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Vocapedia > Health > Microbes > Viruses > RNA Viruses > Infectious / contagious diseases > Ebola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebola Virus Outbreak 2014        NYT        Playlist

 

 

 

 

Ebola Virus Outbreak 2014        Video        Playlist        The New York Times

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CGYNsoW2iChy_z6LyrMMETAx3BslA4X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How does Ebola kill you?        G        22 October 2014

 

 

 

 

How does Ebola kill you?        Video        Guardian Animations        22 October 2014

 

How does Ebola spread and kill people?

The Ebola virus outbreak 2014

is the largest the world has ever seen,

with more than 4,500 confirmed deaths

in west Africa.

 

Patients are often killed not by the virus itself,

but by the overreaction of their immune system

to the infection.

 

Here, Ian Sample explains how Ebola is transmitted,

the organs it disrupts, the symptoms of infection

and the chances of survival

 

YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JcA4jTNuIo&list=PLa_1MA_DEorEhUu6kn-zvtvNNrEgtnAg6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An Ebola Q. and A.        NYT        4 October 2014

 

 

 

 

An Ebola Q. and A.        Video        Ask Well        The New York Times        4 October 2014

 

Donald G. McNeil Jr.

answers reader questions about the Ebola virus.

 

Produced by: Donald Mcneil Jr and Ashley Maas

Watch more videos at: http://nytimes.com/video

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Y-hq013vpyU&list=UUqnbDFdCpuN8CMEg0VuEBqA&index=6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beni, Democratic Republic of the Congo

 

An ebola victim is put to rest

at the Muslim cemetery in Beni.

 

More than 1,600 people

in eastern Congo have died

as the virus has spread

in areas too dangerous

for health teams to access.

 

Photograph:

Jérôme Delay/AP

 

The 20 photographs of the week

Black Lives Matter protests,

Tropical Storm Barry,

demonstrations in Puerto Rico

and the Tour de France

– the last seven days,

as captured by the world’s

best photojournalists.

The Guardian

Sat 20 Jul 2019    08.15 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/jul/20/
the-20-photographs-of-the-week

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eric Gweah, 25,

weeps as a burial team removes

the body of his 62-year-old father,

who died at home,

arms thrashing and blood

spewing from his mouth,

in front of his sons

after being turned away

at the treatment centers

in Monrovia, Liberia.

 

“The only thing the government can do

is come for bodies — they are killing us,”

Gweah said.

 

Sept. 18, 2014.

 

Photograph:

Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

 

Scenes From the Ebola Crisis Earn Photography Pulitzer

The New York Times

Apr. 20, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/20/
daniel-berehulak-the-ebola-crisis-earn-photography-pulitzer/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A girl nicknamed Sweetie Sweetie,

who lost both parents to Ebola

and is thought to be 4 years old,

at a care center

in Port Loco, Sierra Leone.

 

Dec. 6, 2014.

 

Photograph:

Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

 

Scenes From the Ebola Crisis Earn Photography Pulitzer

NYT

Apr. 20, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/20/
daniel-berehulak-the-ebola-crisis-earn-photography-pulitzer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health workers preparing

to enter a high-risk ward at an Ebola treatment center

in Monrovia, Liberia in 2014.

 

The outbreak led the Obama administration

to study U.S. preparedness for a pandemic.

 

Photograph:

Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

 

A Cascade of Warnings, Heard but Unheeded, Before Virus Outbreak

Government exercises, including one last year,

made clear that the U.S. was not ready

for a pandemic like the coronavirus.

But little was done.

NYT

March 19, 2020    Updated 11:47 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/19/
us/politics/trump-coronavirus-outbreak.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebola virus

 

Ebola virus disease (EVD),

formerly known

as Ebola haemorrhagic fever,

is a severe, often fatal illness

affecting humans and other primates.

 

The virus is transmitted to people

from wild animals

(such as fruit bats, porcupines

and non-human primates)

and then spreads in the human population

through direct contact

with the blood, secretions,

organs or other bodily fluids of infected people,

and with surfaces and materials

(e.g. bedding, clothing)

contaminated with these fluids.

 

The average EVD case fatality rate

is around 50%.

 

Case fatality rates

have varied from 25% to 90%

in past outbreaks.

