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Vocapedia > Arts > Toys and games > Dolls

 

 

 

A damaged doll on a workbench

after having its head re-attached

by 25-year veteran doll repairer Kerry Stuart

at Sydney's Doll Hospital, July 15, 2014.

 

Photograph: Jason Reed

Reuters

 

Sydney's doll hospital: 3 generations of doll repair

Boston Globe > Big Pictture

25 August 2014

http://archive.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/08/
the_doll_hospital_3_generations_of_doll_repai.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doll restorer Kerry Stuart

rubs a filling compound

into the cracked head of a plastic doll

at Sydney's Doll Hospital, July 15, 2014.

 

Photograph: Jason Reed

Reuters

 

Boston Globe > Big Pictture

Sydney's doll hospital: 3 generations of doll repair

25 August 2014

http://archive.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/08/
the_doll_hospital_3_generations_of_doll_repai.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.hapmoore.com/images/oct05/dolls.jpg

HAP MOORE ANTIQUES AUCTIONS

http://www.hapmoore.com/m1/oct05index.html

 

Auction of Estate Antiques

The Goodwin Building        611 U.S. Route One        York, Maine

Saturday Morning, October 1, 2005

Old Dolls and Related Items at 10:00 a.m.,

http://www.hapmoore.com/images/oct05/auction-10-05.pdf

cropped by Anglonautes 17.5.2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shortlisted:

Jade, Farmingville, New York, from American Girls

 

Ilona Szwarc has documented dolls and their owners

in streets and homes across the United States.

The dolls are customisable with variable skin tones,

hair colours and styles to match their owners’

 

Photograph: Ilona Szwarc

Redux

 

Fresh faces: striking images from debut photographers – in pictures

From tender pictures exploring disability to a Congo odyssey,

these previously unpublished photographers were all acclaimed

at the ICP/GOST First Photo Book award

G

Wed 3 Mar 2021    07.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2021/mar/03/
fresh-faces-striking-images-from-debut-photographers-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reborn babies:

the women who care for lifelike dolls

G    25 February 2020

 

 

 

Reborn babies: the women who care for lifelike dolls

Video        The Guardian        25 February 2020

 

A growing number of collectors are cuddling,

changing and caring for 'reborns'

– individually crafted baby dolls that can cost up to $20,000.

 

For some,

it's about rekindling their baby-rearing years.

 

For others,

it's about dealing with their own inability

to birth real human babies.

 

Despite the finger-pointing from outsiders,

it's a subculture that's thriving globally.

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP09Gm5rp9I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

doss        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2021/mar/03/
fresh-faces-striking-images-from-debut-photographers-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

doll        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2023/09/07/
business/barbie-movie-mattel-windfall.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2023/01/05/
movies/megan-review.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/06/21/
533681781/mattel-introduces-new-diverse-ken-dolls-hopes-to-reverse-sales-slump

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/12/20/
506208146/this-doll-may-be-recording-what-children-say-privacy-groups-charge

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/05/05/
404445211/edisons-talking-dolls-can-now-provide-
the-soundtrack-to-your-nightmares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lifelike dolls        UK

 

Reborn babies: the women who care for lifelike dolls

Video    The Guardian    25 February 2020

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=yP09Gm5rp9I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australia > Sydney's doll hospital:

3 generations of doll repair        USA        August 25, 2014

 

Sydney's Doll Hospital has worked

on millions of dolls,

teddy bears and other toys

since it opened in 1913.

 

"Doll surgeons"

transplant fingers, toes and heads,

and repair broken eye sockets.

 

The company has been handed down

from three generations of the Chapman family.

