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Vocapedia > USA > Politics > Presidential elections > Primaries / Caucuses

 

Delegates > Conventions > Nominations

 

 

 

 

What are the Iowa caucuses?        Video        Guardian Animations        The Guardian        26 January 2016

 

The Iowa caucuses: what are they and why do they matter?

 

The Guardian takes a look at the Hawkeye State

and its outsized role in the US presidential election,

detailing the small and intimate voting processes of a caucus,

and why it differs from the more traditional primary election.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FsfjgNgmJqw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

caucus

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/30/
464960972/iowa-update-republicans-and-democrats-race-to-reach-supporters

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > presidential nominations > caucuses        UK

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jan/19/
iowa-caucuses-explained-2016-election-democrats-republicans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

caucus, caucuses

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/15/
481531147/americans-dont-like-caucuses-but-replacing-them-with-primaries-isnt-easy

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/28/
468428169/suddenly-south-carolina-projects-clinton-power-into-super-tuesday

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/02/24/
467926409/5-headlines-donald-trump-dominates-in-nevada

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/24/us/
politics/nevada-caucus-gop.htm

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/13/
466659882/4-things-to-know-about-the-south-carolina-primaries

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/18/467
122955/what-you-need-to-know-about-nevadas-democratic-caucuses

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/01/
465180967/the-iowa-caucuses-explained-by-broadway

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > hold caucuses        UK

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jan/19/
iowa-caucuses-explained-2016-election-democrats-republicans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

caucusses ≠ primaries

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/15/
481531147/americans-dont-like-caucuses-but-replacing-them-with-primaries-isnt-easy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Detroit voters waited outside First Unitarian Universalist Church.

 

Photograph: Brittany Greeson for The New York Times

 

Bernie Sanders Wins Michigan Primary; Donald Trump Takes 3 States

NYT

MARCH 8, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/09/us/politics/primary-elections-michigan.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > caucus goers        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jan/19/
iowa-caucuses-explained-2016-election-democrats-republicans

 

 

 

 

voter

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/11/
469990052/millions-of-voters-are-sending-a-message-
our-economic-framework-is-rotten

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/20/
467498534/photos-voters-make-their-voices-heard-
in-nevada-and-south-carolina

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/11/
opinion/the-year-of-the-angry-voter.html

 

 

 

 

undeclared voters

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/09/us/
politics/new-hampshires-undeclared-voters-know-this-they-can-tip-primary.html

 

 

 

 

turnout

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/09/
469767996/republicans-keep-posting-phenomenal-turnout-numbers

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/02/
468918065/republican-super-tuesday-turnout

 

 

 

 

vote

 

 

 

 

vote

 

 

 

 

go to the polls

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/20/
467487212/the-stream-south-carolina-and-nevada-go-to-the-polls

 

 

 

 

head to the polls

 

 

 

 

exit polls

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/01/
468814831/4-takeaways-from-the-super-tuesday-exit-polls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

primary election / party's nomination

 

choosing Republican and Democratic candidates

for the presidential election

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/
upshot/why-donald-trump-is-probably-two-states-from-victory.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/23/
471563611/the-mind-boggling-story-of-our-arcane-and-convoluted-primary-politics

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/09/us/
politics/primary-elections-michigan.html

 

http://elections.nytimes.com/2012/
primaries/results/live/2012-04-03

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/05/
johnmccain.uselections2008

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-08-09-
connecticut-primary_x.htm

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN2852828020080131

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN3131092220080131

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN3130868820080131

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN3130813920080131

 

 

 

 

 

Democratic primary / Democratic nominating contest

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/06/us/
politics/democratic-primary-results.html

 

 

 

 

caucus, caucuses / presidential primaries

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/15/
481531147/americans-dont-like-caucuses-but-replacing-them-with-primaries-isnt-easy

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/02/
465193561/cruz-wins-iowa-republican-caucus-clinton-sanders-
still-too-close-to-call

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/30/
464960979/how-do-the-iowa-caucuses-work