 

The first EVD outbreaks occurred

in remote villages in Central Africa,

near tropical rainforests.

 

The 2014–2016 outbreak in West Africa

was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak

since the virus was first discovered in 1976.

 

There were more cases

and deaths in this outbreak

than all others combined.

 

It also spread between countries,

starting in Guinea

then moving across land borders

to Sierra Leone and Liberia.

 

It is thought that fruit bats

of the Pteropodidae family

are natural Ebola virus hosts.

- 14 April 2020

https://www.who.int/health-topics/ebola/#tab=tab_1

 

 

https://www.who.int/health-topics/ebola/#tab=tab_1

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Y-hq013vpyU&list=UUqnbDFdCpuN8CMEg0VuEBqA&index=6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebola virus disease

 

Ebola virus disease (EVD),

formerly known

as Ebola haemorrhagic fever,

is a severe, often fatal illness

in humans.

 

The virus is transmitted

to people from wild animals

and spreads in the human population

through human-to-human transmission.

- Updated January 2016

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/

 

 

 

(...) Ebola is more inimical to humans

than perhaps any known virus on Earth,

except rabies and HIV-1.

 

And it does its damage

much faster than either.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/10/
opinion/ebola-virus-a-grim-african-reality.html

 

 

 

Between 2013 and 2016,

the Ebola virus claimed

more than 11,000 lives

across West Africa.

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/04/25/
604966533/two-years-after-end-of-ebola-crisis-survivors-sue-to-receive-promised-aid

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/ebola

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/the-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/07/08/
889008647/the-congolese-doctor-who-discovered-ebola

 

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/may/13/
finally-virus-got-me-ebola-expert-on-nearly-dying-coronavirus-peter-piot

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/11/
world/africa/congo-ebola-coronavirus.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/19/
us/politics/trump-coronavirus-outbreak.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/18/
colleagues-die-ebola-health-workers-coronavirus-martyrs

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/08/01/
747012519/ebola-outbreak-in-congo-enters-year-2-is-an-end-in-sight

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/jul/20/
the-20-photographs-of-the-week

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/audio/2019/jun/26/
ebola-is-back-can-it-be-contained-podcast

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/19/
world/africa/ebola-outbreak-congo.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/08/
health/ebola-vaccine-congo.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/03/19/
704765877/what-needs-to-be-done-to-end-congos-ebola-crisis

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/03/19/
704765877/what-needs-to-be-done-to-end-congos-ebola-crisis

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/07/
health/ebola-epidemic-congo.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/02/25/
697073103/why-does-ebola-keep-spreading-in-congo-heres-a-major-clue

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/26/
world/africa/ebola-congo.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/27/
health/ebola-outbreak-congo.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/11/15/
668263749/theres-growing-fear-the-ebola-outbreak-in-congo-could-get-much-worse

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/10/05/
654475106/how-worried-should-we-be-about-ebola-in-congo

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/02/
health/ebola-virus-congo-outbreak-2018.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/08/27/
641536981/a-dangerous-twist-to-the-latest-ebola-outbreak

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/08/17/
639486376/who-expects-ebola-to-spread-in-congo-in-areas-too-dangerous-to-send-workers

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/08/02/
635016034/ebola-in-a-conflict-zone

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/05/18/
612010495/ebola-outbreak-how-worried-should-we-be

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/05/17/
611896818/spread-of-ebola-in-congo-a-game-changer

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/05/15/
611267872/can-the-new-ebola-vaccine-stop-the-latest-outbreak

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/04/25/
604966533/two-years-after-end-of-ebola-crisis-survivors-sue-to-receive-promised-aid

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/04/14/
523437067/a-family-of-ebola-fighters-with-gods-help-we-made-it

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/22/
506600875/first-ebola-vaccine-likely-to-stop-the-next-outbreak

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/04/29/
475801199/ebola-carriers-why-the-virus-keeps-coming-back

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/11/24/
457277942/puzzling-ebola-death-shows-how-little-we-know-about-the-virus

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/20/
daniel-berehulak-the-ebola-crisis-earn-photography-pulitzer/

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/10/08/
446631677/to-prevent-the-next-plague-listen-to-boie-jalloh

