Les anglonautes

About | Search | Vocapedia | Learning | News podcasts | Videos | History | Arts | Science | Translate and listen

 Previous Home Up Next


Vocapedia > Gender identity > Women


Gender gap, pay gap, glass ceiling, equality






by Guy Gilchrist and Brad Gilchrist



May 13, 2012















Three gender pay gap myths explained

G    5 April 2019





Three gender pay gap myths explained

Video    Guardian News    5 April 2019


Gender pay gap figures released today

reveal widespread inequality

across British businesses

as every industry continues to pay men

more on average than women.


In this video

Guardian journalist Leah Green

busts some of the common myths

surrounding the gender pay gap


















Why women should stop striving for equality

G    8 July 2015





Why women should stop striving for equality - Reni Eddo-Lodge

Comment is Free        Video        The Guardian        8 July 2015


Reni Eddo-Lodge is a feminist

who doesn't believe in equality.


She is bored

of the endless debates about women in boardrooms

or employers offering to pay for egg-freezing.


Instead of asking to be included, she argues,

women should try to deconstruct the system

and aim for liberation.


















sexism        UK






sexist        UK






gender stereotypes        UK








gender in economics        USA






gender parity on company boards        UK






female board members in Britain        UK






gender diversity        UK






gender bias / discrimination        USA








gender gulf in schools        UK

















gender gap / divide        UK












































gender gap        USA



















computer science gender gap        USA










gender divide in use of new media        UK










global league table

of gender gap between women and men        UK










gender equity        USA

















Clinton on Equal Pay for Women

NYT        May 10, 2016




Clinton on Equal Pay for Women


Hillary Clinton met with families

at a coffee shop in Virginia,

where she spoke about gender-based

income inequality and the role of unions.


By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS | May. 10, 2016 | 1:08
























UK > gender pay gap        UK / USA





watch?v=PKq8MqrvYU8  - G - 5 April 2019





























gender pay / gap / gender wage gap

wage gap between women and men        USA



















100000004396413/clinton-on-equal-pay-for-women.html - May 10, 2016































USA > California's Fair Pay Act        USA






equal pay





USA > Equal Pay Act of 1963






equal rights        USA






employment gap        USA






pay gap

between men and women in Britain        UK








gender pay gap        UK






pay gap / gender pay gap        USA








pay equity        USA

















close the pay gap with men        USA

















women > executives        USA






USA > Ms. Walker    1930-2015

Utah’s first female governor






sex        UK






prejudice        UK






bias        USA





















Illustration: Ben Wiseman


Women’s Unequal Lot


SundayReview|Op-Ed Columnist

APRIL 12, 2014























discrimination        UK










sex discrimination cases        UK












sex-based pay discrimination        USA












pay gap / wage gap / gender pay gap        USA












glass ceiling        UK
















glass ceiling        USA










politics/100000004553592/meryl-streep-rallies-crowd-for-clinton.html - Jul. 27, 2016







women in the U.S. workforce        USA






male-dominated field        USA






career woman        USA






women CEOs        USA






gender disparity in the media        USA






women scientists and engineers        UK






Female Pioneers in Science

Exhibition > ‘Extraordinary Women in Science and Medicine’        USA






female lawyers        USA






In America,

only 17 percent of American Fortune 500 board seats

are held by women,

a mere 3 percent of board chairs are women

— and women are barely represented

in President Obama’s cabinet.        USA        2013






Sandra Day O’Connor


the first woman on the Supreme Court






Does Westminster have a problem with women?        13 April 2014        UK


Just over half of Britons are female:

but Maria Miller's resignation last week

left just three women in the cabinet and 19 men






Women in the Obama Administration        USA        January 2013


While the White House itself employs

about an equal number of men and women

under President Obama,

the gender ratio of appointees

in 11 of the 15 cabinet departments

favors men.






Will Women Get Ahead by Going Back to School?        USA        January 2012


Women, more than men,

are staying out of the work force

to pursue higher education.