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/08/
the_doll_hospital_3_generations_of_doll_repai.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbie doll        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2023/09/07/
business/barbie-movie-mattel-windfall.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2023/07/27/
1189987314/barbie-movie-feminist-history

 

https://www.npr.org/2023/07/25/
1189781313/barbie-movie-feminism-girls

 

https://www.npr.org/2023/07/19/
1188370123/barbie-review

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2022/01/11/
1071885031/ida-b-wells-barbie-doll

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/08/25/
490948248/bonjour-barbie-an-american-icon-packs-her-heels-and-heads-to-france

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/29/
business/barbie-now-in-more-shapes.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/11/27/
457296845/from-dream-bride-to-doll-for-boys-the-evolution-of-the-barbie-ad

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/10/10/
447225176/hello-barbie-what-do-you-want-to-talk-about-today

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/04/04/
298771047/could-a-barbie-get-real-what-a-healthy-fashion-doll-looks-like

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbie toymaker        UK

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/architecture-design-blog/2014/feb/05/
barbie-extreme-body-proportions-defended-by-designers

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/22/
bratz-dolls-case-resolved-payout

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

dollhouse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corpus of news articles

 

Arts > Toys > dolls

 

 

 

Should the World of Toys

Be Gender-Free?

 

December 29, 2011
The New York Times
By PEGGY ORENSTEIN

 

Berkeley, Calif.

NOW that the wrapping paper and the infernal clamshell packaging have been relegated to the curb and the paying off of holiday bills has begun, the toy industry is gearing up — for Christmas 2012. And its early offerings have ignited a new debate over nature, nurture, toys and sex.

Hamleys, which is London’s 251-year-old version of F.A.O. Schwarz, recently dismantled its pink “girls” and blue “boys” sections in favor of a gender-neutral store with red-and-white signage. Rather than floors dedicated to Barbie dolls and action figures, merchandise is now organized by types (Soft Toys) and interests (Outdoor).

That free-to-be gesture was offset by Lego, whose Friends collection, aimed at girls, will hit stores this month with the goal of becoming a holiday must-have by the fall. Set in fictive Heartlake City (and supported by a $40 million marketing campaign), the line features new, pastel-colored, blocks that allow a budding Kardashian, among other things, to build herself a cafe or a beauty salon. Its tasty-sounding “ladyfig” characters are also taller and curvier than the typical Legoland denizen.

So who has it right? Should gender be systematically expunged from playthings? Or is Lego merely being realistic, earnestly meeting girls halfway in an attempt to stoke their interest in engineering?

Among the “10 characteristics for Lego” described in 1963 by a son of the founder was that it was “for girls and for boys,” as Bloomberg Businessweek reported. But the new Friends collection, Lego says, was based on months of anthropological research revealing that — gasp! — the sexes play differently.

While as toddlers they interact similarly with the company’s Duplo blocks, by preschool girls prefer playthings that are pretty, exude “harmony” and allow them to tell a story. They may enjoy building, but they favor role play. So it’s bye-bye Bionicles, hello princesses. In order to be gender-fair, today’s executives insist, they have to be gender-specific.

As any developmental psychologist will tell you, those observations are, to a degree, correct. Toy choice among young children is the Big Kahuna of sex differences, one of the largest across the life span. It transcends not only culture but species: in two separate studies of primates, in 2002 and 2008, researchers found that males gravitated toward stereotypically masculine toys (like cars and balls) while females went ape for dolls. Both sexes, incidentally, appreciated stuffed animals and books.

Human boys and girls not only tend to play differently from one another — with girls typically clustering in pairs or trios, chatting together more than boys and playing more cooperatively — but, when given a choice, usually prefer hanging with their own kind.

Score one for Lego, right? Not so fast. Preschoolers may be the self-appointed chiefs of the gender police, eager to enforce and embrace the most rigid views. Yet, according Lise Eliot, a neuroscientist and the author of “Pink Brain, Blue Brain,” that’s also the age when their brains are most malleable, most open to influence on the abilities and roles that traditionally go with their sex.

Every experience, every interaction, every activity — when they laugh, cry, learn, play — strengthens some neural circuits at the expense of others, and the younger the child the greater the effect. Consider: boys from more egalitarian homes are more nurturing toward babies. Meanwhile, in a study of more than 5,000 3-year-olds, girls with older brothers had stronger spatial skills than both girls and boys with older sisters.

At issue, then, is not nature or nurture but how nurture becomes nature: the environment in which children play and grow can encourage a range of aptitudes or foreclose them. So blithely indulging — let alone exploiting — stereotypically gendered play patterns may have a more negative long-term impact on kids’ potential than parents imagine. And promoting, without forcing, cross-sex friendships as well as a breadth of play styles may be more beneficial. There is even evidence that children who have opposite-sex friendships during their early years have healthier romantic relationships as teenagers.