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=vQkr9k9zy0I&index=25&list=PL4CGYNsoW2iDMMRQRGO02ZDfhEiIUxy9G - NYT - 23 July 2015

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/05/08/
405200905/block-by-block-health-workers-lead-liberia-to-victory-over-ebola

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/21/
health/ebola-lying-in-wait.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/20/
opinion/the-american-response-to-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/08/
opinion/yes-we-were-warned-about-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/18/opinion/
bill-gates-the-ebola-crisis-was-terrible-but-next-time-could-be-much-worse.html

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/02/27/
389308249/a-10-hour-ride-a-welcome-with-cola-nuts-a-sad-yet-hopeful-new-normal

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/02/24/
world/africa/2015-02-24-ebola-outbreak.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/02/
health/ebola-doctors-are-divided-on-iv-therapy-in-africa.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/31/
world/africa/ebola-ravages-economies-in-west-africa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/31/
health/source-of-ebola-outbreak-might-be-bats-study-says.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/30/
health/how-ebola-roared-back.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/07/
world/africa/as-ebola-rages-in-sierra-leone-poor-planning-thwarts-efforts.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/10/
opinion/ebola-virus-a-grim-african-reality.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/07/31/
world/africa/ebola-virus-outbreak-qa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/30/
opinion/charles-blow-the-ebola-hysteria.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/
nyregion/craig-spencer-is-tested-for-ebola-virus-at-bellevue-hospital-in-new-york-city.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/
nyregion/tracing-patients-possible-contacts-creates-host-of-challenges-for-the-city.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2014/oct/22/
ebola-virus-how-it-spreads-video

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/22/
world/ebola-outbreak-erodes-recent-advances-in-west-africa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/20/opinion/cubas-impressive-role-on-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/19/opinion/sunday/ross-douthat-the-ebola-scare.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/19/sunday-review/the-ebola-conspiracy-theories.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/19/ebola-liberia-death-toll-data-sorious-samura

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/18/us/waste-from-ebola-poses-challenge-to-hospitals.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/18/us/amid-assurances-on-ebola-obama-is-said-to-seethe.htm

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/18/us/health-scare-in-texas-also-sends-political-ripples.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/17/opinion/keeping-ebola-at-bay.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/17/us/
obama-may-name-ebola-czar-after-amber-joy-vinson-flight-causes-concern.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/17/
opinion/ebola-in-america-the-crisis-widens.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/16/us/
ebola-outbreak-texas.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/14/
who-new-ebola-cases-world-health-organisation

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/14/
ebola-screenings-heathrow-airport-mixed-response

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2014/oct/14/ebola

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/13/
how-avoid-catching-ebola

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/14/
dallas-nurse-ebola-transfusion-kent-brantly

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/
opinion/new-twists-in-the-ebola-drama.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/us/
questions-rise-on-preparations-at-hospitals-to-deal-with-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/
health/scientists-rein-in-fears-of-a-virus-whose-mysteries-tend-to-invite-speculation.html

 

http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/10/13/calculating-the-grim-costs-of-ebola/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/opinion/the-worsening-ebola-crisis.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/opinion/roger-cohen-ebola-denial-fear-and-panic.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/13/us/texas-health-worker-tests-positive-for-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/13/opinion/how-to-quarantine-against-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/12/us/
how-hospital-workers-are-supposed-to-treat-ebola-safely.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/13/us/
for-infected-nurses-neighbors-ebola-brings-worry-to-doorstep.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/13/us/
cdc-will-offer-more-ebola-training-to-health-care-workers.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/11/
ebola-crisis-uk-readiness-virus-assessed-nationwide-exercise

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/11/world/africa/
officials-admit-a-defeat-by-ebola-in-sierra-leone.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/11/us/
ebola-dallas-clay-jenkins.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/11/us/
thomas-duncan-had-a-fever-of-103-er-records-show.html

 

 http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/09/us/
newly-vigilant-us-is-to-screen-fliers-for-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/09/us/
ebola-us-thomas-eric-duncan.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/09/us/
us-to-begin-ebola-screenings-at-5-airports.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/08/
world/life-death-and-careful-routine-fill-the-day-at-a-liberian-ebola-clinic.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/09/nyregion/
amid-concern-about-virus-in-us-new-york-hospital-says-its-ready-for-the-worst.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/04/ebola-zaire-peter-piot-outbreak