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/30/
464960972/iowa-update-republicans-and-democrats-race-to-reach-supporters

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/29/
464804185/why-does-iowa-vote-first-anyway

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/us/
politics/maryland-wisconsin-washington-primaries.html

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-politics-newjersey-correction-
idUSN3130813920080202
- Feb 1, 2008

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-politics-states-
idUSN2248965720080122 - Jan 22, 2008

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/09/
opinion/09battlegrounds.html

 

 

 

 

campaign

 

 

 

 

on the campaign trail

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/03/
opinion/sunday/jobs-and-trade-on-the-campaign-trail.html

 

 

 

 

republican primary campaign

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/03/
465456103/new-hampshire-newspaper-publisher-trump-
has-overturned-the-table

 

 

 

 

presidential run

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/13/us/
politics/donald-trump-campaign.html

 

 

 

 

front-runners

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/04/
465592850/heading-into-new-hampshire-gop-front-runners-are-anything-but

 

 

 

 

candidate

http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/elections/
100000004362674/candidates-speak-after-primaries.html - April 27, 2016

http://takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/04/15/
clinton-and-sanders-show-their-exhaustion/ 

 

 

 

 

establishment candidate

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/08/
465916627/why-a-vote-for-jeb-bush-could-be-a-vote-for-trump-
in-the-new-hampshire-primary

 

 

 

 

race

 

 

 

 

Rick Santorum’s Race        2012

 

In primaries and caucuses,

Mr. Santorum carried much

of the rural Midwest and South,

and had heavy support from evangelical voters

and the most conservative voters.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/04/10/us/
rick-santorum-map.html

 

 

 

 

dominate the Republican race

www.npr.org/2016/02/09/
466210908/new-hampshire-primary-the-polls-begin-to-close

 

 

 

 

G.O.P. Primary in New Hampshire        January 2012

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/11/
opinion/the-republican-contest.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/11/us/
politics/mitt-romney-wins-in-new-hampshire-republican-primary.html

 

 

 

 

debate

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/03/
opinion/five-big-questions-after-a-vulgar-republican-debate.html

 

 

 

 

rally

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/26/
475681237/campaign-mystery-why-dont-bernie-sanders-big-rallies-lead-to-big-wins

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/13/
470294270/trump-on-rally-violence-dont-accept-responsibility-might-pay-legal-bills

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/11/
470154065/donald-trump-rally-in-chicago-canceled-amid-widespread-protests

http://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2016/03/10/
donald-trump-rally-protester/

 

 

 

 

protest

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/11/
470154065/donald-trump-rally-in-chicago-canceled-amid-widespread-protests

 

 

 

 

Iowa caucuses

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/01/
465180967/the-iowa-caucuses-explained-by-broadway

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/02/us/
ted-cruz-wins-republican-caucus.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/30/
464960979/how-do-the-iowa-caucuses-work

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/30/
464960972/iowa-update-republicans-and-democrats-
race-to-reach-supporters

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/29/
464804185/why-does-iowa-vote-first-anyway

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jan/19/
iowa-caucuses-explained-2016-election-democrats-republicans

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/04/us/
politics/santorum-and-romney-fight-to-a-draw.html

 

 

 

 

presidential contests

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUKN0627758320080206

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

radio ads and robo calls

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/19/
467427120/pro-cruz-superpac-slams-trump-
for-supporting-removal-of-confederate-flag

 

 

 

 

political TV ads

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/06/
465819138/do-political-tv-ads-still-work

 

 

 

 

political ads

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/15/
470513529/a-white-noise-of-negativity-floridas-political-ads-reviewed

 

 

 

 

attack ads

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/02/08/us/
politics/republican-presidential-candidates-attacks-new-hampshire.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

support

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/11/
opinion/campaign-stops/how-many-people-support-trump-but-dont-want-to-admit-it.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/13/
opinion/why-im-supporting-bernie-sanders.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/19/
467427120/pro-cruz-superpac-slams-trump-
for-supporting-removal-of-confederate-flag

 

 

 