Traditionally, toys were intended to communicate parental values and expectations, to train children for their future adult roles. Today’s boys and girls will eventually be one another’s professional peers, employers, employees, romantic partners, co-parents. How can they develop skills for such collaborations from toys that increasingly emphasize, reinforce, or even create, gender differences? What do girls learn about who they should be from Lego kits with beauty parlors or the flood of “girl friendly” science kits that run the gamut from “beauty spa lab” to “perfume factory”?

The rebellion against such gender apartheid may have begun. Consider the latest cute-kid video to go viral on YouTube: “Riley on Marketing” shows a little girl in front of a wall of pink packaging, asking, “Why do all the girls have to buy pink stuff and all the boys have to buy different-color stuff?” It has been viewed more than 2.4 million times.

Perhaps, then, Hamleys is on to something, though it will doubtless meet with resistance — even rejection — from both its pint-size customers and multinational vendors. As for me, I’m trying to track down a poster of a 1981 ad for a Lego “universal” building set to give to my daughter. In it, a freckle-faced girl with copper-colored braids, baggy jeans, a T-shirt and sneakers proudly holds out a jumbly, multi-hued Lego creation. Beneath it, a tag line reads, “What it is is beautiful.”

 

Peggy Orenstein is the author, most recently,

of “Cinderella Ate My Daughter:

Dispatches From the Front Lines

of the New Girlie-Girl Culture.”

Should the World of Toys Be Gender-Free?,
NYT,
29.12.2011,
https://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/30/
opinion/does-stripping-gender-from-toys-really-make-sense.html

 

 

 

 

 

Robot Maker Builds Artificial Boy

 

September 13, 2007
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Filed at 7:40 a.m. ET
The New York Times

 

RICHARDSON, Texas (AP) -- David Hanson has two little Zenos to care for these days. There's his 18-month-old son Zeno, who prattles and smiles as he bounds through his father's cramped office. Then there's the robotic Zeno. It can't speak or walk yet, but has blinking eyes that can track people and a face that captivates with a range of expressions.

At 17 inches tall and 6 pounds, the artificial Zeno is the culmination of five years of work by Hanson and a small group of engineers, designers and programmers at his company, Hanson Robotics. They believe there's an emerging business in the design and sale of lifelike robotic companions, or social robots. And they'll be showing off the robot boy to students in grades 3-12 at the Wired NextFest technology conference Thursday in Los Angeles.

Unlike clearly artificial robotic toys, Hanson says he envisions Zeno as an interactive learning companion, a synthetic pal who can engage in conversation and convey human emotion through a face made of a skin-like, patented material Hanson calls frubber.

''It's a representation of robotics as a character animation medium, one that is intelligent,'' Hanson beams. ''It sees you and recognizes your face. It learns your name and can build a relationship with you.''

It's no coincidence if the whole concept sounds like a science-fiction movie.

Hanson said he was inspired by, and is aiming for, the same sort of realism found in the book ''Supertoys Last All Summer Long,'' by Brian Aldiss. Aldiss' story of troubled robot boy David and his quest for the love of his flesh-and-blood parents was the source material for Steven Spielberg's film ''Artificial Intelligence: AI.''

He plans to make little Zenos available to consumers within the next three years for $200 to $300.

Until then, Hanson, 37, makes a living selling and renting pricey, lifelike robotic heads. His company offers models that look like Albert Einstein, a pirate and a rocker, complete with spiky hair and sunglasses. They cost tens of thousands of dollars and can be customized to look like anyone, Hanson said.

The company, which has yet to break even, was also buoyed by a $1.5 million grant from the Texas Emerging Technology Fund last October. The fund was created by Gov. Rick Perry in 2005 to improve research at Texas universities and help startup technology companies get off the ground.

Hanson concedes it's going to be at least 15 years before robot builders can approach anything like what seems to be possible in movies. Zeno the robot remains a prototype.

During a recent demonstration, Zeno could barely stand and had to be tethered to a bank of PCs that told it how to smile, frown, act surprised or wrinkle its nose in anger.