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/05/world/africa/
ebolas-cultural-casualty-hugs-in-hands-on-liberia.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/05/us/ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/
100000003118843/how-america-may-help-combat-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/03/us/
dallas-ebola-case-thomas-duncan-contacts.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/03/us/
tracing-ebola-contacts-can-stop-virus-in-its-tracks-experts-say.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/03/us/
understanding-the-risks-of-ebola-and-what-direct-contact-means.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/03/us/
ebola-strikes-american-cameraman-in-liberia.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/07/31/world/africa/
ebola-virus-outbreak-qa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/03/
health/how-to-help-in-efforts-to-stem-ebolas-tide.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/health/
100000003059328/modern-technologies-and-the-ebola-fight.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/02/
opinion/living-with-the-terror-of-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/25/
opinion/nicholas-kristof-the-ebola-fiasco.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/26/world/africa/
obama-warns-of-slow-response-to-ebola-crisis.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/19/world/africa/
fear-of-ebola-drives-mob-to-kill-officials-in-guinea.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/16/world/africa/
obama-to-announce-expanded-effort-against-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/
opinion/the-sluggish-fight-against-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/world/africa/
us-scientists-see-long-fight-against-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/world/africa/
ebola-who-africa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/
opinion/a-feeble-response-to-ebola.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUBpoyKxArU

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/12/
opinion/what-were-afraid-to-say-about-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/07/
opinion/sunday/from-bad-to-worse-with-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/16/
opinion/a-painfully-slow-ebola-response.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/16/
health/hospitals-in-the-us-get-ready-for-ebola.html

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/08/
ebola_continues_to_spread_in_west_africa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/12/world/africa/
at-heart-of-ebola-outbreak-a-village-frozen-by-fear-and-death.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/world/africa/ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/11/
opinion/controlling-the-ebola-epidemic.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/
health/in-ebola-outbreak-who-should-get-experimental-drug.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/world/europe/
who-declares-ebola-in-west-africa-a-health-emergency.html

 

www.youtube.com/watch?
v=oDIcGU19Y_k&list=UUqnbDFdCpuN8CMEg0VuEBqA&index=10

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/
opinion/in-the-grip-of-ebola.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/07/
opinion/nicholas-kristof-fighting-ebola-for-us-all.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/07/31/
world/africa/ebola-virus-outbreak-qa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/05/
world/africa/lax-quarantine-undercuts-ebola-fight-in-africa.html

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=fiMZptVbssQ&index=10&list=UUqnbDFdCpuN8CMEg0VuEBqA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/01/
world/africa/sierra-leone-declares-health-emergency-over-ebola.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2014/jul/14/
ebola-epidemic-guinea-sierra-leone-liberia-msf-world-health-organisation

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/30/
ebola-what-is-the-real-risk

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/30/
ebola-outbreak-uk-ministers-emergecny-cobra-meeting

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/28/world/africa/
ebola-epidemic-west-africa-guinea.html

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/06/20/
323985117/west-africa-is-overwhelmed-by-ebola

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/27/
ebola-virus-outbreak-infectious-dance-tune

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/10/
opinion/ebola-virus-a-grim-african-reality.html

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/04/11/
301418627/ebola-drug-could-be-ready-for-human-testing-next-year

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/04/11/
301464924/how-a-patient-can-recover-from-ebola

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/04/11/
301439165/the-ebola-survivors-reborn-but-not-always-embraced

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/04/08/
300509073/the-ebola-outbreak-three-weeks-in-dire-but-not-hopeless

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebolas virus > Ebola haemorrhagic fever

 

is a rare

but severe disease in humans

and non-human primates

caused by Ebola virus,

a filovirus

that was first recognised in 1976

and has caused

sporadic outbreaks since

in several African countries.

http://www.hpa.org.uk/topics/infectiousdiseases/infectionsaz/ebola/ - broken URL

 

https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/
ebola-virus-disease-clinical-management-and-guidance

 

 

 

 

