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Vocapedia > Health > Microbes > Bacteria, bugs, germs, viruses, pathogens, antibodies

 

 

 

 

A Short History Of Humans And Germs: The Golden Age Of Germs | Goats & Soda        Video        NPR        8 February 2017

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bsqLmwAq-w

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is the difference between bacteria and viruses?        12 September 2012

 

 

 

 

Bacteria and viruses

- What is the difference between bacteria and viruses?

Healthchanneltv / cherishyourhealthtv        12 September 2012

 

In this animation,

the differences between bacteria and viruses

are explained.

 

How does a bacterium or virus enter the body?

 

And what are typical complaints

of a viral or bacterial infection?

 

Finally, the different treatments

for bacterial and viral infections are mentioned.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-HThHRV4uo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bill Gates        Pandemic        TED        3 April 2015

 

 

 

 

Bill Gates: La prochaine épidémie ? Nous ne sommes pas pręts        Video        TED        3 April 2015

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Af6b_wyiwI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body        NPR        23 October 2009

 

 

 

 

Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body        Video        NPR        23 October 2009

 

When you get the flu,

viruses turn your cells into tiny factories

that help spread the disease.

 

In this animation,

NPR's Robert Krulwich

and medical animator David Bolinsky

explain how a flu virus can trick a single cell

into making a million more viruses.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

microbes        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/10/
opinion/sunday/microbes-a-love-story.html

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=mTzHxNMK0bU&list=UUqnbDFdCpuN8CMEg0VuEBqA

 

http://judson.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/21/
microbes-r-us/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/05/09/
science/clues-to-fiery-origin-of-life-sought-in-hothouse-microbes.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

microbe hunters        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/30/
science/30microbe.html

 

 

 

 

 

microbiologist        USA

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/10/
opinion/sunday/microbes-a-love-story.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

germs

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/07/16/
537075018/dirt-is-good-why-kids-need-exposure-to-germs

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/07/
us-bacteria-superbugs-india-idUSTRE7357W920110407

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virus, viruses > explainers        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/24/
science/viruses-coranavirus-biology.html    *****

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/audio/2020/mar/24/
covid-19-how-long-can-it-survive-outside-the-body

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virus, viruses        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/24/
science/viruses-coranavirus-biology.html    *****

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/audio/2020/mar/24/
covid-19-how-long-can-it-survive-outside-the-body

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/05/22/
723582726/scientists-modify-viruses-with-crispr-to-create-new-weapon-against-superbugs

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/11/13/
667377572/mysterious-paralyzing-condition-continues-to-increase-cdc-says

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/11/01/
655844287/merck-pulls-out-of-agreement-to-supply-life-saving-vaccine-to-millions-of-kids

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2018/10/31/
415535913/how-yellow-fever-turned-new-orleans-into-the-city-of-the-dead

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/03/06/
591241255/what-you-might-not-realize-about-the-benefits-of-hand-washing

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/23/
well/can-being-cold-make-you-sick.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/11/16/
564357363/monkeypox-on-the-rise-how-worried-should-we-be

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/09/20/
552118635/a-neglected-family-of-killer-viruses

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/06/21/
533702513/spillover-beasts-which-animals-pose-the-biggest-viral-risk

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/04/06/
522478901/in-giant-virus-genes-hints-about-their-mysterious-origin

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/21/
508060742/the-next-pandemic-could-be-dripping-on-your-head

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/14/
511227050/why-killer-viruses-are-on-the-rise

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/07/
512634375/map-find-out-what-new-viruses-are-emerging-in-your-backyard

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/10/31/
500067773/burning-inferno-question-how-fast-can-a-deadly-virus-spread

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/08/29/
491837419/your-guts-gone-viral-and-that-might-be-good-for-your-health

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/08/25/
491261766/new-virus-breaks-the-rules-of-infection

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/
100000004185544/understanding-zika-virus.html - Feb. 3, 2016

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/29/
health/zika-virus-spreading-explosively-in-americas-who-says.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/02/25/
282432444/overlooked-virus-may-be-cause-of-paralyzing-disease-in-california

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/18/
science/changing-view-on-viruses-not-so-small-after-all.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/19/us/
unpredictability-in-dallas-west-nile-virus-outbreak.html

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
Rpj0emEGShQ
Video - NPR - 23 October 2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

be exposed to the pathogen        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/07/
health/coronavirus-antibody-prevalence.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

carry antibodies        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/07/
health/coronavirus-antibody-prevalence.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

rotavirus

 

https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/estimates/
rotavirus/en/

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/11/01/
655844287/merck-pulls-out-of-agreement-to-supply-life-saving-vaccine-to-millions-of-kids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keystone virus        USA

 

 the Keystone virus (...)

is carried by the Aedes atlanticus mosquito,

a cousin to the Zika-spreading Aedes aegypti.