Robotics, Hanson believes, should be about artistic expression, a creative medium akin to sculpting or painting. But convincing people that robots should look like people instead of, well, robots, remains a challenge that robot experts call the ''uncanny valley'' theory.

The theory posits that humans have a positive psychological reaction to robots that look somewhat like humans, but that robots made to look very realistic end up seeming grotesque instead of comforting.

''Nobody complains that Bernini's sculptures are too darn real, right? Or that Norman Rockwell's paintings are too creepy,'' Hanson said. ''Well, robots can seem real and be loved too. We're trying to make a new art medium out of robotics.''

So just how did Hanson end up with two Zenos, anyway?

It all goes back to when his wife, Amanda, gave birth to their first child and Zeno the robot was already in the works.

They rattled off several names to their baby boy, but it wasn't until they whispered ''Zeno'' that ''this look of peace fell over his face; it was like soothing to his ears,'' Hanson recalled.

''There was no way we could give him any other name. He chose Zeno as his name,'' he said.

That was just fine with Amanda.

''I thought that it was very endearing, very sweet,'' she said.

The similarities go beyond the name. Though Zeno the robot was built to resemble the animated Japanese TV show character Astro Boy, his plastic hair and saucer-shaped eyes bear a striking resemblance to the curly locks and wide-eyed smile of the real Zeno.

''So by coincidence they're both Zeno, and in other ways this robot has become more of a portrait sculpturally of the son, although it's almost coincidence,'' said Hanson, whose previous jobs include working as a character sculptor for The Walt Disney Co. ''We didn't consciously sculpt this robot to look like him. It's the way things filter through the hands of the artist.''

Hanson says one of the robot Zeno's biggest advancements is that its brains aren't inside the robot. Instead Zeno synchs wirelessly to a PC running a variant of Massive Software -- the same Academy Award-winning code that enabled the fantastical battles among humans, orcs and elves in the ''Lord of the Rings'' movies.

Like some modern version of Geppetto's workshop, Hanson's office is crammed with rows of shelves stacked with books about robots next to toy robots and plastic skulls. Notes ranging from mathematical formulas to design sketches cover several white boards like high-tech graffiti.

There are scattered bits from Hanson's previous creations, including Albert Hubo, a white robotic body topped with a realistic head of Albert Einstein that has graced magazine covers and even shaken hands with President Bush.

Hanson has been recognized for his work, garnering accolades from the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence in 2005 and a ''best design'' award at the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt National Design Triennial last year.

But Hanson is most proud of the real Zeno, a rambunctious toddler who frolics with free rein among priceless electronics.

''If the robots become popular I suppose it will pose an identity crisis for my son,'' Hanson said. ''But I think that the amount of love that he receives will make him feel like an individual no matter what.''

------

On the Net:

http://www.zenosworld.com

    Robot Maker Builds Artificial Boy, NYT, 13.9.2007,
    http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/technology/AP-Robot-Boy.html

 

 

 

 

 

Doll Web Sites

Drive Girls to Stay Home and Play

 

June 6, 2007
The New York Times
By MATT RICHTEL and BRAD STONE

 

Presleigh Montemayor often gets home after a long day and spends some time with her family. Then she logs onto the Internet, leaving the real world and joining a virtual one. But the digital utopia of Second Life is not for her. Presleigh, who is 9 years old, prefers a Web site called Cartoon Doll Emporium.

The site lets her chat with her friends and dress up virtual dolls, by placing blouses, hair styles and accessories on them. It beats playing with regular Barbies, said Presleigh, who lives near Dallas.

“With Barbie, if you want clothes, it costs money,” she said. “You can do it on the Internet for free.”

Presleigh is part of a booming phenomenon, the growth of a new wave of interactive play sites for a young generation of Internet users, in particular girls.

Millions of children and adolescents are spending hours on these sites, which offer virtual versions of traditional play activities and cute animated worlds that encourage self-expression and safe communication. They are, in effect, like Facebook or MySpace with training wheels, aimed at an audience that may be getting its first exposure to the Web.

While some of the sites charge subscription fees, others are supported by advertising. As is the case with children’s television, some critics wonder about the broader social cost of exposing children to marketing messages, and the amount of time spent on the sites makes some child advocates nervous.

