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Vocapedia > Health > Microbes, Pathogens, Bugs, Superbugs > Bacteria

 

 

 

 

Bacteria and viruses - What is the difference between bacteria and viruses?        Video        Healthchanneltv / cherishyourhealthtv        12 September 2012

 

In this animation,

the differences between bacteria and viruses

are explained.

 

How does a bacterium or virus

enter the body?

 

And what are typical complaints

of a viral or bacterial infection?

 

Finally, the different treatment

 for bacterial and viral infections

are mentioned.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-HThHRV4uo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bill Gates        Pandemic        TED        3 April 2015

 

 

 

 

Bill Gates: La prochaine épidémie ? Nous ne sommes pas prêts        Video        TED        3 April 2015

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Af6b_wyiwI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

germs

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/07/
us-bacteria-superbugs-india-idUSTRE7357W920110407

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bacterium        UK

 

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Whooping-cough/Pages/Symptoms.aspx

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bacterium        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/02/08/
466032063/scientists-discover-a-second-bacterium-that-causes-lyme-disease

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/05/
health/05chanock.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bacterium > MRSA

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2007/mar/13/
health.medicineandhealth2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bacterium causing melioidosis,

Burkholderia pseudomallei        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/01/11/
462416728/this-germ-can-live-decades-in-distilled-water-kill-humans-in-48-hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bacteria

 

The next time you look in a mirror,

think about this: In many ways

you're more microbe than human.

 

There are 10 times more cells

from microorganisms

like bacteria and fungi

in and on our bodies

than there are human cells.

 

Scientists increasingly think

that these microorganisms

have a huge influence

on our health.

 

Without them,

our bodies don't seem

to do as well.

 

We don't seem to be as healthy

and might actually get sick more often.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/11/01/
242361826/exploring-the-invisible-universe-that-lives-on-us-and-in-us

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/
science/bacteria-library-nctc.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/05/22/
723582726/scientists-modify-viruses-with-crispr-to-create-new-weapon-against-superbugs

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=OL8B1ZVLqSQ
video - NYT - April 8, 2019

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/10/
obituaries/stanley-falkow-who-saw-how-bacteria-cause-disease-dies-at-84.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/01/17/
578610222/strange-weather-triggered-bacteria-that-killed-200-000-endangered-antelope

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/09/11/
548926054/can-you-really-not-clean-your-kitchen-sponge

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/08/16/
543920822/probiotic-bacteria-could-protect-newborns-from-deadly-infection

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
479191841/building-an-antibiotic-to-kill-bad-microbes-while-sparing-good-ones

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/11/01/
242361826/exploring-the-invisible-universe-that-lives-on-us-and-in-us

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/apr/07/
antibiotic-resistance-bacteria

 

 

 

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-12-04
-chicken-bacteria_x.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

good and bad bacteria        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
479191841/building-an-antibiotic-to-kill-bad-microbes-while-sparing-good-ones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

probiotic bacteria        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/08/16/
543920822/probiotic-bacteria-could-protect-newborns-from-deadly-infection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bacterial infection        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/01/17/
510227493/a-superbug-that-resisted-26-antibiotics

 

 

 

 

common infections        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/01/17/
510227493/a-superbug-that-resisted-26-antibiotics

 

 

 

 

Helicobacter pylori bacteria > stomach cancer        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/09/
504853185/liver-cancer-is-becoming-a-top-killer-in-poor-countries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cholera        UK

 

Cholera is an infection

that can cause severe diarrhoea.

2 May 2020

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cholera/

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/05/06/
849996451/what-hamburgs-missteps-in-1892-cholera-outbreak-can-teach-us-about-covid-19-resp

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/04/
united-nations-un-haiti-cholera-letter-rights-monitors

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/may/01/
cholera-and-coronavirus-why-we-must-not-repeat-the-same-mistakes

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/oct/12/
yemen-cholera-outbreak-worst-in-history-1-million-cases-by-end-of-year

 

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2017/jul/12/
diarrhoea-vomiting-sudden-death-choleras-nasty-comeback

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

waterborne bacteria > cholera > infections        USA

 

Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness

caused by infection of the intestine

with the toxigenic bacterium

Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 or O139.