 

supporter

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/us/
politics/bernie-sanders-supporters-nevada.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/29/
468512353/for-some-trump-supporters-kkk-questions-are-overblown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fundraising > superPAC

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/02/25/
does-money-really-matter-in-politics

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/23/
467745559/where-did-all-that-jeb-bush-superpac-money-go

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/19/
467427120/pro-cruz-superpac-slams-trump-
for-supporting-removal-of-confederate-flag

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/19/
467427120/pro-cruz-superpac-slams-trump-
for-supporting-removal-of-confederate-flag

 

 

 

 

campaign spending

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/29/
476047822/sanders-campaign-has-spent-50-percent-more-than-clinton-in-2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/22/us/
politics/ted-cruz-and-donald-trump-have-deepest-pockets-
ahead-of-super-tuesday.html

http://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2016/02/21/
donald-trump-lent-himself-5-million-in-january/

 

 

 

 

campaign financing

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/04/
472922757/small-donors-power-and-inspire-the-sanders-campaign

 

 

 

 

campaign financing > SuperPACs

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/04/
472922757/small-donors-power-and-inspire-the-sanders-campaign

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/07/
462211790/superpacs-are-not-so-super-in-2016

 

 

 

 

donate

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/04/
472922757/small-donors-power-and-inspire-the-sanders-campaign

 

 

 

 

donor

 

 

 

 

small donor

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/04/
472922757/small-donors-power-and-inspire-the-sanders-campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

endorse

https://www.npr.org/2020/03/04/
811873643/after-disappointing-super-tuesday-mike-bloomberg-suspends-his-campaign

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/10/
469972525/republican-senators-give-ted-cruz-the-cold-shoulder

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/10/
470011845/ben-carson-to-endorse-donald-trump

 

 

 

 

political endorsements

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/10/
469972525/republican-senators-give-ted-cruz-the-cold-shoulder

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/28/
468446173/do-political-endorsements-have-real-impact

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tally

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/02/
465268206/coin-toss-fact-check-no-coin-flips-did-not-win-iowa-for-hillary-clinton

 

 

 

 

coin flips

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/02/
465268206/coin-toss-fact-check-no-coin-flips-did-not-win-iowa-for-hillary-clinton

 

 

 

 

beat

 

 

 

 

beat the GOP field by double digits

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/09/
466210908/new-hampshire-primary-the-polls-begin-to-close

 

 

 

 

wallop

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/09/
466210908/new-hampshire-primary-the-polls-begin-to-close

 

 

 

 

a stunning blow to N

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/09/
466210908/new-hampshire-primary-the-polls-begin-to-close

 

 

 

 

deal a fatal blow to N

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/15/
470596163/mega-tuesday-results-poised-to-reshape-presidential-race

 

 

 

 

win

http://www.npr.org/2016/05/10/
477553418/bernie-sanders-wins-west-virginia-primary

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/20/us/
politics/new-york-primary.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/06/us/
politics/democratic-primary-results.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/06/us/
politics/republican-primary-results.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/27/
472056754/despite-the-math-bernie-sanders-has-already-won

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/26/
471974239/democratic-voters-gather-to-caucus-in-alaska-hawaii-and-washington-state

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/15/
470596163/mega-tuesday-results-poised-to-reshape-presidential-race

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/09/us/
politics/primary-elections-michigan.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/28/
468428169/suddenly-south-carolina-projects-clinton-power-
into-super-tuesday

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/24/us/
politics/nevada-caucus-gop.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/20/
467503655/hillary-clinton-projected-to-win-nevada-caucuses

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/20/
467507410/trump-cruz-and-rubio-battle-for-south-carolina-prize

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/10/us/
politics/new-hampshire-primary.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/02/us/
ted-cruz-wins-republican-caucus.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/02/
465193561/cruz-wins-iowa-republican-caucus-clinton-sanders-
still-too-close-to-call

 

 

 

 

win clear

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/09/
466210908/new-hampshire-primary-the-polls-begin-to-close

 

 

 