When the economy improves,

will this education gap

break the glass ceiling?


Or will men still be better off

because they were gaining work experience

while women were taking on student loan debt?






Ten Extraordinary Women of the Fifties

by Rachel Cooke        UK        17 October 2013






working women        USA






women MPs        UK






gender equality        UK












gender equality        USA






equity / inequity        USA






women > inequality > retirement        USA
























equal pay        UK






equal pay for women        USA






Equal Pay Day        USA






 deal with issues

like equality at the executive level,

equal pay, violence and work-life balance        USA






Equal Opportunities Commission        UK







The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (Amendment) Regulations 2003        UK






women and power        USA






Forbes list of world's most powerful women        UK        2010
















USA > 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:

Women's Right to Vote        USA        1920


"The right of citizens of the United States to vote

shall not be denied or abridged by the United States

or by any state on account of sex."


The amendment guarantees

all American women the right to vote.


Achieving this milestone

required a lengthy and difficult struggle;

victory took decades of agitation and protest.


Beginning in the mid-19th century,

several generations

of woman suffrage supporters

lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied,

and practiced civil disobedience to achieve

what many Americans considered

a radical change of the Constitution.


Few early supporters

lived to see final victory in 1920.






























Graphic of the week        The gender agenda

The Guardian        Work        p. 2        14 January 2006

No related article.

















The Guardian        p. 9        5.1.2007


Six thousand women

missing from boardrooms, politics and courts

· Glass ceiling hampers access to 33,000 top jobs

· Children can spell career death in professions


The Guardian

Friday January 5, 2007




















'Painfully slow' progress means women

could take 200 years to win political equality

· Commission report outlines marginal gains

· Political representation better in Rwanda and Iraq


The Guardian        p. 4        Thursday January 5, 2006
















Corpus of news articles


Gender identity > Women




Elite Women Put a New Spin

on an Old Debate


June 21, 2012

The New York Times



If a woman has a sterling résumé, a supportive husband who speaks fluent car pool and a nurturing boss who just happens to be one of the most powerful women in the world herself, who or what is to blame if Ms. Supposed-to-Have-It-All still cannot balance work and family?

A magazine article by a former Obama administration official has blown up into an instant debate about a new conundrum of female success: women have greater status than ever before in human history, even outpacing men in education, yet the lineup at the top of most fields is still stubbornly male. Is that new gender gap caused by women who give up too easily, unsympathetic employers or just nature itself?

The article in The Atlantic, by Anne-Marie Slaughter, a Princeton professor who recently left a job at the State Department, added to a renewed feminist conversation that is bringing fresh twists to bear on longstanding concerns about status, opportunity and family. Unlike earlier iterations, it is being led not by agitators who are out of power, but by elite women at the top of their fields, like the comedian Tina Fey, the Facebook executive Sheryl Sandberg and now Ms. Slaughter. In contrast to some earlier barrier-breakers from Gloria Steinem to Condoleezza Rice, these women have children, along with husbands who do as much child-rearing as they do, or more.

The conversation came to life in part because of a compelling face-off of issues and personalities: Ms. Slaughter, who urged workplaces to change and women to stop blaming themselves, took on Ms. Sandberg, who has somewhat unintentionally come to epitomize the higher-harder-faster school of female achievement.

Starting a year and a half ago, Ms. Sandberg, chief operating officer of Facebook, injected new energy into the often circular work-or-home debate with videotaped talks that became Internet sensations. After bemoaning the lack of women in top business positions, she instructed them to change their lot themselves by following three rules: require your partner to do half the work at home, don’t underestimate your own abilities, and don’t cut back on ambition out of fear that you won’t be able to balance work and children.