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/21/
622402387/keystone-virus-makes-jump-from-mosquitoes-to-human-for-first-time

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/21/
622402387/keystone-virus-makes-jump-from-mosquitoes-to-human-for-first-time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herpes viruses        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/06/21/
621908340/researchers-find-herpes-viruses-in-brains-marked-by-alzheimers-disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norovirus        USA

 

Norovirus is responsible

for roughly 1 in 5 cases worldwide

of acute gastroenteritis.

 

The symptoms are pretty horrible:

nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

 

And it's very, very, very contagious.

 

It takes only one particle

to infect a human,

compared to roughly

50 to 100 particles of flu virus.

 

In countries

with good health-care systems,

a norovirus victim

will have about three days of misery

but likely recover.

 

But for young children and the elderly,

especially in developing countries,

the prognosis can be grim.

 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

estimate that 50,000 children a year,

under age 5, die from norovirus,

mainly in lower income countries.

 

The virus is particularly effective

at finding victims in crowded places:

hospitals, schools ... . and cruise ships,

where everybody is living, eating

and sharing activities

in the same spaces.

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/03/06/
591241255/what-you-might-not-realize-about-the-benefits-of-hand-washing

 

 

 

 

mosquito-borne virus > dengue / breakbone fever        USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/05/03/7
19037789/botched-vaccine-launch-has-deadly-repercussions

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/11/02/
561138767/scientists-solve-50-year-old-mystery-about-breakbone-fever

 

 

 

 

virus > Lassa fever        USA

 

"The most likely route of transmission

continues to be spillover of viruses

from the rodent reservoir to humans

rather than extensive human-to-human transmission,"

the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

said in a report last week.

 

"Spillover" in non-scientific terms

looks like this.

 

Rats carrying the Lassa virus

scurry into people's houses,

munch on their grain and pee

all over the place

including the grain.

 

Then people eat the grain and get sick.

 

Lassa, named for the town in Nigeria

where it was first discovered in 1969,

is a hemorrhagic fever, like Ebola.

 

Some people who get infected

have few or no symptoms.

 

Others get what appears

to be a mild flu or malaria.

 

Severe cases can lead to renal failure,

deafness and, for pregnant women,

spontaneous abortion.

 

While Lassa can be deadly,

it has a lower fatality rate than Ebola.

More than half of confirmed Ebola patients die

versus roughly 20 percent of people with Lassa.

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/03/19/
587603462/nigeria-faces-mystiifying-spike-in-deadly-lassa-fever

 

 

 

 

killer viruses        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/09/20/
552118635/a-neglected-family-of-killer-viruses

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/03/26/
521362938/quiz-how-much-do-you-know-about-global-pandemics-and-killer-viruses

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/14/
511227050/why-killer-viruses-are-on-the-rise

 

 

 

 

virus genes        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/04/06/
522478901/in-giant-virus-genes-hints-about-their-mysterious-origin

 

 

 

 

animals > viral risk        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/06/21/
533702513/spillover-beasts-which-animals-pose-the-biggest-viral-risk

 

 

 

 

benefits of hand-washing        USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/03/06/
591241255/what-you-might-not-realize-about-the-benefits-of-hand-washing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

monkeypox        USA

 

It causes a fever, and a rash,

which can turn into painful, fluid-filled blisters

on the face, hands and feet.

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/11/16/
564357363/monkeypox-on-the-rise-how-worried-should-we-be

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/11/16/
564357363/monkeypox-on-the-rise-how-worried-should-we-be

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

varicella zoster virus > shingles > vaccine    UK / USA

 

Shingles,

also known as herpes zoster,

is an infection of a nerve

and the skin around it.

 

It is caused

by the varicella-zoster virus,

which also causes chickenpox.

 

Shingles usually affects

a specific area on one side of the body

and does not cross

over the midline of the body

(an imaginary line

running from between your eyes

down past the belly button).

