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Vocapedia > UK > Police, Justice, Law > Prosecution, CPS, Charges




charges > perverting the course of justice












Habeas Corpus Act        1679








habeas corpus


Habeas corpus is the legal concept

that a prisoner has a right

to challenge the basis of confinement

-- to demand that the government

produce a valid reason for detention.


The concept

was developed

in England

during the late Middle Ages,

and takes its name

from the first two Latin words

of the writ filed

for a prisoner's release

(a phrase translated variously

as "You have the body''

and "Produce the body.'')


Habeas corpus formed a part

of the American legal system

from colonial times,

and it was the only specific right

incorporated in the Constitution.


Article 1, Section 9 states,

"The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus

shall not be suspended,

unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion

the public Safety may require it."


The suspension of habeas corpus

allows an agency to hold a person

without a charge.


Habeas corpus

has been suspended a number of times,

most notably by Abraham Lincoln

during the early days of the Civil War.


Habeas corpus became a subject

of renewed controversy

after the Sept. 11th attacks.


When the Bush administration

created a system of military tribunals

for dealing with terrorism subjects in 2002,

it asserted that "illegal non-combatants''

fell outside of the Geneva Conventions

and were not entitled to habeas corpus.


That view was rejected

by the Supreme Court in 2006.


Congress, then controlled by Republicans,

responded by passing

the Military Commissions Act of 2006,

which stripped the federal courts of jurisdiction

to hear habeas corpus petitions

filed by detainees challenging

the bases for their confinement.


Instead, such challenges were to be governed

by the 2005 Detainee Treatment Act,

which allowed detainees

to appeal decisions of the military tribunals

to the District of Columbia Circuit,

but only under circumscribed procedures,

including a presumption that the evidence

before the military tribunal

was accurate and complete.


In a 5 to 4 decision

issued on June 12, 2008,

the Supreme Court ruled

that approach to be unconstitutional,

declaring that foreign terrorism suspects held

at the Guantánamo Bay naval base in Cuba

have the right to challenge their detention there

in federal courts.
















10 charges of raping six women and

three counts of causing actual bodily harm to N







four counts of intent to commit buggery






two counts of murder





police > be charged with N






police > charge N with the murder of N






be charged with 16 sexual offences,

including 15 counts of rape,

relating to two girls aged between 11 and 16






be charged with the murder of N






be charged with attempted murder of N






be charged with four counts of murder,

one count of arson with intent to endanger life,

and threats to commit criminal damage






be charged with neglect






be charged with seven counts of child molestation / child abuse





be charged with criminal impersonation





be charged with wildlife cruelty






be charged with conspiracy to commit facilitation

and conspiracy to pervert the course of justice





charged with 39 counts of manslaughter,

conspiracy to traffic people,

conspiracy to assist unlawful immigration

and money laundering






be charged with 21 counts of manslaughter





be charged with 16 offences,

including soliciting to murder

and possession of a terrorist document






be charged with four counts of incitement to racial hatred






be charged with phone hacking





be charged with her/his kidnapping and false imprisonment






be charged in court












































prosecution case








Crown Prosecution Service    CPS



















The decision to charge Couzens, 48,

was made by lawyers

from the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS),

which authorises criminal proceedings

in England and Wales.


Rosemary Ainslie,

head of special crime at the CPS, said:

“Following a referral of evidence

by the Metropolitan police

related to the death of Sarah Everard,

the CPS has authorised the police

to charge Wayne Couzens

with murder and kidnapping.


“The function of the CPS

is not to decide whether a person

is guilty of a criminal offence,

but to make fair, independent

and objective assessments

about whether it is appropriate to present charges

to a court to consider.”










chief crown prosecutor for CPS North West


















The chief prosecutor of England and Wales / Director of public prosecutions    DPP


The DPP is responsible

for determining any charges

and prosecuting criminal cases investigated

by the police in England and Wales.






























prosecuting lawyer






the prosecution claims that...










January 25, 1864


Draper's bell tolls for a bed tick thief


From the Guardian archive


January 25 1864
The Manchester Guardian


Novel thief catching. John Paul was charged at the Salford Town Hall yesterday with having stolen a bed tick [mattress case] from the shop door of Mr. Henry Boardman, draper, Chapel-street. The prosecutor displays some of his goods on strings, and fastens a bell to them to give an alarm in case they are disturbed. On the 18th, he heard the bell ring, and on going to the door he discovered the prisoner running away with a bed tick. He followed him, and took him into custody. It was stated that the bell had been the means of apprehending several other thieves. The prisoner was summarily committed for three months.