The talks transformed Ms. Sandberg from little-known executive to the new face of female achievement, earning her untold letters and speaking invitations, along with micro-inspection of her life for clues to career success. She hired a sociologist, Marianne Cooper, to help her get the research and data right. When Ms. Sandberg confessed in a recent interview that, contrary to her work-hound reputation, she leaves work at 5:30 p.m. to eat dinner with her children, and returns to a computer later, she earned yet another round of attention, and her words were taken as the working-mom equivalent of a papal ruling.

But her advice also spurred quiet skepticism: by putting even more pressure on women to succeed, was she, even unintentionally, blaming the victim if they did not?

Enter Ms. Slaughter’s article, posted Wednesday night, in which she described a life that looked like a feminist diorama from the outside (a mother and top policy adviser for Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton) but was accompanied by domestic meltdown (workweeks spent in a different state than her family, a rebellious teenage son to whom she had little time to attend). As she questioned whether her job in Washington was doable and at what cost, she began hearing from younger women who complained about advice like Ms. Sandberg’s.

“Women of my generation have clung to the feminist credo we were raised with ... because we are determined not to drop the flag for the next generation,” Ms. Slaughter wrote. “But when many members of the younger generation have stopped listening, on the grounds that glibly repeating ‘you can have it all’ is simply airbrushing reality, it is time to talk.”

“Although couched in terms of encouragement, Sandberg’s exhortation contains more than a note of reproach,” Ms. Slaughter continued, an insinuation of “What’s the matter with you?’”

Instead, Ms. Slaughter said, the workplace needs to adapt, and women who opt out have no need to apologize.

In an interview, Ms. Slaughter added that she was motivated to write in part by her concern about the number of women serving in high posts under President Obama — and now that the first round of female appointees is leaving, she said, they are mostly being replaced by men. “I don’t think there is sufficient appreciation across the administration as a whole of the different circumstances facing women and men,” she said.

Unlike in earlier eras, when Germaine Greer would publish one book and then Betty Friedan would weigh in months later, a new crop of feminist bloggers and writers now respond instantaneously. The women they were writing about followed along in real time on Thursday as well, reading the debate as they were living it, inhaling Ms. Slaughter’s article and the responses as they stole a few minutes from work or raced off to pick up their children. By Thursday afternoon, Ms. Slaughter’s confession-slash-manifesto was breaking readership records for The Atlantic’s Web site, according to a magazine representative.

Many responded with enthusiasm for Ms. Slaughter’s recommendations (more latitude to work at home, career breaks, matching work schedules to school schedules, even freezing eggs). Some defended Ms. Sandberg or expressed solidarity with their husbands, who they said feel just as much work-life agita as they do. More than a few said they were irritated by what they called outdated language (“having it all”) and a clichéd cover illustration (Baby, check. Briefcase, check).

“Irresponsibly conflating liberation with satisfaction, the ‘have it all’ formulation sets an impossible bar for female success and then ensures that when women fail to clear it, it’s feminism — as opposed to persistent gender inequity — that’s to blame,” Rebecca Traister wrote in an article on Salon.com.

For her part, Ms. Sandberg remained silent, declining a request to address the Atlantic article. But Ms. Slaughter said in an interview that the Silicon Valley executive was one of the many readers who e-mailed her as soon as the article came out. Her message: they had to talk more about this, and soon.

Elite Women Put a New Spin on an Old Debate,






Still Few Women in Management,

Report Says


September 27, 2010
The New York Times


Women made little progress in climbing into management positions in this country even in the boom years before the financial crisis, according to a report to be released on Tuesday by the Government Accountability Office.

As of 2007, the latest year for which comprehensive data on managers was available, women accounted for about 40 percent of managers in the United States work force. In 2000, women held 39 percent of management positions. Outside of management, women held 49 percent of the jobs in both years.

Across the work force, the gap between what men and women earn has shrunk over the last few decades. Full-time women workers closed the gap to 80.2 cents for every dollar earned by men in 2009, up from just 62.3 cents in 1979. Much of this persistent wage gap, however, can be explained by what kinds of jobs the sexes are drawn to, whether by choice or opportunity.