 

The main symptom is a painful rash

that develops into itchy blisters

that contain particles of the virus.

 

An episode of shingles

typically lasts around two to four weeks,

although around one in five people

go on to develop nerve pain

called postherpetic neuralgia

in the affected area of skin.

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/shingles/Pages/Introduction.aspx

 

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/shingles/Pages/Introduction.aspx

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/20/
594956495/shingles-is-nasty-and-the-new-vaccine-works-well-why-do-adults-avoid-shots

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/07/13/
421570746/engineering-a-shingles-vaccine-that-doesnt-wimp-out-over-time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nipah virus        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/01/
622618912/india-beat-one-of-the-worlds-deadliest-viruses-and-made-a-music-video-about-it

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/04/
health/nipah-virus-india-vaccine-epidemic.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

herpes        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/01/22/
463845334/a-common-secret-struggling-with-the-stigma-of-herpes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

respiratory viruses        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/09/08/
645255357/where-are-the-most-viruses-in-an-airport-hint-its-probably-not-the-toilet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

killer bug > Middle East Respiratory Syndrome  coronavirus    MERS        UK / USA

 

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/index.html 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/may/11/
worry-about-catching-mers-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/05/02/
309038651/mers-virus-comes-to-us-but-risk-to-public-is-deemed-low

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

measles        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/11/30/
672196220/amid-spike-in-measles-cases-health-officials-warn-of-losing-decades-of-progress

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe > measles        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/02/20/
587350782/europe-saw-4-fold-increase-in-measles-cases-in-2017

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/04/07/
522867040/as-measles-surges-in-europe-officials-brace-for-a-rough-year

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/02/03/
383305152/beyond-rash-and-fever-how-measles-can-kill

 

 

 

 

infectious diseases > measles outbreak        USA        March 16, 2014

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/
measles-outbreak-sparks-fear-resurgent-diseases/

 

 

 

 

measles vaccine        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/05/07/
404963436/scientists-crack-a-50-year-old-mystery-about-the-measles-vaccine

 

 

 

 

measles and whooping cough        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/01/25/
265750719/how-vaccine-fears-fueled-the-resurgence-of-preventable-diseases

 

 

 

 

German measles / rubella

causes only a mild illness in children,

with a rash and sometimes a fever.

 

But when pregnant women catch rubella,

their babies can develop serious birth defects,

like heart problems, blindness

and learning disabilities.

 

The virus can also trigger miscarriages

early in a pregnancy.        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

In the 1964-1965 rubella pandemic,

an estimated 50,000 pregnant women

in the United States

were exposed to rubella in pregnancy,

resulting in miscarriages, stillbirths,

and 20,000 babies born

with congenital rubella syndrome,

which caused blindness, deafness,

brain and heart damage.

 

At the height of the pandemic,

an estimated 1 out of every 100 babies

born in Philadelphia was afflicted.

 

A vaccine for rubella

was introduced in the 1970s,

so parents no longer

have to live in fear.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/12/
well/family/veterans-day-war-brooklyn-measles-outbreak-mumps-immunizations.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/02/20/
587350782/europe-saw-4-fold-increase-in-measles-cases-in-2017

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/01/30/
464899067/before-zika-virus-rubella-was-a-pregnant-womans-nightmare

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

 

 

wipe out        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

 

 

yellow fever        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/aug/16/
fears-of-global-yellow-fever-epidemic-grow-as-vaccine-stocks-dwindle

 

 

 

 

yellow fever        USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2018/10/31/
415535913/how-yellow-fever-turned-new-orleans-into-the-city-of-the-dead

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ticks > virus > Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

 

In a large swath of the world,

animals, including cows, sheep and goats,

can carry a nasty virus:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

 

They get it from ticks.

The animals don't show symptoms,

but if a person gets the virus

it can make them really sick,

with a headache, fever,

severe bruising and bleeding.

 

Up to a third of patients die,

usually within two weeks.

 

There's no vaccine for people or animals,

and although an antiviral medication

has shown promise in studies,

the only proven treatment

is supportive care.

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/09/11/
493126228/why-afghanistan-is-worried-about-the-meaty-feasts-of-eid-al-adha

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/07/13/
536848110/how-did-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-pop-up-in-spain

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/09/11/
493126228/why-afghanistan-is-worried-about-the-meaty-feasts-of-eid-al-adha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cancer > causes        2013-2014

 

Cancers have many causes.

