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Vocapedia > Health > Surgery > Organs > Transplant





Why 28,000 Organs Won’t Make it to Patients in Need        Video        NYT Opinion        The New York Times        11 June 2019


In the video Op-Ed above,

people on the organ wait list argue

that it’s time for the government to step in,

provide oversight and require transparency

in the organ recovery system.


Research shows

that organ procurement organizations (O.P.O.s),

responsible for recovering organs,

are inefficient and lack accountability.


While a record number of organs

have been transplanted in the past five years,

that is not evidence of a well-working system:

These numbers are bloated

by a recent increase in opioid-related deaths.


In May,

the White House released its unified agenda

to set priorities

for the Department of Health and Human Services.


A rule was proposed to address and make changes

to the standards used to evaluate O.P.O. performance.


It’s now up to H.H.S.

to determine what kind of change to make.



















A Change of Heart        NYT        28 March  2016




A Change of Heart | Retro Report | The New York Times        28 March  2016


The artificial heart became a media sensation in the 1980s

as it both raised hopes and spread controversy.


Today, its impact on medical science

is still playing out in surprising ways.

Produced by: RETRO REPORT

Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/22I1y4D

















Fall Documentary Series: Tales from the Organ Trade        HBO        30 October 2013





Fall Documentary Series: Tales from the Organ Trade        (HBO Documentary Films)        30 October 2013


















NHS Organ Donor Register advert





NHS Organ Donor Register advert


The first UK-wide multimedia campaign

to promote organ donation.


While 96% of us would accept an organ if we needed one,

only 27% of us have the joined the NHS Organ Donor Register (ODR).

Many of us (45%)

have the best intentions to sign up to the ODR

and commit to donate our organs for transplantation

after our death, but just havent got round to it.


While some people are still unclear about how to register,

a significant proportion of us (17%) are ready to act now.


A further 19% need to involve their family in the decision.


Research also shows a disparity

between those who think they've already signed up

to be an organ donor 35%

as compared with the actual figure of 27% (16.5 million)

on the ODR.

The campaign

aims to increase significantly the number of people on the ODR,

asking what we would do if someone we love needed an organ:

if we would accept an organ, shouldnt we be prepared to give one?


YouTube > NHS organ donation        Online since 2009





























































organ        UK










organ        USA


- NYT - 11 June 2019









human organ        UK






 transplantable organ        USA






organ trade


Fall Documentary Series:

Tales from the Organ Trade

(HBO Documentary Films)

watch?v=xJX1UQ3Z94c - 30 October 2014        USA





organ donation        UK










organ donation        USA






organ donor        UK






organ donor        USA






living donor        UK






shortage of donors        UK






donor liver        USA






donate        UK

sickness-health-donating kidney-husband-video





donate        USA













trade in organs















organ transplants from animals        USA



















Sixteen hours into a transplant operation

at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio,

surgeons finish removing the face from an organ donor,

and staff members document it.


From “Katie’s New Face.”


Credit Lynn Johnson/National Geographic


Photoville Is Coming to Los Angeles

The photography festival’s shipping containers will showcase

projects focusing on L.A.’s homegrown talent,

immigration and climate change.


April 23, 2019
















organ transplant        USA






transplant / transplant        USA






















transplant wait list        USA






HIV-positive organ transplants        USA






oragn transplantation        USA






hand transplant        UK






hand transplant        USA









robotic hand        USA






face transplant        UK






liver transplant        UK






liver transplant surgery        USA






transplanted face        UK






kidney transplant        UK











kidney transplant        USA












heart        USA

watch?v=0Xn5u-LzsW8 - NYT - 28 March 2016





Britain's first beating heart transplant        2006






transplant surgeon





face transplant        UK







bone marrow transplant        USA






Woman given voicebox and trachea transplant


speaks for first time in 11 years - video        January 2011


Brenda Jensen

is the first person in the world

to receive a combined voicebox (larynx)

and trachea transplant.


Surgeon Martin Birchall

of University College London

describes the procedure






graft        UK






"grow" human bladders        UK












part of a liver or bone marrow





bone marrow transplant





live donor















spinal injury breakthrough        UK






spinal cord injuries










Gene Editing Spurs Hope

for Transplanting Pig Organs

Into Humans


AUG. 10, 2017

The New York Times



In a bold scientific step that helps open the door to organ transplants from animals, researchers at Harvard and a private company have created gene-edited piglets cleansed of viruses that might cause disease in humans.

The advance, reported on Thursday in the journal Science, may make it possible one day to transplant livers, hearts and other organs from pigs into humans, a hope that experts had all but given up.