The new report, commissioned by the Joint Economic Council of Congress, tries to make a better comparison by looking at men versus women in a specific industry and in similar jobs, and also controlling for differences like education levels and age. On average, female managers had less education, were younger and were more likely to be working part time than their male counterparts.

In all but three of the 13 industries covered by the report, women had a smaller share of management positions than they did of that industry’s overall work force. The sectors where women were more heavily represented in management than outside of it were construction, public administration and transportation and utilities.

Across the industries, the gender gap in managers’ pay narrowed slightly over the last decade, even after adjusting for demographic differences. Female full-time managers earned 81 cents for every dollar earned by male full-time managers in 2007, compared with 79 cents in 2000.

This varied by industry, with the pay gap being the narrowest in public administration, where female managers earned 87 cents for every dollar paid to male managers. It was widest in construction and in financial services, where women earned 78 percent of what men were paid after adjustments.

Across the work force, the pay gap was also slightly wider for managers who had children.

Managers who were mothers earned 79 cents of every dollar paid to managers who were fathers, after adjusting for things like age and education. This gap has stayed the same since at least 2000.

The greater toll that parenthood appears to take on women’s paychecks may help explain why, generally speaking, female managers are less likely to have children than their male counterparts.

In 2007, 63 percent of female managers were childless, compared with just 57 percent of male managers. Of those managers who did have children, men on average had more children than their women counterparts.

Female managers were also less likely to be married than male managers, at rates of 59 percent versus 74 percent, respectively.

It is difficult to determine why a wage gap exists between female and male managers, and to what extent these differences might be because of discrimination or other factors, like hours clocked. The new G.A.O. report, for example, does not try to control for hours worked, beyond broad categories like full-time or part-time status.

The report was prepared at the request of Representative Carolyn B. Maloney, Democrat of New York and the chairwoman of the Joint Economic Committee, for a hearing on Tuesday on the gender gap in management jobs. The findings were based on an analysis of data from the American Community Survey of the Census Bureau.

“When working women have kids, they know it will change their lives, but they are stunned at how much it changes their paycheck,” Ms. Maloney said of the report. “In this economy, it is adding insult to injury, especially as families are increasingly relying on the wages of working moms.”

During the recession that began in December 2007 and ended in the summer of 2009 — generally after the data contained in this new report — men generally bore the brunt of job losses because of the types of industries. It is still unclear how management positions might have shifted or whether women were affected differently by that.

    Still Few Women in Management, Report Says, NYT, 27.9.2010,






Fair Pay Isn’t Always Equal Pay


September, 21, 2010
The New York Times



AMONG the top items left on the Senate’s to-do list before the November elections is a “paycheck fairness” bill, which would make it easier for women to file class-action, punitive-damages suits against employers they accuse of sex-based pay discrimination.

The bill’s passage is hardly certain, but it has received strong support from women’s rights groups, professional organizations and even President Obama, who has called it “a common-sense bill.”

But the bill isn’t as commonsensical as it might seem. It overlooks mountains of research showing that discrimination plays little role in pay disparities between men and women, and it threatens to impose onerous requirements on employers to correct gaps over which they have little control.

The bill is based on the premise that the 1963 Equal Pay Act, which bans sex discrimination in the workplace, has failed; for proof, proponents point out that for every dollar men earn, women earn just 77 cents.

But that wage gap isn’t necessarily the result of discrimination. On the contrary, there are lots of other reasons men might earn more than women, including differences in education, experience and job tenure.

When these factors are taken into account the gap narrows considerably — in some studies, to the point of vanishing. A recent survey found that young, childless, single urban women earn 8 percent more than their male counterparts, mostly because more of them earn college degrees.

Moreover, a 2009 analysis of wage-gap studies commissioned by the Labor Department evaluated more than 50 peer-reviewed papers and concluded that the aggregate wage gap “may be almost entirely the result of the individual choices being made by both male and female workers.”