Ebola epidemic        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/23/
world/one-year-later-ebola-outbreak-offers-lessons-for-next-epidemic.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/11/
opinion/controlling-the-ebola-epidemic.html

 

 

 

 

Ebola outbreak        USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/08/27/
641536981/a-dangerous-twist-to-the-latest-ebola-outbreak

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/22/
506600875/first-ebola-vaccine-likely-to-stop-the-next-outbreak

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/11/03/
500428232/mutant-ebola-may-have-caused-explosive-outbreak

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUBpoyKxArU

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/09/
us/is-the-us-prepared-for-an-ebola-outbreak.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/12/
world/africa/at-heart-of-ebola-outbreak-a-village-frozen-by-fear-and-death.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/07/31/
world/africa/ebola-virus-outbreak-qa.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/10/
opinion/ebola-virus-a-grim-african-reality.html

 

 

 

 

explosive outbreak        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/11/03/
500428232/mutant-ebola-may-have-caused-explosive-outbreak

 

 

 

 

outbreak > out of control        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/16/
opinion/a-painfully-slow-ebola-response.html

 

 

 

 

A History of Ebola in 24 Outbreaks        NYT        DEC. 29, 2014        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/12/30/
science/history-of-ebola-in-24-outbreaks.html

 

 

 

 

Ebola survivor        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/05/15/
406748691/its-like-the-story-of-job-ebola-survivors-who-continue-to-suffer

 

 

 

 

Ebola vaccine        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/22/
506600875/first-ebola-vaccine-likely-to-stop-the-next-outbreak

 

 

 

 

Ebola facility        USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/03/19/
704765877/what-needs-to-be-done-to-end-congos-ebola-crisis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

be sick with Ebola        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/nyregion/
craig-spencer-is-tested-for-ebola-virus-at-bellevue-hospital-in-new-york-city.html

 

 

 

 

pass on the virus to somebody else        USA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Y-hq013vpyU&list=UUqnbDFdCpuN8CMEg0VuEBqA&index=6

 

 

 

 

Ebola virus > spread

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2014/oct/22/
ebola-virus-how-it-spreads-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2014/jul/14/
ebola-epidemic-guinea-sierra-leone-liberia-msf-world-health-organisation

 

 

 

 

spread        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/us/
dallas-nurse-ebola-patient.html

 

 

 

 

rage        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/07/world/africa/
as-ebola-rages-in-sierra-leone-poor-planning-thwarts-efforts.html

 

 

 

 

screen        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/09/us/
newly-vigilant-us-is-to-screen-fliers-for-ebola.html

 

 

 

 

screening        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/09/us/
us-to-begin-ebola-screenings-at-5-airports.htm

 

 

 

 

quarantine        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/19/us/
life-in-quarantine-for-ebola-exposure-21-days-of-fear-and-loathing.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/05/world/africa/
lax-quarantine-undercuts-ebola-fight-in-africa.html

 

 

 

 

quarantine        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/13/
opinion/how-to-quarantine-against-ebola.html

 

 

 

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention    CDC        USA

https://www.cdc.gov/ 

https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/ 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/us/
dallas-nurse-ebola-patient.html

 

 

 

 

Ebola scare        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/19/
opinion/sunday/ross-douthat-the-ebola-scare.html

 

 

 

 

Ebola conspiracy theories        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/19/
sunday-review/the-ebola-conspiracy-theories.html

 

 

 

 

pestilence        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/
opinion/roger-cohen-ebola-denial-fear-and-panic.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to Fight the Next Epidemic

Bill Gates: The Ebola Crisis Was Terrible.

But Next Time Could Be Much Worse.

 

MARCH 18, 2015

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages

Op-Ed Contributor

By BILL GATES

 

SEATTLE — The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has killed more than 10,000 people. If anything good can come from this continuing tragedy, it is that Ebola can awaken the world to a sobering fact: We are simply not prepared to deal with a global epidemic.

Of all the things that could kill more than 10 million people around the world in the coming years, by far the most likely is an epidemic. But it almost certainly won’t be Ebola. As awful as it is, Ebola spreads only through physical contact, and by the time patients can infect other people, they are already showing symptoms of the disease, which makes them relatively easy to identify.