 

One is simply the process of ageing,

which gives more time for mutations to occur,

and this explains why

cancer risk increases with age.

 

In addition, some cancers occur

from inheriting unlucky gene

that interfere with your cells' ability

to repair mutations or to stop replicating.

 

Another common and widespread

set of causes for cancer

includes toxins, radiation

and other environmental agents

that provoke potentially

carcinogenic mutations.

 

A few cancers

are caused by viruses.

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/sep/22/
how-western-affluence-gives-cancer

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jan/08/
higher-breast-cancer-white-women-alcohol-breastfeeding-birth-rate

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/sep/22/
how-western-affluence-gives-cancer

 

 

 

 

human papillomavirus    HPV

 

the cause of most cervical cancer        UK / USA

https://www.theguardian.com/society/hpv-vaccine

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jul/19/
hpv-vaccine-anger-decision-not-extend-nhs-scheme-boys-cancer

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/02/01/
465160937/cdc-endorses-a-more-effective-hpv-vaccine-to-prevent-cancer

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/02/03/
271074253/hpv-vaccine-doesnt-promote-riskier-sexual-behavior-in-teens

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/11/07/
243731105/doctors-slow-to-embrace-recommended-hpv-testing

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/11/07/
243731105/doctors-slow-to-embrace-recommended-hpv-testing

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/19/
health/hpv-vaccine-found-to-help-with-cancers-of-throat.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2013/jun/04/
hpv-vaccine-health-michael-douglas

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/04/
health/throat-cancer-link-to-oral-sex-gains-credence.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2013/jun/02/
michael-douglas-oral-sex-cancer-facts

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/oct/17/
oral-sex-cancer-documentary-jaime-winstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New coronavirus – Q&A        2013

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2013/may/13/
new-coronavirus-mers-cov

 

 

 

 

meningitis        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/12/12/
250417012/why-meningitis-that-hit-princeton-
is-hard-to-beat-with-vaccines

 

 

 

 

viral diseases > polio, hepatitis and mononucleosis        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/26/
education/26mccollum.html

 

 

 

 

strain        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/apr/14/
health.science 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

spread        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/04/
health/nipah-virus-india-vaccine-epidemic.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/10/31/
500067773/burning-inferno-question-how-fast-can-a-deadly-virus-spread

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/05/02/
309038651/mers-virus-comes-to-us-but-risk-to-public-is-deemed-low

 

 

 

 

carry the disease

 

 

 

 

the spread of the virus

 

 

 

 

gradual spread        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/02/05/
464442791/mapping-zika-from-a-monkey-in-uganda-to-a-growing-global-concern

 

 

 

 

contagion        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/16/
opinion/contagion-puts-a-focus-on-infectious-diseases.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/12/
opinion/the-real-threat-of-contagion.html

 

 

 

 

epidemic        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/23/
eye-watering-scale-of-black-deaths-impact-on-england-revealed

 

 

 

 

epidemic > Black Death        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/23/
eye-watering-scale-of-black-deaths-impact-on-england-revealed

 

 

 

 

pandemic        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/03/26/
521362938/quiz-how-much-do-you-know-about-global-pandemics-and-killer-viruses

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/03/17/
520156465/-curiousgoat-how-to-prepare-for-a-pandemic

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/21/
508060742/the-next-pandemic-could-be-dripping-on-your-head

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/14/
514508101/what-do-you-want-to-know-about-pandemics-submit-a-question

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/01/13/
462950704/stinging-report-on-pandemics-makes-louis-pasteur-look-like-a-prophet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virologist        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/24/
science/viruses-coranavirus-biology.html    *****

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virologist > Robert Merritt Chanock        USA        1924-2010

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/05/
health/05chanock.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

infectious diseases        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/16/
opinion/contagion-puts-a-focus-on-infectious-diseases.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hyperinfectious disease world        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/02/07/
512634375/map-find-out-what-new-viruses-are-emerging-in-your-backyard

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

be tested for N

 

 

 

 

be treated with N

 

 

 

 

take the utmost precautions and preparations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virologist        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/21/us/
hilary-koprowski-developed-live-virus-polio-vaccine-dies-at-96.html

 

 

 

 

James Joseph Rahal        USA        1933-2011

 

infectious-disease specialist

who raised early alarms

about the rise of drug-resistant

bacteria in hospitals,

and who emerged as a leading expert

in the treatment of West Nile virus

after the Queens community where he worked

became the epicenter of a deadly outbreak

in 1999

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/15/nyregion/
dr-james-rahal-infectious-disease-expert-dies-at-77.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andy Singer