In addition to differences in education and training, the review found that women are more likely than men to leave the workforce to take care of children or older parents. They also tend to value family-friendly workplace policies more than men, and will often accept lower salaries in exchange for more benefits. In fact, there were so many differences in pay-related choices that the researchers were unable to specify a residual effect due to discrimination.

Some of the bill’s supporters admit that the pay gap is largely explained by women’s choices, but they argue that those choices are skewed by sexist stereotypes and social pressures. Those are interesting and important points, worthy of continued public debate.

The problem is that while the debate proceeds, the bill assumes the answer: it would hold employers liable for the “lingering effects of past discrimination” — “pay disparities” that have been “spread and perpetuated through commerce.” Under the bill, it’s not enough for an employer to guard against intentional discrimination; it also has to police potentially discriminatory assumptions behind market-driven wage disparities that have nothing to do with sexism.

Universities, for example, typically pay professors in their business schools more than they pay those in the school of social work, citing market forces as the justification. But according to the gender theory that informs this bill, sexist attitudes led society to place a higher value on male-centered fields like business than on female-centered fields like social work.

The bill’s language regarding these “lingering effects” is vague, but that’s the problem: it could prove a legal nightmare for even the best-intentioned employers. The theory will be elaborated in feminist expert testimony when cases go to trial, and it’s not hard to imagine a media firestorm developing from it. Faced with multimillion-dollar lawsuits and the attendant publicity, many innocent employers would choose to settle.

The Paycheck Fairness bill would set women against men, empower trial lawyers and activists, perpetuate falsehoods about the status of women in the workplace and create havoc in a precarious job market. It is 1970s-style gender-war feminism for a society that should be celebrating its success in substantially, if not yet completely, overcoming sex-based workplace discrimination.

Christina Hoff Sommers

is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute

and the editor, most recently,

of “The Science on Women and Science.”

    Fair Pay Isn’t Always Equal Pay, 21.9.2010,






First Woman Ascends

to Top Drill Sergeant Spot


September 22, 2009
The New York Times


FORT JACKSON, S.C. — It may come as no surprise that the Army’s new top drill sergeant idolizes Gen. George S. Patton Jr., has jumped out of planes 33 times, aces every physical training test and drives a black Corvette with “noslack” vanity plates.

But consider this: the sergeant is a woman.

On Tuesday, the Army will make Command Sgt. Maj. Teresa L. King, 48, commandant of its drill sergeant school here. It is a first. No woman has run one of the Army’s rigorous schools for drill instructors.

Petite yet imposing, Sergeant Major King seems a drill sergeant at heart, ever vigilant for busted rules: soldiers nodding off in class, soldiers with hair a fraction too long, soldiers who run too slow.

“Are you crazy?” she shouts at one who is walking across a lawn. “Get off my grass!”

The eighth of 12 children, the sergeant major is the daughter of a sharecropper who grew cucumbers and tobacco near Fort Bragg, N.C. Her first job in the Army was as a postal clerk, a traditional position for women in those days.

She says she regrets not having been deployed to a war zone during her 29-year Army career, though she has trained many soldiers who were. And now, in her new job, she will have significant influence over the basic training of every enlisted soldier.

Last year the Army consolidated several drill schools into a single campus at this sprawling post, meaning Sergeant Major King, with her staff of 78 instructors, will oversee drill sergeant training for the entire Army.

Famous for their Smokey Bear hats, booming voices and no-nonsense demeanor, those sergeants transform tens of thousands of raw recruits into soldiers each year. It is one of the backbone jobs of the military, and having a woman in charge underscores the expanding role of women in the Army’s leadership.

But Sergeant Major King’s ascension is also a reminder of the limits of gender integration in the military. Just 8 percent of the active-duty Army’s highest-ranking enlisted soldiers — sergeants major and command sergeants major — are women, though more than 13 percent of Army personnel are female.