Regardless, the sites are growing in number and popularity, and they are doing so thanks to the word of mouth of babes, said Josh Bernoff, a social media and marketing industry analyst with Forrester Research.

“They’re spreading rapidly among kids,” Mr. Bernoff said, noting that the enthusiasm has a viral analogy. “It’s like catching a runny nose that everyone in the classroom gets.”

Hitwise, a traffic measurement firm, says visits to a group of seven virtual-world sites aimed at children and teenagers grew 68 percent in the year ended April 28. Visits to the sites surge during summer vacation and other times when school is out. Gartner Research estimates that virtual-world sites have attracted 20 million users, with those aimed at younger people growing especially quickly.

Even as the children are having fun, the adults running the sites are engaged in a cutthroat competition to be the destination of choice for a generation of Americans who are growing up on computers from Day 1.

These sites, with names like Club Penguin, Cyworld, Habbo Hotel, Webkinz, WeeWorld and Stardoll, run the gamut from simple interactive games and chat to fantasy lands with mountains and caves.

When Evan Bailyn, chief executive of Cartoon Doll Emporium, said that when he created the site, “I thought it would be a fun, whimsical thing.” Now, he says, “it’s turned into such a competitive thing,” adding that “people think they are going to make a killing.”

Even Barbie herself is getting into the online act. Mattel is introducing BarbieGirls.com, another dress-up site with chat features.

In recent months, with the traffic for these sites growing into the tens of millions of visitors, the entrepreneurs behind them have started to refine their business models.

Cartoon Doll Emporium, which draws three million visitors a month, is free for many activities but now charges $8 a month for access to more dolls to dress up and other premium services. WeeWorld, a site aimed at letting 13- to-25-year-olds dress up and chat through animated characters, recently signed a deal to permit the online characters to carry bags of Skittles candy, and it is considering other advertisers.

On Stardoll, which has some advertising, users can augment the wardrobe they use to dress up their virtual dolls by buying credits over their cellphones. At Club Penguin, a virtual world with more than four million visitors a month, a $5.95-a-month subscription lets users adopt more pets for their penguin avatars (animated representations of users), which can roam, chat and play games like ice fishing and team hockey.

Lane Merrifield, chief executive of Club Penguin, which is based in Kelowna, British Columbia, said that he decided on a subscription fee because he believed advertising to young people was a dangerous proposition. Clicking on ads, he said, could bring children out into the broader Web, where they could run into offensive material.

Mr. Merrifield also bristles at any comparison to MySpace, which he said is a wide-open environment and one that poses all kinds of possible threats to young people.

To make Club Penguin safe for children, the site uses a powerful filter that limits the kinds of messages users can type to one another. It is not possible, Mr. Merrifield said, to slip in a phone number or geographic location, or to use phrases or words that would be explicit or suggestive. Other sites are also set up to minimize the threat of troublesome interactions or limit what users can say to one another.

“We’re the antithesis of MySpace,” Mr. Merrifield said. “MySpace is about sharing information. We’re all about not being able to share information.”

Other sites are more open, like WeeWorld, which permits people to create avatars, dress them up and then collect groups of friends who type short messages to one another. The characters tend to be cute and cartoonish, as do the home pages where they reside, but the chatter is typical teenager.

“There’s a lot of teasing and flirting,” said Lauren Bigelow, general manager of WeeWorld. She said that the site had around 900,000 users in April and is growing around 20 percent a month.

Ms. Bigelow said that 60 percent of WeeWorld users are girls and young women, a proportion that is higher on some other sites. Stardoll said that its users are 93 percent female, typically ages 7 to 17, while Cartoon Doll Emporium said that it is 96 percent female, ages 8 to 14.

Some of the companies are aiming even younger. The Ontario company Ganz has a hit with Webkinz, plush toys that are sold in regular stores and are aimed at children as young as 6. Buyers enter secret codes from their toy’s tag at webkinz.com and control a virtual replica of their animal in games. They also earn KinzCash that they can spend to design its home. The site draws more than 3.8 million visitors a month.