 

An estimated 2.9 million cases

and 95,000 deaths occur each year

around the world.

 

The infection is often mild

or without symptoms,

but can sometimes be severe.

 

Approximately

one in 10 (10%) infected persons

will have severe disease characterized

by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting,

and leg cramps.

 

In these people,

rapid loss of body fluids

leads to dehydration and shock.

 

Without treatment,

death can occur within hours.

2 May 2020

https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/index.html

 

 

 

Cholera causes

profuse diarrhea and vomiting,

which can lead to death by dehydration,

sometimes within a matter of hours.

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/05/28/410242929/
cholera-surges-in-haiti-as-rain-arrives-early

 

https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/index.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/11/04/
500664156/cholera-101-why-an-ancient-disease-keeps-on-haunting-us

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/18/
490468640/u-n-admits-role-in-haiti-cholera-outbreak-that-has-killed-thousands

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/05/28/
410242929/cholera-surges-in-haiti-as-rain-arrives-early

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bug        UK

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2006/sep/27/
mrsa.medicineandhealth  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stomach bug / vomiting virus        UK

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/jan/04/
health.nhs

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/jan/03/
health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

outbreak        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/08/18/
490492860/debate-continues-over-u-n-role-in-bringing-cholera-to-haiti

 

 

 

 

epidemic        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/18/
opinion/bill-gates-the-ebola-crisis-was-terrible-but-next-time-could-be-much-worse.html

 

 

 

 

cholera epidemic        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/20/world/americas/
un-struggles-to-stem-haiti-cholera-epidemic.html

 

 

 

 

 be infected        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/05/28/
410242929/cholera-surges-in-haiti-as-rain-arrives-early

 

 

 

 

avoid spreading infections        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/05/28/
410242929/cholera-surges-in-haiti-as-rain-arrives-early

 

 

 

 

be committed to eradicating cholera from N        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/05/28/
410242929/cholera-surges-in-haiti-as-rain-arrives-early

 

 

 

 

tuberculosis    TB

 

Tuberculosis (TB)

is a bacterial infection

spread through inhaling tiny droplets

from the coughs or sneezes

of an infected person.

 

It is a serious condition,

but can be cured

with proper treatment.

 

TB mainly affects the lungs.

 

However,

it can affect any part of the body,

including the glands,

bones and nervous system.

- last reviewed: 03/12/2014

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tuberculosis/pages/Introduction.aspx

 

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tuberculosis/pages/Introduction.aspx 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/09/
opinion/if-tuberculosis-spreads.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/23/
opinion/christmas-seals-and-mass-philanthropy.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/13/
health/13tuberculosis.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/nov/18/
john-crofton-obituary

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-05-29-
tb_N.htm

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-04-11-
tuberculosis-threat_N.htm

http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-03-21-
tuberculosis-prevention_N.htm

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/may/11/
politics.medicineandhealth

 

 

 

 

TB scare        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/may/11/
politics.medicineandhealth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treponema pallidum / Syphilis        USA

 

Syphilis

is a bacteria infection

that is most often spread

through sexual contact.

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/syphilis-primary/overview.html - broken URL

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/23/
sunday-review/coronavirus-contact-tracing.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/24/health/syphilis-std-united-states.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/06/10/
480643381/despite-rise-of-superbugs-syphilis-still-has-a-kryptonite

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
477653310/penicillin-shortage-could-be-a-problem-for-people-with-syphilis

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/
health/irwin-schatz-83-rare-critic-of-tuskegee-study-is-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

syphilis > penicillin        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/06/10/
480643381/despite-rise-of-superbugs-syphilis-still-has-a-kryptonite

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
477653310/penicillin-shortage-could-be-a-problem-for-people-with-syphilis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

syphillis > wipe out        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
477653310/penicillin-shortage-could-be-a-problem-for-people-with-syphilis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

phenoxymethylpenicillin

 

Phenoxymethylpenicillin is a type of penicillin.

It's an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections,

including ear, chest, throat and skin infections.