Theft of tea. Yesterday, at the City Police Court, Joseph Eastwood, and Sarah Ann Redfern were charged with attempting to steal a chest of tea worth £4.10s. from the shop of Mr. John Brady, Julia-street, Strangeways. Mrs. Brady said that on Monday evening Redfern came into the shop and asked for a halfpenny-worth of toffy [sic], and while attending to her she saw Eastwood removing a chest of tea from behind the door. Seeing he was observed, Eastwood ran away, leaving the chest in the shop. She then charged the girl with being an accomplice, and gave her into custody. At the station Redfern said that Eastwood and a man named Turner took the chest. A boy named Robert Baird, who informed Mrs. Brady of the attempted robbery, said he saw Eastwood and another standing at the door. The prisoners were remanded to Friday.

Five years for stealing cheese. A boy, 15-years-old, named Martin Judson, was charged at the City Police Court, yesterday, with stealing several pounds of cheese from the shop of Mr. John Markendale, Berkeley-street, Strangeways. The prosecutor's wife heard a noise in the shop on Monday night, and on going to see what was the cause, she saw the prisoner running from the house, and at the same time she missed the stolen cheese; which the prisoner threw at a girl who spoke to him as he was passing. He was shortly afterwards apprehended. The boy's father, who stated that he was a working optician, said his son had of late been led into bad company.

He begged the magistrates to dismiss the case, and promised he would answer for his good behaviour in future. Mr. Boss (the presiding magistrate) said the prisoner had already been convicted of attempting to pick pockets and the offence could not be overlooked. He ordered that he be sent to prison for a month and afterwards to a reformatory for five years.

Draper's bell tolls for a bed tick thief, G, January 25 1864,
Republished Wednesday January 25, 2006,






July 13, 1850


A lad's life of prison and whippings


From the Guardian archive


Saturday July 13, 1850


On Wednesday, a little lad named John Johnson, stated to be 13 years of age, though he did not appear to be more than ten, was brought before Mr. Hodgson, at the Borough Court, charged with stealing two pies from the window of a small pie shop in Jersey-street, Ancoats, kept by a man named Edward Hayes.

On the previous afternoon, he was seen by a neighbour looking in at the window, and immediately afterwards he passed her house door with two pies. It was subsequently ascertained that the window had been opened, and two pies stolen out.

The prisoner, in answer to the charge, protested several times that he found the pies on the ground, and did not take them out of the window.

Inspector Livingston, in reply to a question put by Mr. Hodgson, said the prisoner had been in prison several times. He then read the following list of his convictions: - One month, three months and whipped, one month and whipped, three months and whipped, two months and whipped, six months.

When asked how long he had been out of prison, the prisoner replied since last week but one. He again said he did not take the pies out of the window, and urged that no one saw him.

Mr. Hodgson said that if any one had seen him, he (Mr. Hodgson) would have committed him to the sessions, and the probability was that he would then have been got rid of [deported]; as it was, he should summarily commit him for three months.

Plucking Flowers: - On Saturday afternoon, a man named James McCorquodale was caught plucking flowers in Queen's Park. The park keeper asked him if he could read, as there are boards in the park, warning visitors not to touch flowers and shrubs, and he replied that he could.

On Monday the prisoner was brought up at the Borough Court, before Mr. John Sharp, the sitting magistrate. Councillor Ashmore, one of the members of the park committee, said that the committee were desirous that an example should be made of the prisoner.

Persons who had been found plucking flowers had been brought before the park committee and reprimanded, but that appeared to have no effect.

They had provided a board on which to publish the names of persons offending, and how they were delt [sic] with, a plan similar to that adopted in Kensington Gardens, London.

The prisoner admitted plucking the flowers, but expressed his sorrow. He was ordered to pay the value of the flowers, and 4s. 6d. costs, or be committed to hard labour for 14 days.

From the Guardian archive > July 13, 1850 >
A lad's life of prison and whippings, G,
Republished 13.7.2006,










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