In particular, the Army has struggled to recruit women as drill sergeants, citing pregnancy, long hours and the prohibition against women serving in frontline combat positions as reasons. Sergeant Major King said one of her priorities would be to recruit more women into her school.

But she pushes back at the notion that she has risen because she is a woman. “When I look in the mirror, I don’t see a female,” Sergeant Major King said. “I see a soldier.”

As a child, she refused her mother’s cooking lessons, insisting on driving her father’s tractor and playing basketball instead. When her siblings got in trouble, she volunteered to take their spankings.

It was the sight of a commanding-looking female soldier in a stylish red beret at the fort that inspired her to enlist while still in high school. Within three years, she was sent to drill sergeant school, graduating as one of five women in a class of 30.

Willie Shelley, a retired command sergeant major who supervised Sergeant Major King in three postings, said that he once promoted her over the objections of his commander into a position at Fort Bragg that had been held only by men.

“Turns out she was about the best first sergeant they ever had,” Mr. Shelley said. “It would not surprise me that she could become the first female sergeant major of the Army,” he added, referring to its top enlisted soldier.

In her clipped speaking style, acute command of regulations and visible disgust with slovenliness, Sergeant Major King prowls the grounds of Fort Jackson, where she was the top noncommissioned officer for a human resources battalion before being promoted to commandant.

“She can always find the cigarette butt under the mattress,” said Patrick J. Jones, a public affairs officer at Fort Jackson. Respect for rules and dedication to training is what keeps soldiers alive in combat, Sergeant Major King says, and she expects drill sergeants to embody that ethic 24 hours a day. “Most soldiers want to be like their drill sergeants,” she said. “They are the role models.”

Yet for all her gruffness, she can show surprising tenderness toward her charges. She describes her soldiers as “my children” and her approach to disciplining them as “tough love.” She wells up with emotion while describing how she once hugged a burly master sergeant whose wife had left him.

“She is confident, no nonsense, but compassionate about what’s right for the soldier,” said Col. John E. Bessler, her commander in a basic training battalion four years ago.

After a stint as a drill sergeant in her early 20s, Sergeant Major King went through a series of rapid promotions: aide to the secretary of defense, then Dick Cheney; senior enlisted positions near the demilitarized zone in Korea; with the XVIII Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg; and at NATO headquarters in Europe.

For a time in her 30s, she was married to another soldier. She got pregnant but lost the baby, and eventually divorced. The failure of her marriage, she said, brought on a period of soul-searching that led her to study the Bible. She was planning to retire and join the ministry when her appointment to the drill sergeant school was announced over the summer.

“On the other side, the military life, I was doing so good,” she said. “But my personal life just stunk.” Since her divorce, she added, “I just pour my heart into these soldiers.”

Looking back on her years in the Army, Sergeant Major King says she can think of few occasions where men challenged her authority because she was a woman. “And when they did,” she said, “I could handle it.”

Asked if women should be allowed into frontline combat units, she said yes, but only if they meet the same standards as men.

While she says most women cannot meet those standards, she believes she can. As if to prove her point, she scored a perfect 300 on her semiannual physical training test last week, doing 34 push-ups and 66 situps, each in under two minutes, then ran two miles in 16 minutes 10 seconds (well below the required 17:36 for her age group.)

But before she started her test, she characteristically noticed something amiss.

“Can you believe that?” the sergeant major asked no one in particular. “A bag of garbage outside my Dumpster.”

First Woman Ascends to Top Drill Sergeant Spot,






Six thousand women

missing from boardrooms,

politics and courts


· Glass ceiling hampers access to 33,000 top jobs

· Children can spell career death in professions


Friday January 5, 2007


Polly Curtis


The glass ceiling is still holding back 6,000 women from the top 33,000 jobs in Britain, according to new research from the Equal Opportunities Commission. Thirty years after the introduction of the Sex Discrimination Act, women are "woefully under-represented" in the country's boardrooms, politics and courts, it says.

