Health > Microbes > Bacteria, bugs,
germs, viruses, pathogens, antibodies
A Short History Of Humans And Germs: The Golden Age Of Germs |
Goats & Soda Video NPR
8 February 2017
What is the difference between bacteria
and viruses? 12 September 2012
Bacteria and viruses
- What is the difference between bacteria
cherishyourhealthtv 12 September 2012
In this animation,
the differences between bacteria and viruses
How does a bacterium or virus enter the body?
And what are typical complaints
of a viral or bacterial
Finally, the different treatments
for bacterial and viral
infections are mentioned.
3 April 2015
Bill Gates: La prochaine épidémie ? Nous ne sommes pas pręts
TED 3 April 2015
Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body
NPR 23 October 2009
Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body
NPR 23 October 2009
When you get the flu,
viruses turn your cells into tiny factories
that help spread
In this animation,
NPR's Robert Krulwich
and medical animator David Bolinsky
explain how a flu virus can trick a single cell
into making a
million more viruses.
virus, viruses > explainers USA
virus, viruses USA
100000004185544/understanding-zika-virus.html - Feb. 3, 2016
Video - NPR - 23 October 2009
be exposed to the pathogen
Keystone virus USA
the Keystone virus (...)
is carried by the Aedes atlanticus mosquito,
a cousin to the Zika-spreading Aedes aegypti.
Herpes viruses USA
Norovirus is responsible
for roughly 1 in 5 cases worldwide
of acute gastroenteritis.
The symptoms are pretty horrible:
nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
And it's very, very, very contagious.
It takes only one particle
to infect a human,
compared to roughly
50 to 100 particles of flu virus.
with good health-care systems,
a norovirus victim
will have about three days of misery
but likely recover.
But for young children and the elderly,
especially in developing countries,
the prognosis can be grim.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimate that 50,000 children a year,
under age 5, die from norovirus,
mainly in lower income countries.
The virus is particularly effective
at finding victims in crowded places:
hospitals, schools ... . and cruise ships,
where everybody is living, eating
and sharing activities
in the same spaces.
mosquito-borne virus > dengue / breakbone fever
virus > Lassa fever USA
"The most likely route of transmission
continues to be spillover of viruses
from the rodent reservoir to humans
rather than extensive human-to-human transmission,"
the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)
said in a report last week.
"Spillover" in non-scientific terms
looks like this.
Rats carrying the Lassa virus
scurry into people's houses,
munch on their grain and pee
all over the place
including the grain.
Then people eat the grain and get sick.
Lassa, named for the town in Nigeria
where it was first discovered in 1969,
is a hemorrhagic fever, like Ebola.
Some people who get infected
have few or no symptoms.
Others get what appears
to be a mild flu or malaria.
Severe cases can lead to renal failure,
deafness and, for pregnant women,
While Lassa can be deadly,
it has a lower fatality rate than Ebola.
More than half of confirmed Ebola patients die
versus roughly 20 percent of people with Lassa.
killer viruses USA
virus genes USA
animals > viral risk
benefits of hand-washing
It causes a fever, and a rash,
which can turn into painful, fluid-filled blisters
on the face, hands and feet.
varicella zoster virus > shingles > vaccine UK / USA
also known as herpes zoster,
is an infection of a nerve
and the skin around it.
It is caused
by the varicella-zoster virus,
which also causes chickenpox.
Shingles usually affects
a specific area on one side of the body
and does not cross
over the midline of the body
(an imaginary line
running from between your eyes
down past the belly button).
The main symptom is a painful rash
that develops into itchy blisters
that contain particles of the
An episode of shingles
typically lasts around two to four weeks,
although around one in five people
go on to develop nerve pain
called postherpetic neuralgia
in the affected area of skin.
Nipah virus USA
respiratory viruses USA
killer bug > Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
coronavirus MERS UK
Europe > measles USA
infectious diseases > measles outbreak
USA March 16, 2014
measles vaccine USA
measles and whooping cough
German measles / rubella
causes only a mild illness in children,
with a rash and sometimes a fever.
But when pregnant women catch rubella,
their babies can develop serious birth defects,
like heart problems, blindness
and learning disabilities.
The virus can also trigger miscarriages
early in a pregnancy.
In the 1964-1965 rubella pandemic,
an estimated 50,000 pregnant women
in the United States
were exposed to rubella in pregnancy,
resulting in miscarriages, stillbirths,
and 20,000 babies born
with congenital rubella syndrome,
which caused blindness, deafness,
brain and heart damage.
At the height of the pandemic,
an estimated 1 out of every 100 babies
born in Philadelphia was afflicted.
A vaccine for rubella
was introduced in the 1970s,
so parents no longer
have to live in fear.
yellow fever UK
yellow fever USA
ticks > virus > Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
In a large swath of the world,
animals, including cows, sheep and goats,
can carry a nasty virus:
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.
They get it from ticks.
The animals don't show symptoms,
but if a person gets the virus
it can make them really sick,
with a headache, fever,
severe bruising and bleeding.
Up to a third of patients die,
usually within two weeks.
There's no vaccine for people or animals,
and although an antiviral medication
has shown promise in studies,
the only proven treatment
is supportive care.
cancer > causes 2013-2014
Cancers have many causes.
