a liquid with ingredients

that included cellulose nitrate

and ether.

 

Then the plate was quickly

put into a silver nitrate bath

in order to sensitize it to light

and placed in the camera,

where the negative was exposed.

 

The photographer had to develop it

very quickly after exposure.

 

Because it was necessary to prepare,

expose and develop a negative

while it was still wet,

this process of making photographs

was complicated, inconvenient,

and not very portable.

 

Richard Leach Maddox,

a British physician and photographer,

produced the first practical

dry glass plate negative in 1871.

 

In his much more convenient process,

the glass plate was coated with gelatin

and sensitized with silver salts.

 

The negative did not need

to be developed immediately

after exposure.

 

Maddox's method

was so well-received

that dry plates replaced wet.

 

Within ten years

they were produced in factories

and became widely available,

especially for amateur photographers.

 

One no longer had to be skilled

in mixing potentially dangerous chemicals

and could store undeveloped images

for long periods of time.

 

Gelatin dry plate negatives

were widely used into the 1920s.

 

By then gelatin sliver paper negatives

and celluloid roll film

had become popular.

http://archives.syr.edu/exhibits/glassplate_about.html

 

 

 

 

hand-coloured glass slide

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/mar/28/
mirror-race-america-slavery-19th-century-pictures

 

 

 

 

printing glass plates 

https://www.shutterbug.com/content/
darkroombrprinting-glass-plates-it%E2%80%99s-definitely-worth-effort  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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