No Exit

Cagle / Politicalcartoons.com

18 December 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Real Threat of ‘Contagion’

 

September 11, 2011

The New York Times

By W. IAN LIPKIN

 

I ADMIT I was wary when I was approached, late in 2008, about working on a movie with the director Steven Soderbergh about a flulike pandemic. It seemed that every few years a filmmaker imagined a world in which a virus transformed humans into flesh-eating zombies, or scientists discovered and delivered the cure for a lethal infectious disease in an impossibly short period of time.

Moviegoers might find fantasies like these entertaining, but for a microbe hunter like me, who spends his days trying to identify the viruses that cause dangerous diseases, the truth about the potential of global outbreaks is gripping enough.

Then I discovered that Mr. Soderbergh and the screenwriter on the project, Scott Z. Burns, agreed with me. They were determined to make a movie — “Contagion,” which opened this weekend — that didn’t distort reality but did convey the risks that we all face from emerging infectious diseases.

Those risks are very real — and are increasing drastically. More than three-quarters of all emerging infectious diseases originate when microbes jump from wildlife to humans. Our vulnerability to such diseases has been heightened by the growth in international travel and the globalization of food production. In addition, deforestation and urbanization continue to displace wildlife, increasing the probability that wild creatures will come in contact with domesticated animals and humans.

When I was a kid, the launching of Sputnik made us aware that the United States was falling behind the Soviet Union in the race for space. Now all of us are in a battle that is potentially devastating, only it is not against another country, but against microbes. Could a movie like “Contagion” be an effective vehicle for sounding the alarm?

In the hope that it would, I signed on as a paid technical consultant on the film. The first order of business was a casting call for the virus itself. Together with my team at the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, I devised the imaginary virus that wreaks havoc in the film. We used as our inspiration the Nipah virus, which in Malaysia in the late 1990s jumped from bats to pigs to humans, causing respiratory disease and encephalitis and resulting in more than 100 deaths before it was contained by quarantine.

My team built a 3-D model of our virus and then worked out how it would spread and evolve, how it would be discovered, how the public health and medical communities and governments would respond regionally and internationally, how vaccines would be developed and distributed. In the film, it takes the lives of millions of people.

Is this fiction? Yes. Is it real? Absolutely. During the SARS outbreak of 2003, the first pandemic of the 21st century, I flew to Beijing at the invitation of the Chinese government to help address the situation there. My memories of deserted streets, food and supply shortages, and political instability are reflected in scenes in “Contagion.” I hope the public and our lawmakers will see the movie as a cautionary tale. Pandemics have happened before. And they will happen again.

What can we do to prepare ourselves? A presidential directive in 2007 led to the establishment of the National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee, at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to assess our biosurveillance capabilities and make recommendations for improving detection, prevention and management of biohazards. The subcommittee, which includes representatives from federal, state and local agencies, academia and industry (and on which I serve as co-chairman), has issued reports that provide a road map for steps we have to take to protect our future.

First, we need to recognize that our public health system is underfinanced and overwhelmed. We must invest in sensitive, inexpensive diagnostic tests and better ways of manufacturing and distributing drugs and vaccines. Although new technology now allows us to design many vaccines in days, manufacturing strategies for influenza vaccines have not changed in decades. Some experts will say that the time frame within which “Contagion” introduces the film’s MEV-1 vaccine is unrealistically short; however, it need not be so. We can and must reduce the several months required to create and test a vaccine before beginning large-scale production and distribution.

Second, more and better coordination is needed among many local, federal and international agencies. Joint effort is required to monitor human, animal and environmental health, optimize electronic health records, mine nontraditional data sources like the Internet for early signs of outbreaks and invest in a state-of-the-art work force.

“Contagion” makes the case that scientists and public health professionals who put themselves on the line to fight infectious diseases are heroes. I hope that, like Sputnik, it will inspire young people to pursue these careers and help the rest of the country understand the importance of these efforts. It is what the world urgently needs.

 

W. Ian Lipkin is a professor of epidemiology

and a professor of neurology and pathology

at Columbia University.

The Real Threat of ‘Contagion’,
NYT,
11.9.2011,
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/12/
opinion/the-real-threat-of-contagion.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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