Les anglonautes

About | Search | Grammar | Vocapedia | Learning | Docs | Stats | News podcasts | Videos | History | Arts | Science | Translate and listen

 Previous Home Up Next

 

Vocapedia > Health > Microbes > Viruses > Variola - eradicated in the 1970s

 

smallpox disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

smallpox        UK

 

An ancient disease

in existence for thousands of years,

smallpox was feared

throughout the world.

 

Killing a third of those it infected,

 

in the 20th Century alone

an estimated 300 million people

died from the disease.

 

Those who were infected but survived

were often left badly scarred.

 

A global vaccination programme,

led by the World Health Organization (WHO),

was carried out to wipe out the disease

and by the 1970s cases were rare.

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-birmingham-45101091 - 10 August 2018

 

 

https://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/en/

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-birmingham-45101091 - 10 August 2018

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/1999/feb/26/
weaponstechnology.uknews

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

smallpox virus

 

Smallpox

is an ancient disease

caused by the variola virus.

 

Early symptoms

include high fever and fatigue.

 

The virus then produces

a characteristic rash,

particularly on the face,

arms and legs.

 

The resulting spots

become filled

with clear fluid

and later, pus,

and then form a crust,

which eventually dries up

and falls off.

 

Smallpox was fatal

in up to 30% of cases.

 

Smallpox has existed

for at least 3,000 years

and was one of the world’s

most feared diseases

until it was eradicated

by a collaborative

global vaccination programme

led by the World Health Organization.

 

The last known natural case

was in Somalia in 1977.

 

Since then,

the only known cases

were caused

by a laboratory accident

in 1978 in Birmingham, England,

which killed one person

and caused a limited outbreak.

 

Smallpox was officially

declared eradicated in 1979.

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/faq/en/

 

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/faq/en/

 

 

 

 

smallpox        USA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

smallpox        USA

 

Smallpox was a devastating disease.

 

On average,

3 out of every 10 people who got it died.

 

Those who survived

were usually left with scars,

which were sometimes severe.

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox

https://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/en/

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/09/19/
762013515/russian-lab-explosion-raises-question-should-smallpox-virus-be-kept-or-destroyed

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/02/17/
585385308/did-pox-virus-research-put-potential-profits-ahead-of-public-safety

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/08/25/
489950967/tribute-the-man-who-killed-smallpox

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/22/us/
dr-donald-a-henderson-who-helped-end-smallpox-dies-at-87.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/
opinion/errol-morris-demon-in-the-freezer.html

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/02/17/
585385308/did-pox-virus-research-put-potential-profits-ahead-of-public-safety

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/02/01/
582370199/whats-the-real-story-about-the-milkmaid-and-the-smallpox-vaccine

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/08/
504618235/a-mummys-dna-may-help-solve-the-mystery-of-the-origins-of-smallpox

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/01/07/
375598652/a-cow-head-will-not-erupt-from-your-body-if-you-get-a-smallpox-vaccine

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/05/09/
310475511/keep-or-kill-last-lab-stocks-of-smallpox-time-to-decide-says-who

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/05/01/
308357520/new-virus-related-to-smallpox-is-found-in-republic-of-georgia

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/05/24/
136608195/who-grants-smallpox-a-reprieve

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/05/16/
136353663/has-the-time-come-to-destroy-smallpox-for-good

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/world/
26fenner.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2006/jun/23/
weaponstechnology.guardianweekly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vaccine, vaccination against variola virus        USA

 

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

eradicate smallpox        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/world/
26fenner.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gen. George Washington

 

A Threat of Bioterrorism        1775

 

Bioterrorism

was among the many concerns

that occupied

Gen. George Washington

in the winter of 1775,

six months after taking command

of the ragtag American forces

in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

The years

of the American Revolution

coincided nearly perfectly

with a smallpox epidemic

that spanned

the North American continent

claiming more than 130,000 lives

from 1775 to 1782.

 

And Washington had reason

to believe that the British

were waging germ warfare

by deliberately infecting

American troops

with the highly contagious

and deadly smallpox virus.

 

Washington knew firsthand

the misery of the disease

having survived

a smallpox infection

years earlier;

he was well aware

that a smallpox epidemic

would ravage

his fledgling armies.

 

It is impossible

to know with certainty

whether the British

practiced germ warfare

against the Americans or not.

 

However, a series of letters

from Washington to Congress

written in December 1775

reveal that the threat

of biological warfare

was sufficiently real in his mind

to merit mention

in his official reports.

 

First,

his fears were based on a report

that he heard and then fuelled

by what he saw with his own eyes.

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=4

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

body, health, medicine, drugs,

viruses, bacteria, diseases,

disability, health care / insurance

 

 

genetics

 

 

mental health / psychology

 

 

health, life, aging, death

 

 

USA > prescription opioid painkillers

 

 

lifestyle / health > smoking, alcohol, diet, obesity

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Science

 

science, technology, medicine, discoveries, inventions

timeline in pictures