 

It can also be used to prevent infections

if you have sickle cell disease,

or if you have had chorea (a movement disorder),

rheumatic fever, or your spleen removed.

 

The medicine is only available on prescription.

 

It comes as tablets or as a liquid that you drink.

- 15 May 2020

https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/phenoxymethylpenicillin/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

meningitis        UK

 

Meningitis can be caused

by bacteria or a virus.

 

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/meningitis/causes/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Legionnaires' disease        USA

 

Legionnaires' disease

is a potentially life-threatening

form of pneumonia

caused by Legionella bacteria,

which can grow in water systems

such as water storage tanks or pipes.

 

The elderly and people

who have weakened immune systems

because they are sick

are especially at risk.

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/06/06/
531731438/plumbing-in-hospitals-and-nursing-homes-can-spread-legionnaires-disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

legionella bacteria        UK

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/30/
health.healthandwellbeing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is E. coli?

 

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

is a type of bacteria common

in human and animal intestines,

and forms part of the normal gut flora

(the bacteria that exist in the bowel).

 

There are a number

of different types of E. coli

and while the majority are harmless

some can cause serious food poisoning

and serious infection.

 

For example,

E. coli bacteria

are a common cause of cystitis,

an infection of the bladder

that occurs when there is a spread

of the bacteria from the gut

to the urinary system.

 

Women are more susceptible

to urinary tract infection by E. coli

because of the close proximity

of the urethra and the anus.

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2009/09September/
Pages/EcoliQA.aspx

 

 

 

 

E. coli bacteria        USA

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/e-coli  

 

 

 

 

E coli outbreak        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/may/10/
health.healthandwellbeing 

 

 

 

 

E coli infection        UK

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/sep/14/
e-coli-godstone-childrens-farm

 

 

 

 

E coli        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/03/
health/03beef.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/04/
health/04meat.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

whooping cough

 

The symptoms of whooping cough

usually take between six and 20 days

to appear after infection

with the Bordetella pertussis bacterium.

 

This delay is known

as the incubation period.

 

Whooping cough

tends to develop in stages,

with mild symptoms occurring first,

followed by a period

of more severe symptoms,

before improvement begins.

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Whooping-cough/Pages/Symptoms.aspx

 

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/whooping-cough/ 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/aug/31/
whooping-cough-jabs-newborns-outbreak

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salmonella Typhi bacteria > typhoid fever

 

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness

caused by Salmonella Typhi bacteria.

 

Paratyphoid fever is a life-threatening illness

caused by Salmonella Paratyphi bacteria.

 

(...)

 

These diseases are spread

through sewage contamination of food or water

and through person-to-person contact.

 

People who are currently ill

and people who have recovered

but are still passing the bacteria

in their poop (stools)

can spread Salmonella Typhi

or Salmonella Paratyphi.

https://www.cdc.gov/
typhoid-fever/sources.html - Aug. 22, 2018

 

 

https://www.cdc.gov/
typhoid-fever/sources.html - Aug. 22, 2018

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/06/23/
882115755/theres-something-about-mary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

be infected with gonorrhea        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/30/
491969011/u-n-health-officials-warn-gonorrhea-is-becoming-untreatable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

antibiotics        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/antibiotics

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/oct/23/
dont-ask-gps-for-antibiotics-new-health-campaign-urges

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/oct/13/
antibiotic-resistance-could-spell-end-of-modern-medicine-says-chief-medic

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/dec/30/
bill-gates-world-decade-risk-antibiotic-resistant-diseases

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/sep/20/
un-declaration-antibiotic-drug-resistance

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/may/26/
uk-doctors-told-to-halve-inappropriate-antibiotic-prescriptions-by-2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

antibiotics        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/05/14/
853984869/antibiotic-resistance-is-still-a-top-health-worry-its-a-pandemic-worry-too

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/02/
623962753/video-are-we-headed-toward-a-post-antibiotic-world

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/03/
science/h-boyd-woodruff-dead-antibiotics-researcher.html

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/01/17/
510227493/a-superbug-that-resisted-26-antibiotics

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/30/
491969011/u-n-health-officials-warn-gonorrhea-is-becoming-untreatable