Help from nannies has not enabled successful women to maintain their careers after having children, the research suggests. The EOC blames a male-dominated culture in the professions for resistance to flexible working.

The upward trend in the proportion of women in top jobs is "painfully slow", the report says, and in some sectors there is even a decline. The proportion of women in parliament has slipped in the 12 months since the EOC's last Sex and Power survey and is now at 19.5% - lower than in Iraq, Afghanistan and Rwanda.

Despite the successes of women such as Clara Furse, chief executive of the London Stock Exchange, and Lady Clark of Calton, who is only one of four female senior judges currently serving, the proportion of women directors of top 100 FTSE companies has dipped to 10.4%, and of female judges to 9.8%.

Jenny Watson, chair of the EOC, said: "Today's troubling findings show just how slow the pace of change has been in powerful British institutions. They suggest it's time not just to send out the headhunters to find some of those 'missing women', but to address the barriers that stand in their way. Thirty years on from the Sex Discrimination Act, women rightly expect to share power. But as our survey shows, that's not the reality.

"We all pay the price when Britain's boardrooms and elected chambers are unrepresentative. Our democracy and local communities will be stronger if women from different backgrounds are able to enjoy an equal voice. In business, no one can afford to fish in half the talent pool in today's intensely competitive world."

In total, the commission identified 33,000 of the country's most influential jobs in the private sector, politics, the legal system and the public sector. To achieve a representative proportion, 6,000 more of those jobs would have to be filled by women, it said.

At the current rate of improvement it would take 20 years to achieve equality in the civil service, 40 years in the judiciary and 60 years among FTSE 100 companies. But it would take 200 years - at least another 40 elections - to achieve an equal number of MPs in parliament. The proportion in the Scottish assembly is nearly 40% and in Wales the figure is 51.7%. The EOC said it was an argument for parties to use all-women shortlists, as in Wales.

But figures for women from ethnic minorities are worse. There are only two black women MPs, four non-white top 100 FTSE directors and nine top civil servants from ethnic minority backgrounds.

"Ethnic minority women are still largely invisible in public life and this has to change if we want our communities to thrive," the report says.

The research suggests that women are experiencing the same barriers to getting the jobs they want as women in lower paid jobs. The pay gap between men and women is 3.7% in their 20s, rising to 10.7% for thirtysomethings, a change which is largely attributed to the impact of childbirth on women's earnings. The same is not true for men who become fathers.

Female workers in the UK suffer one of the biggest pay gaps in Europe - 17% for full-time staff and 38% for part-time - because they are more likely to be in low-paid jobs and then slip further down the career ladder after having children, the Women and Work Commission found last year.

Ms Watson said that women were getting higher up the career ladder but having children still prevented them from getting the top jobs.

"Asking for flexible working still spells career death for too many women in today's workplace, and as a consequence women with caring responsibilities all too often have to 'trade down' to keep working. Extending the right to ask for flexible working to everyone in the workplace would change that culture and enable more women to reach the top," she said.

Katherine Rake, director of the Fawcett Society, which campaigns for equal rights, said: "This demonstrates how much of a male preserve power remains in the UK. If decisions are only being taken by one group of the population they will not reflect the lives of ordinary people. It proves beyond a doubt that life at the top is white and male."

The annual report is the last from the EOC, which is due to be amalgamated with the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission from next year into a new body called the Commission for Equality and Human Rights.

There have been concerns that the women's rights agenda could be sidelined in the new body, which will be headed by Trevor Phillips, current chair of the CRE.

"There is so much more to be done. This demonstrates that we haven't solved the problem of sex discrimination," said Ms Watson.

Six thousand women missing from boardrooms, politics and courts,










Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia


men, women,

gender identity,

glass ceiling, feminism,


gay / LGBTQ rights,

human connection,



dating, love, sex,

marriage, divorce






violence against women worldwide






Related > Anglonautes > History


United Kingdom > Early 20th century > Suffragettes




home Up