There were 33,600 organ transplants last year, and 116,800 patients on waiting lists, according Dr. David Klassen, chief medical officer at the United Network for Organ Sharing, a private, nonprofit organization that manages the nation’s transplant system.

If pig organs were shown to be safe and effective, “they could be a real game changer,” said Dr. Klassen, who was not involved in the new study. Dr. George Church of the Harvard group now says the first pig-to-human transplants could occur within two years.

The new research combines two great achievements in recent years — gene editing and cloning — and is unfolding quickly. But the work is novel and its course unpredictable, Dr. Klassen noted. It may be years before enough is known about the safety of pig organ transplants to allow them to be used widely.

Major religious groups have already weighed in on the ethical questions, however, generally concluding that pig organs are acceptable for lifesaving transplants, noted Dr. Jay Fishman, co-director of the transplant program at Massachusetts General Hospital. Pig heart valves already are routinely transplanted into patients.

(Leaders in the Jewish and Muslim communities, though, would not accept pig kidneys, reasoning that patients with kidney failure can survive with dialysis.)

The idea of using pigs as organ factories has tantalized investigators for decades. Porcine organs can be the right size for human transplantation, and in theory, similar enough to function in patients.

In the 1990s, scientists began pursuing the idea in earnest. But in 1998, Dr. Fishman and his colleagues discovered that hidden in pig DNA were genes for viruses that resembled those causing leukemia in monkeys.

When researchers grew pig cells next to human embryonic kidney cells in the laboratory, these viruses — known as retroviruses — spread to the human cells. Once infected, the human cells were able to infect other human cells.

Fears that pig organs would infect humans with bizarre retroviruses brought the research to a halt. But it was never clear how great this threat really was, and as years have gone by, many experts, including Dr. Fishman, have become less concerned.

Some patients with diabetes have received pig pancreas cells, hidden in a sort of sheath so the immune system will not reject them. And burn patients sometimes get grafts made of pig skin. The pig skin is eventually rejected by the body, but it was never meant to be permanent anyway.

There is no evidence that any of these patients were infected with porcine retroviruses. In any event, said Dr. A. Joseph Tector, a transplant surgeon at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, pig retroviruses are very sensitive to the drugs used to treat H.I.V.

“We don’t know that if we transplant pig organs with the viruses that they will transmit infections, and we don’t know that the infections are dangerous,” Dr. Fishman said. “I think the risk to society is very low.”

Dr. Church and his colleagues thought the retrovirus question could be resolved with Crispr, the new gene-editing technology. They took cells from pigs and snipped the viral DNA from their genomes. Then the scientists cloned the edited cells.

Each pig cell was brought back to its earliest developmental stage and then slipped into an egg, giving it the genetic material to allow the egg to develop into an embryo. The embryos were implanted in sows and grew into piglets that were genetically identical to the pig that supplied the initial cell.

Cloning often fails; most of the embryos and fetuses died before birth, and some piglets died soon after they were born. But Dr. Church and his colleagues ended up with 15 living piglets, the oldest now 4 months old. None have the retroviruses.

Dr. Church founded a company, eGenesis, in hopes of selling the genetically altered pig organs. Eventually, Dr. Church says, the company wants to engineer pigs with organs so compatible with humans that patients will not need to take anti-rejection drugs.

Dr. David Sachs, a professor of surgery at Columbia University, was skeptical that it would be straightforward to make pigs with such compatible organs.

“I am afraid that he may find these goals more difficult to achieve than he expects, but I would be happy to be mistaken,” said Dr. Sachs, who is also studying ways to create pigs suitable for organ donation.

Part of the organ rejection problem is already being solved with gene editing and cloning. It is an issue that emerged in the early 1980s when surgeons put a pig heart into a baboon. To their shock, the baboon died in minutes.

Researchers soon discovered that pig organs are covered with carbohydrate molecules that mark the organs for immediate destruction by human antibodies.

Dr. David Cooper, at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and his colleagues, including Dr. Tector, have used gene editing and cloning to make pigs without the carbohydrates on the surfaces of their organs.

They successfully transplanted hearts and kidneys from those pigs into monkeys and baboons. So far, the animals have lived more than a year with no problems, Dr. Tector said.

They also gave insulin-producing islet cells from a pig to diabetic monkeys, and the monkeys lived for a year without requiring insulin. In partnership with United Therapeutics, the group has already built a farm for gene-edited pigs.

Dr. Church says he, too, is making pigs whose organs lack the carbohydrates, and he wants to combine the two advances so the organs also do not have retroviruses. The Alabama group, though, does not think pig retroviruses are a major concern.