Sherry Turkle, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who studies the social aspects of technology, said that the participants on these sites are slipping into virtual worlds more easily than their parents or older siblings.

“For young people, there is rather a kind of fluid boundary between the real and virtual world, and they can easily pass through it,” she said.

For some children, the allure of these sites is the chance to participate and guide the action on screen, something that is not possible with movies and television.

“The ability to express themselves is really appealing to the millennial generation,” said Michael Streefland, the manager of Cyworld, a virtual world that started in South Korea and now attracts a million users a month in the United States, according to comScore, a research firm. “This audience wants to be on stage. They want to have a say in the script.”

But Professor Turkle expressed concern about some of the sites. She said that their commercial efforts, particularly the advertising aimed at children, could be crass. And she said that she advocates an old-fashioned alternative to the sites.

“If you’re lucky enough to have a kid next door,” she said, “I’d have a play date instead of letting your kid sit at the computer.”

    Doll Web Sites Drive Girls to Stay Home and Play, NYT, 6.6.2007,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/06/technology/06doll.html

 

 

 

 

 

The rise of the machines

 

Friday May 4, 2007
Guardian
Eric Clark

 

From a marketing viewpoint, the birth of Transformers toys in 1984 was an orchestrated act of genius. It not only launched one of the most successful playthings ever, it propelled a massive change in toy selling. Today, marketing rules; toys and the entertainment industry have become two sides of the same coin. The groundwork of all that was laid with the birth of Transformers.

Hasbro, now the world's second biggest toy company, had licensed Diacron, a puzzle toy with cars and planes that transformed into robots, from the Japanese company Takara. The Japanese had tried to sell it on the American market for a year. When it failed, they handed licensing rights to legendary toy man Henry Orenstein, who took the toy to Hasbro.

Convinced it could still be a success, Stephen Hassenfeld, Hasbro's CEO, the man regarded by many as the architect of the modern toy industry, had made the decision to market the toy instinctively. Now Hasbro had to make it work. Just how was thrashed out in an after-hours car ride between Hasbro's Rhode Island headquarters and New York City: the toy company's marketing chief and the three heads of Hasbro's ad agency Griffin Bacal brainstormed for three and a quarter hours.

One after another, decisions emerged. The toys would no longer be three-dimensional puzzles but characters in a story, with cars (the Autobots) being the good guys, and planes (the Decepticons) the bad guys. Joe Bacal came up with the name Transformers against initial opposition from the others. A back-story was created: Transformers had all come from Cybertron, a distant planet, where civil war raged between giant alien robots, under siege and desperate for fuel supplies.

By the time they reached New York, Diacron was no longer a stand-alone puzzle. As Transformers, it had broken away from its role of toy as object. The play pattern was spelled out. So too was the inducement to keep buying Transformers merchandise - playtime now would need lots of characters and props.

The remaining problem was how to sell such a fantasy toy effectively on television - the use of animation in advertising in the US at that time was strictly controlled. The Griffin Bacal agency had the answer. They made Transformers the subject of a comic book, and then advertised that instead to create awareness of the Transformers brand: there were no guidelines for commercials for comic books, because comic books never advertised on television. Griffin Bacal's ingenuity drove a coach and horses through the rules. Now the commercials could include all the animation they wished.

There was one more ingredient. Over a decade before, the Federal Communications Commission had cracked down on attempts by toy companies to introduce toy-led programmes. But now, under the Reagan administration, that changed. Transformers was free to become a "programme-length commercial".

A watershed had been crossed. The old idea of basing toys on characters in books or movies or programmes was turned upside down. Now the toy came first. The borders between programme and product became forever blurred, and in 1984 the Transformers TV series was launched.

Transformers sold $100m worth of toys in its first year - the most successful toy introduction in history at that point. Despite ups and downs since, constant marketing-led initiatives - new TV series spinning off new toys - have ensured it has never been out of production, a triumph in a business where a successful toy is one that lasts more than a year.

 

· The Real Toy Story:

Inside the Ruthless Battle

for Britain's Youngest Consumers

by Eric Clark is published by Black Swan, £8.99

The rise of the machines,
G,
4.5.2007,
https://www.theguardian.com/film/2007/may/04/
3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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