Other diseases — flu, for example — spread through the air, and people can be infectious before they feel sick, which means that one person can infect many strangers just by going to a public place. We’ve seen it happen before, with horrific results: In 1918, the Spanish flu killed more than 30 million people. Imagine what it could do in today’s highly mobile world.

Much of the public discussion about the world’s response to Ebola has focused on whether the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other groups could have responded more effectively. These are worthwhile questions, but they miss the larger point. The problem isn’t so much that the system didn’t work well enough. The problem is that we hardly have a system at all.

To begin with, most poor countries, where a natural epidemic is most likely to start, have no systematic disease surveillance in place. Even once the Ebola crisis was recognized last year, there were no resources to effectively map where cases occurred, or to use people’s travel patterns to predict where the disease might go next.

Then, once it became clear that a serious emergency was underway, trained personnel should have flooded the affected countries within days. Instead it took months. Doctors Without Borders deserves a lot of credit for mobilizing volunteers faster than any government did. But we should not count on nonprofit groups to mount a global response.

Even if we signed up lots of experts and volunteers right away, it’s not clear how we would deploy them quickly into the affected area, or how we would transport patients. Few organizations are capable of moving thousands of people, some of them infected, to different locations on the globe with a week’s notice.

The Ebola epidemic might have been a lot worse if the United States, Britain and other governments had not used military resources to fly people and equipment into and out of affected areas. But we should not assume that the next epidemic will limit itself to countries that welcome Western troops.

Data is another crucial problem. During the Ebola epidemic, the database that tracks cases has not always been accurate. This is partly because the situation is so chaotic, but also because much of the case reporting has been done on paper and then sent to a central location for data entry.

Then there’s our failure to invest in effective medical tools like diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines. On average it has taken an estimated one to three days for Ebola test results to come back — an eternity when you need to quarantine people until you know whether they’re infected. Drugs that might help stop Ebola were not tested in patients until after the epidemic had peaked, partly because the world has no clear process for expediting drug approvals.

Compare all this to the preparation that nations put into defense. Armies have systems for recruiting, training and equipping soldiers. NATO has a mobile unit that is ready to deploy quickly. Although the system isn’t perfect, NATO members do joint exercises where they work out logistics like how troops will get food and what language they will use to communicate.

Few if any of these approaches exist for an epidemic response. The world does not fund any organization (not even the W.H.O.) to coordinate all the activities needed to stop an epidemic. In short, in a battle against a severe epidemic, we would be taking a knife to a bazooka fight.

I believe that we can solve this problem, just as we’ve solved many others — with ingenuity and innovation.

We need a global warning and response system for outbreaks. It would start with strengthening poor countries’ health systems. For example, when you build a clinic to deliver primary health care, you’re also creating part of the infrastructure for fighting epidemics. Trained health care workers not only deliver vaccines; they can also monitor disease patterns, serving as part of the early warning systems that will alert the world to potential outbreaks. Some of the personnel who were in Nigeria to fight polio were redeployed to work on Ebola — and that country was able to contain the disease very quickly.

We also need to invest in disease surveillance. We need a case database that is instantly accessible to the relevant organizations, with rules requiring countries to share their information. We need lists of trained personnel, from local leaders to global experts, prepared to deal with an epidemic immediately. We need trained military resources ready to respond, and a list of supplies to be stockpiled or commandeered in an emergency.

Finally, we need to invest far more in research on drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests, and make it possible to accelerate the approval of new approaches in times of crisis.

The United Nations should empower and fund a global institution to coordinate these efforts. The United Nations and the W.H.O. are studying the lessons of this epidemic; their evaluations would be a good starting point for a conversation about how to strengthen the W.H.O. and what pieces of the system it should lead.

I have not seen a rigorous projection for what a system like this would cost. But we know the cost of failing to act. According to the World Bank, a worldwide flu epidemic would reduce global wealth by $3 trillion, not to mention the immeasurable misery caused by millions of deaths. Preventing such a catastrophe is well worth the world’s time and attention.
 


Bill Gates is co-chairman
of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

A version of this op-ed appears in print on March 18, 2015,
in The International New York Times.