One is simply the process of ageing,
which gives more time for mutations to occur,
and this explains why
cancer risk increases with age.
In addition, some cancers occur
from inheriting unlucky gene
that interfere with your cells' ability
to repair mutations or to
Another common and widespread
set of causes for cancer
includes toxins, radiation
and other environmental agents
that provoke potentially
A few cancers
are caused by viruses.
human papillomavirus HPV
the cause of most cervical cancer
UK / USA
New coronavirus – Q&A
viral diseases > polio, hepatitis and mononucleosis
the spread of the virus
gradual spread USA
Black Death UK
virologist > Robert Merritt Chanock
hyperinfectious disease world USA
utmost precautions and preparations
James Joseph Rahal
who raised early alarms
about the rise of drug-resistant
bacteria in hospitals,
and who emerged as a leading expert
in the treatment of West Nile virus
after the Queens community where he worked
became the epicenter of a deadly outbreak
Cagle / Politicalcartoons.com
18 December 2006
The Real Threat of ‘Contagion’
September 11, 2011
The New York Times
By W. IAN LIPKIN
I ADMIT I was wary when I was
approached, late in 2008, about working on a movie with the director Steven
Soderbergh about a flulike pandemic. It seemed that every few years a filmmaker
imagined a world in which a virus transformed humans into flesh-eating zombies,
or scientists discovered and delivered the cure for a lethal infectious disease
in an impossibly short period of time.
Moviegoers might find fantasies like these entertaining, but for a microbe
hunter like me, who spends his days trying to identify the viruses that cause
dangerous diseases, the truth about the potential of global outbreaks is
Then I discovered that Mr. Soderbergh and the screenwriter on the project, Scott
Z. Burns, agreed with me. They were determined to make a movie — “Contagion,”
which opened this weekend — that didn’t distort reality but did convey the risks
that we all face from emerging infectious diseases.
Those risks are very real — and are increasing drastically. More than
three-quarters of all emerging infectious diseases originate when microbes jump
from wildlife to humans. Our vulnerability to such diseases has been heightened
by the growth in international travel and the globalization of food production.
In addition, deforestation and urbanization continue to displace wildlife,
increasing the probability that wild creatures will come in contact with
domesticated animals and humans.
When I was a kid, the launching of Sputnik made us aware that the United States
was falling behind the Soviet Union in the race for space. Now all of us are in
a battle that is potentially devastating, only it is not against another
country, but against microbes. Could a movie like “Contagion” be an effective
vehicle for sounding the alarm?
In the hope that it would, I signed on as a paid technical consultant on the
film. The first order of business was a casting call for the virus itself.
Together with my team at the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia
University’s Mailman School of Public Health, I devised the imaginary virus that
wreaks havoc in the film. We used as our inspiration the Nipah virus, which in
Malaysia in the late 1990s jumped from bats to pigs to humans, causing
respiratory disease and encephalitis and resulting in more than 100 deaths
before it was contained by quarantine.
My team built a 3-D model of our virus and then worked out how it would spread
and evolve, how it would be discovered, how the public health and medical
communities and governments would respond regionally and internationally, how
vaccines would be developed and distributed. In the film, it takes the lives of
millions of people.
Is this fiction? Yes. Is it real? Absolutely. During the SARS outbreak of 2003,
the first pandemic of the 21st century, I flew to Beijing at the invitation of
the Chinese government to help address the situation there. My memories of
deserted streets, food and supply shortages, and political instability are
reflected in scenes in “Contagion.” I hope the public and our lawmakers will see
the movie as a cautionary tale. Pandemics have happened before. And they will
What can we do to prepare ourselves? A presidential directive in 2007 led to the
establishment of the National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee, at the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to assess our biosurveillance
capabilities and make recommendations for improving detection, prevention and
management of biohazards. The subcommittee, which includes representatives from
federal, state and local agencies, academia and industry (and on which I serve
as co-chairman), has issued reports that provide a road map for steps we have to
take to protect our future.
First, we need to recognize that our public health system is underfinanced and
overwhelmed. We must invest in sensitive, inexpensive diagnostic tests and
better ways of manufacturing and distributing drugs and vaccines. Although new
technology now allows us to design many vaccines in days, manufacturing
strategies for influenza vaccines have not changed in decades. Some experts will
say that the time frame within which “Contagion” introduces the film’s MEV-1
vaccine is unrealistically short; however, it need not be so. We can and must
reduce the several months required to create and test a vaccine before beginning
large-scale production and distribution.
Second, more and better coordination is needed among many local, federal and
international agencies. Joint effort is required to monitor human, animal and
environmental health, optimize electronic health records, mine nontraditional
data sources like the Internet for early signs of outbreaks and invest in a
state-of-the-art work force.
“Contagion” makes the case that scientists and public health professionals who
put themselves on the line to fight infectious diseases are heroes. I hope that,
like Sputnik, it will inspire young people to pursue these careers and help the
rest of the country understand the importance of these efforts. It is what the
world urgently needs.
W. Ian Lipkin is a professor of
and a professor of neurology and pathology
at Columbia University.
The Real Threat of ‘Contagion’,
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