Surgeons are used to evaluating the risks of infection from transplanted organs, Dr. Tector said. The advantage of the transplant to the desperately ill recipient often outweighs that risk.

To some, the idea of growing pigs to be organ factories is distasteful, if not unethical.

But, Dr. Cooper noted, the few thousand pigs grown for their organs would be a small fraction of the 100 million pigs a year that are killed for food in the United States. And, he said, the pigs would be anesthetized and killed humanely.

Many patients may prefer a human organ, Dr. Cooper acknowledged, but that is not always possible. “About 22 people a day die waiting for a transplant,” he said. “If you could help them with a pig organ, wouldn’t that be wonderful?”

Gene Editing Spurs Hope for Transplanting Pig Organs Into Humans,
AUG. 10, 2017,






World's first organ donor

dies aged 79

Ronald Lee Herrick donated kidney
to his dying twin brother
in pioneering 1954 operation


Thursday 30 December 2010
The Guardian
David Batty
This article appeared on p22
of the Main section section of the Guardian
on Thursday 30 December 2010.
It was published on guardian.co.uk
at 01.10 GMT on Thursday 30 December 2010.
It was last modified at 08.01 GMT
on Thursday 30 December 2010.


A man who donated a kidney to his dying twin brother 56 years ago in the world's first successful organ transplant has died in the United States.

Ronald Lee Herrick died, aged 79, on Monday in the Augusta Rehabilitation Centre, a hospital in Maine, New England, following complications from heart surgery in October, his widow, Cynthia, said.

Herrick donated a kidney to his identical twin, Richard, in a pioneering operation on 23 December 1954.

The successful surgery kept Herrick's brother alive for eight years and was the first successful organ transplant, according to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Lead surgeon Dr Joseph Murray went on to win the Nobel prize.

The operation proved that transplants were possible and led to thousands of other successful kidney transplants, and later the transplant of other organs.

Doctors around the world had tried a few transplants before the breakthrough operation, without success, said Murray, who went on to perform another 18 transplants between identical twins.

"This operation rejuvenated the whole field of transplantation," said Murray, 91, who lives in Wellesley, Massachusetts.

"There were other people studying transplants in four or five different countries, but the fact that it worked so well with the identical twins was a tremendous stimulus."

Herrick grew up on a farm in Rutland, Massachusetts, and later served in the US army.

He was 23 when he donated a kidney to his brother, who was dying from chronic nephritis, an inflammation of the kidneys. Murray thought the odds of a transplanted organ being accepted would be enhanced since they were identical twins.

Before the operation, many opposed the idea of transplanting an organ, equating it with desecration of a body. Others argued it was unethical to operate on healthy humans, and editors of medical journals wrote that it was contrary to the Hippocratic oath to never do harm to anyone, Murray said.

But Herrick was not dissuaded from the operation. "He was the only one in the world who could save his brother's life, so he was going to do it," said Cynthia Herrick. "There was no question about it."





When were the first organ transplants?


The first successful kidney transplant, in 1954,
was Ronald Lee Herrick.
The first heart transplant was 1967.


Which organs can be transplanted?

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, thymus, ovaries, penis and uterus. Tissues that can be transplanted include bones, tendons, cornea, skin, heart valves, and veins. Recent developments include hand and full face transplants.


How many are on UK waiting list for a transplant?

As of 17 December 2010, 7,927; most of them, 6,779, were waiting for a kidney.


How many transplants were made this year?

Between 4 January and 12 December, there were 2,583 organ transplants; 698 were from living donors.


How many people have registered as organ donors?

As of September, there were 17.4 million people on the NHS organ donor register.

World's first organ donor dies aged 79,






Sister's Kidney Donation

Condition of Miss. Parole


December 29, 2010

Filed at 8:49 a.m. EST

on December 30, 2010

The New York Times



JACKSON, Miss. (AP) — For 16 years, sisters Jamie and Gladys Scott have shared a life behind bars for their part in an $11 armed robbery. To share freedom, they must also share a kidney.

Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour suspended the sisters' life sentences on Wednesday, but 36-year-old Gladys Scott's release is contingent on her giving a kidney to Jamie, her 38-year-old sister, who requires daily dialysis.

The sisters were convicted in 1994 of leading two men into an ambush in central Mississippi the year before. Three teenagers hit each man in the head with a shotgun and took their wallets — making off with only $11, court records said.

Jamie and Gladys Scott were each convicted of two counts of armed robbery and sentenced to two life sentences.

"I think it's a victory," said the sisters' attorney, Chokwe Lumumba. "I talked to Gladys and she's elated about the news. I'm sure Jamie is, too."