How to Fight the Next Epidemic,
NYT,
MARCH 18, 2015,
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/18/
opinion/bill-gates-the-ebola-crisis-was-terrible-
but-next-time-could-be-much-worse.html

 

 

 

 

 

The Worsening Ebola Crisis

 

OCT. 13, 2014

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages | Editorial

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

 

Recent days have brought two alarming developments in the struggle to contain Ebola. The campaign against the epidemic in West Africa, the only sure way to prevent the spread of the virus to the United States and other countries, fell even further behind. And the discovery that a nurse treating an Ebola patient in Dallas had herself become infected despite wearing protective gear raised questions about the readiness of American hospitals to deal with Ebola patients.

Reassuring statements by health officials that virtually any hospital with an isolation unit could treat such patients now look rashly optimistic.

That said, the risk that the Ebola virus might cause outbreaks in this country remains small. By far the greater danger lies in the very real possibility that the virus will continue to spiral out of control in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and spread from there to other parts of Africa or other continents, opening a wider range of pathways for infected people to reach the United States.

Many countries and international organizations, led by the United States, have pledged money, equipment and manpower to fight the epidemic in West Africa. But the aid has been slow to reach the front lines, leaving health care workers with too few treatment beds to accommodate the sick.

In Sierra Leone, on Friday, health officials — facing just such a shortage of beds — adopted a new policy of having families treat patients in their homes by distributing painkillers, rehydrating solutions and gloves to hundreds of Ebola-afflicted households. But if a nurse in Dallas, clothed in protective garments, could not escape infection, it is hard to believe that less well-equipped households in Sierra Leone will be able to escape contamination from an Ebola patient in their midst.

The pace of international aid needs to be stepped up dramatically. This is not a task that can be left to such nongovernmental organizations as Doctors Without Borders, which has heroically provided much, if not most, of the care in the stricken countries. The United States has taken the lead in providing aid to Liberia, a country with long ties to the United States.

The Army has started deploying thousands of troops to the area to help build new treatment centers, perform laboratory tests and train health care workers in how to treat patients, but most of that help has yet to arrive. It was thus disheartening to hear Maj. Gen. Darryl Williams, the commander of the United States Army Africa, dismiss criticism that American aid had been “too little, too late” with the excuse that the Pentagon was simply filling a “small gap” left by other health organizations.

The United States’ obligation is greater than that; President Obama needs personally to ramp up the urgency of the American response and the level and speed of the resources provided.

Perhaps the Dallas case will add urgency to those efforts to control the epidemic abroad. The case is not cause for domestic panic, but it is cause for greater vigilance among health care workers. Even without knowing fully what happened with the nurse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is exploring ways to make it easier to don protective gear, wear it while treating a patient and take it off afterward without infecting oneself.

The task of treating Ebola patients can clearly be carried out by experienced personnel. Five Ebola patients were flown back to the United States from West Africa and have been treated safely at specially designated hospitals in Atlanta and Omaha. But the Dallas hospital made mistakes in handling this case from the start, and the infected nurse was reportedly a young graduate of a nursing program with little experience in infectious diseases. It seems possible that additional health care workers who cared for the patient will come down sick as well.

The C.D.C. is urging all hospitals, no matter how small, to take travel histories to identify any patients who have been in West Africa within the past 21 days, and immediately place those with Ebola-like symptoms in isolation. The C.D.C. plans to increase its training efforts for hospital personnel, a vital need given that a survey of nurses found a vast majority had received no instructions from their hospitals on how to deal with Ebola. Smaller hospitals will probably have to transfer any Ebola patients to more specialized centers for treatment.

But all of these efforts, however useful, pale against this country’s much larger responsibility to help defeat the disease at its source.


A version of this editorial appears in print on October 14, 2014, on page A24 of the New York edition with the headline: The Worsening Ebola Crisis.

The Worsening Ebola Crisis,
NYT,
13.10.2014,
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/
opinion/the-worsening-ebola-crisis.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

body, health, medicine, drugs,

viruses, bacteria, diseases,

disability, health care / insurance

 

 

genetics

 

 

mental health / psychology

 

 

health, life, aging, death

 

 

USA > prescription opioid painkillers

 

 

lifestyle / health > smoking, alcohol, diet, obesity

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts > Photography

 

Michelangelo Everard du Cille    JAM / USA    1956-2014