 

win Republican caucuses in Iowa

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/02/us/
ted-cruz-wins-republican-caucus.html

 

 

 

 

notch big wins

across the South on Super Tuesday

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/01/
468792843/super-tuesday-trump-and-clinton-eye-big-wins

 

 

 

 

landslide win

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/us/
politics/indiana-republican-democratic.html

 

 

 

 

sweep caucuses in N

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/26/
471974239/democratic-voters-gather-to-caucus-
in-alaska-hawaii-and-washington-state

 

 

 

 

sweep five states

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/
upshot/why-donald-trump-is-probably-two-states-from-victory.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/us/
politics/donald-trump-hillary-clinton.html

 

 

 

 

take four states

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/us/
politics/donald-trump-hillary-clinton.html

 

 

 

 

overwhelm G.O.P. rivals

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/02/us/
politics/republican-primary-results.html

 

 

 

 

decisive victory

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/09/
466210908/new-hampshire-primary-the-polls-begin-to-close

 

 

 

 

lose

 

 

 

 

big loss

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/29/
468503343/ahead-of-super-tuesday-and-after-a-big-loss-bernie-sanders-
lowers-expectations

 

 

 

 

disappointing showing

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/20/
467505778/jeb-bush-ends-presidential-campaign

 

 

 

 

rout

 

 

 

 

also-rans

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/06/
465760840/an-ode-to-the-also-rans-in-american-politics

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/04/us/
politics/jeb-bush-an-also-ran-in-iowa-may-be-pivotal-in-new-hampshire.html

 

 

 

 

Democratic presidential nominee

http://www.gocomics.com/mike-lester/2016/07/30

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487836778/final-day-of-the-dnc-hillary-clinton-will-accept-her-nomination

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487817725/fact-check-hillary-clintons-speech-to-the-democratic-convention-annotated

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/26/
487514643/clinton-makes-history-as-democratic-presidential-nominee

 

 

 

 

Republican presidential nominee

http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-10-31-
candidates-midwest_N.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What Are Superdelegates?        2008

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?
storyId=18908855 - February 12, 200812:00 PM ET
 

 

 

 

 

superdelegates > 712 Democratic superdelegates        2016

 

Superdelegates

consist of some well-known names

— members of Congress and former presidents

(Bill Clinton is one), for example

— and many party insiders

who most Americans don't know —

state party leaders and Democratic

National Committee members, for example.

 

While the non-super delegates

are allocated based on how people vote

in the various state caucuses and primaries,

the superdelegates are "unbound,"

meaning they can choose who they want.

 

This can make for delegate counts

that don't quite seem to make sense

considering vote totals.

 

In New Hampshire,

where Sanders won the primary

by a 22-point margin,

both he and Clinton

have 15 total delegates.

 

While he won 15

of the state's 24 non-super delegates,

she has 6 of the 8 superdelegates

in her corner.

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/18/
467230964/survey-clinton-maintains-massive-superdelegate-lead

 

 

 

Superdelegates are party bigwigs

— 712 Democratic leaders,

legislators, governors and the like.

 

They can vote for any candidate

at the nominating convention,

regardless of whether that candidate

won the popular vote.

 

These unpledged delegates

make up 30 percent

of the 2,382 delegates

whose votes are needed

to win the nomination,

and could thus make all the difference.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/20/
opinion/superdelegates-clarify-your-role.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/12/
opinion/campaign-stops/the-not-so-super-delegates.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/09/
473398688/sanders-supporter-creates-superdelegate-hit-list-
superdelegates-not-amused

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/27/
472056754/despite-the-math-bernie-sanders-has-already-won

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/20/
opinion/superdelegates-clarify-your-role.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/18/
467230964/survey-clinton-maintains-massive-superdelegate-lead

 

 

 

 

 superdelegate system

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/09/
473398688/sanders-supporter-creates-superdelegate-hit-list-
superdelegates-not-amused

 

 

 

 