Civil rights advocates have for years called for their release, saying the sentences were excessive. Those demands gained traction when Barbour asked the Mississippi Parole Board to take another look at the case.

The Scott sisters are eligible for parole in 2014, but Barbour said prison officials no longer think they are a threat to society and Jamie's medical condition is costing the state a lot of money.

Lumumba said he has no problem with the governor requiring Gladys to offer up her organ because "Gladys actually volunteered that as part of her petition."

Lumumba said it's not clear what caused the kidney failure, but it's likely a combination of different illnesses over the years.

Barbour spokesman Dan Turner told The Associated Press that Jamie Scott was released because she needs the transplant. He said Gladys Scott will be released if she agrees to donate her kidney because of the significant risk and recovery time.

"She wanted to do it," Turner said. "That wasn't something we introduced."

Barbour is a Republican in his second term who has been mentioned as a possible presidential contender in 2012. He said the parole board agreed with the indefinite suspension of their sentences, which is different from a pardon or commutation because it comes with conditions.

An "indefinite suspension of sentence" can be reversed if the conditions are not followed, but those requirements are usually things like meeting with a parole officer.

The Scott sisters have received significant public support from advocacy groups, including the NAACP, which called for their release. Hundreds of people marched through downtown Jackson from the state capital to the governor's mansion in September, chanting in unison that the women should be freed.

Still, their release won't be immediate.

Mississippi Department of Corrections Commissioner Chris Epps said late Wednesday that he had not received the order. He also said the women want to live with relatives in Florida, which requires approval from officials in that state.

In general, that process takes 45 days.

Mississippi NAACP President Derrick Johnson said the Scott sisters' release will be "a great victory for the state of Mississippi for two individuals who received an excessive sentence" and he has no problem with the kidney donation requirement because Gladys Scott volunteered.

"I think it's encouraging that she's willing to share a kidney so her sister can have a better quality life," Johnson said.

National NAACP President and CEO Benjamin Todd Jealous said the suspension of the sentences represents the good that can come with the power of governors.

"It's again proof that when people get engaged, keep the faith, we can win," Jealous said.


(This version deletes incorrect reference to Barbour granting

a suspended sentence to student's killer.)

Sister's Kidney Donation Condition of Miss. Parole,






The $1bn trade

that is beyond the eyes of the law


October 20, 2006

The Times

By Nigel Hawkes,

Health Editor


THE body parts market is lucrative and lightly regulated in the US. Estimates of its value range from $500 million to $1 billion (£530 million) a year.

The use of tissue goes far beyond the familiar world of organ transplants, and involves a host of different materials including bone, skin, muscle, tendons and ligaments.

Bones can be used in fracture repair, skin can aid wound healing, and heart valves can be used as replacements in ailing patients.

Tendons and ligaments may be used to treat sports injuries, long bones to replace those damaged by cancer, shaped-bone products in spinal surgery, and ground bone in dental surgery. Collagen can be used to plump up lips, while bodies or body parts can be used in crash tests or in demonstrations of new techniques for surgeons.

In Britain the number of body parts that are taken in is unknown, because there is no requirement to keep a tally. Premises that store tissues, however, have to have a licence from the Human Tissue Authority (HTA), and of these 41 are either importing or exporting tissues.

The quantity of such imports and exports is not known, because the HTA does not gather figures.

There are moves to change the law so that such data would in future be collected. Up to 77 patients in Britain may have had grafts from bones imported from the New Jersey company involved in the Alistair Cooke case, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency said last month.

Patients were offered screening and counselling to detect any problems.

Every year it is estimated that 25,000 US bodies are used as source material for as many as 750,000 operations and procedures.

Heart valves can fetch up to $7,000 each, and skin $1,000 per square foot. A body could be worth about $150,000 if broken down into its component parts, according to Art Caplan, Professor of Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania.

There are two legitimate sources of body parts in the US. The vast majority of bodies donated to science go to medical schools, where they are used to teach anatomy.

Surplus parts can be sent to not-for-proft biomedical corporations, and it is illegal to charge for them. But medical schools can charge fees to cover administrative costs, and these can be high.

A second source is the tissue and organ banks, non-profit organisations to whom individuals can leave their bodies. They are often linked to trading companies to whom they pass on the parts.

There is no real ethical reason why the trade should not continue, so long as proper consents are obtained.

But some orthopaedic surgeons, such as Professor Angus Wallace, of Nottingham University, believe that officials are discouraging the harvesting of parts because of fears of an Alder Hey-style public backlash.

He believes that it is unethical to treat British patients with imported body parts and could be dangerous because of uncertainties over quality.

The $1bn trade that is beyond the eyes of the law,
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-2413169,00.html - broken URL










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