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
479191841/building-an-antibiotic-to-kill-bad-microbes-while-sparing-good-ones

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/
opinion/how-to-develop-new-antibiotics.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

antibiotic treatment of the bacteria        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/09/
504853185/liver-cancer-is-becoming-a-top-killer-in-poor-countries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

antibiotic resistance        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/05/14/
853984869/antibiotic-resistance-is-still-a-top-health-worry-its-a-pandemic-worry-too

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)

discovers penicillin        1928

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/mar/03/
alexander-fleming-late-to-penicillin

 

https://www.npr.org/2017/03/02/
518197111/old-penicillin-mold-auctioned-for-more-than-14-000

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/03/01/
517979196/this-tiny-patch-of-mold-cost-one-lucky-buyer-nearly-15-000

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/23/
477653310/penicillin-shortage-could-be-a-problem-for-people-with-syphilis

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/mar/11/
antibiotics-drug-resistance-is-not-theoretical-threat-real-immediate

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2004/jan/08/
guardianobituaries.highereducation

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/the-h-word/2013/jun/17/
discover-new-antibiotics-historical-hints

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=128444970 - July 11, 2010

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=3616227&t=1586114823894 - July 25, 2004

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2004/may/02/
scienceandnature.highereducation1

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2013/mar/12/
penicillin-fleming-alexander-bacteriology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

microbiologist        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/03/
science/h-boyd-woodruff-dead-antibiotics-researcher.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virologist        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/21/us/
hilary-koprowski-developed-live-virus-polio-vaccine-dies-at-96.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

professor of infectious diseases medicine

at the University of N        USA

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/01/17/
510227493/a-superbug-that-resisted-26-antibiotics

 

 

 

 

 

James Joseph Rahal        USA        1933-2011

 

infectious-disease specialist

who raised early alarms

about the rise

of drug-resistant bacteria

in hospitals,

and who emerged

as a leading expert

in the treatment of West Nile virus

after the Queens community

where he worked

became the epicenter

of a deadly outbreak

in 1999

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/15/nyregion/
dr-james-rahal-infectious-disease-expert-dies-at-77.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1926

 

tetanus bacteria

and diptheria bacteria

 

vaccines

 

Diphtheria is a highly contagious

and potentially fatal infection

that can affect the nose and throat,

and sometimes the skin.

- April 30, 2020.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/diphtheria/

 

 

 

Tetanus is a serious

but rare condition

caused by bacteria

getting into a wound.

- April 30, 2020.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tetanus/

 

 

 

"Vaccines"

against diphtheria and tetanus,

comparable as prophylactics

with Jenner's

vaccine against smallpox,

have been discovered

at the Pasteur Institute here

by a French chemist,

M. G. Ramon.

 

They are harmless,

do not cause

the slightest reaction,

and confer an immunity

even more lasting

than that of calf-lymph

against small-pox.

 

It is suggested

that all infants

over twelve months' old

should henceforth go through

a second vaccination for diphtheria,

and that all soldiers on active service

should be vaccinated against tetanus,

as they are now against typhus.

- Wednesday 27 January 1926

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2009/jan/27/
tetanus-diptheria-vaccines-discovery

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2009/jan/27/
tetanus-diptheria-vaccines-discovery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andy Singer

No Exit

Cagle / Politicalcartoons.com

18 December 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vaccines        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/vaccines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

bacteria > superbugs > antibiotic-resistant superbugs

 

 

bacteria > Spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi > Lyme disease

 

 

bacteria > Mycobacterium tuberculosis > Tuberculosis (TB)

 

 

bacteria > Bacterium Yersinia pestis > Bubonic plague

 

 

body, health, medicine, drugs,

viruses, bacteria, diseases,

disability, health care / insurance

 

 

genetics

 

 

mental health / psychology

 

 

health, life, aging, death

 

 

USA > prescription opioid painkillers

 

 

lifestyle / health > smoking, alcohol, diet, obesity

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Science > Medicine > Microbiology > Penicillin, Antibiotics

 

Alexander Fleming    UK    1881-1955

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > England > 17th century

 

The Plague Year    1665-1666