USA > superdelegates        2008        UK / USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/us/
politics/05superdelegates.html

http://politics.nytimes.com/election-guide/2008/
results/superdelegates/index.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/14/
hillaryclinton.barackobama

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/10/
barackobama.hillaryclinton

http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-03-17-
poll_N.htm

http://fish.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/16/
memo-to-the-superdelegates-no-principles-please/index.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/08/us
elections2008.barackobama

http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-03-03-
superdelegates_N.htm

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/29/us/
politics/29delegates.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/23/us
elections2008.barackobama

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/15/
opinion/15mann.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/10/us/
politics/10superdelegates.html

 

 

 

 

superdelegates > cartoons > Cagle        2008

http://www.cagle.com/news/Superdelegates08/main.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How delegates work in U.S. politics        CNN        25 February 2016

 

 

 

 

How delegates work in U.S. politics        CNN        25 February 2016

 

CNN's Zain Asher explains

the process of working with delegates

in the U.S. political system.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRGkJTa4IHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How delegates are selected -  Wed Feb 24, 2016

http://www.reuters.com/article/
us-usa-election-delegates-factbox-idUSKCN0VY094

 

 

 

 

2016 Delegate Count and Primary Results

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/us/
elections/primary-calendar-and-results.html

 

 

 

 

delegates        2016

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/06/
481020591/why-hillary-clinton-will-be-called-the-presumptive-nominee

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/us/
politics/bernie-sanders-supporters-nevada.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/
upshot/why-donald-trump-is-probably-two-states-from-victory.html?

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/16/
474485584/new-york-a-turning-point-for-democrat-race

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/11/
473855290/can-a-candidate-pay-delegates-
plus-3-likely-gop-convention-scenarios

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/09/
473659991/ted-cruz-courts-delegates-in-colorado

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/09/
473632387/wyoming-democrats-prep-for-caucuses-with-hopes-for-high-turnout

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/09/
473674198/cruz-puts-another-hurdle-on-trump-s-path-to-gop-nomination

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/06/us/
politics/democratic-primary-results.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/27/
472056754/despite-the-math-bernie-sanders-has-already-won

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/24/47
1685045/in-this-gop-primary-you-can-win-the-state-but-only-get-a-few-delegates

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRGkJTa4IHA - CNN, 25 February 2016

 

 

 

 

race for the 2,383 delegates

needed to secure the Democratic nomination

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/06/
481020591/why-hillary-clinton-will-be-called-the-presumptive-nominee

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/06/us/
politics/democratic-primary-results.html

 

 

 

 

1,237 Republican delegates = Republican presidential nomination

http://www.npr.org/2016/05/26/
479588197/donald-trump-clinches-gop-nomination

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/
upshot/why-donald-trump-is-probably-two-states-from-victory.html

 

 

 

 

court delegates

http://www.npr.org/2016/04/09/
473659991/ted-cruz-courts-delegates-in-colorado

 

 

 

 

Elections 2016: Democratic And Republican Delegate Tracker        2016

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/02/
468641509/elections-2016-democratic-and-republican-delegate-tracker

 

 

 

 

delegate tracker        2008

http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/
delegate-tracker.htm

 

 

 

 

delegates        2008

http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-Campaign-Delegates.html

http://politics.nytimes.com/election-guide/2008/results/delegates/index.html

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN0523530520080209

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN3124420220080131?sp=true

 

 

 

 

delegate count        2008

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/
idUSN0336894120080305?virtualBrandChannel=10112

http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-Campaign-Delegates.html

http://www.reuters.com/news/globalcoverage/2008delegatecount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday: From Past to Present

NYT    By TURNER COWLES | Mar. 1, 2016 | 1:21

 

The idea of Super Tuesday

is a relatively recent introduction

into presidential politics.

 

The first one was in 1984,

when President Reagan

was the uncontested Republican candidate.

 

It has changed since.

http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/100000004241898/
super-tuesday-from-past-to-present.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday        2020

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/03/04/
811785729/biden-surges-on-super-tuesday-transforming-democratic-primary-into-2-man-race

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/03/04/
811885356/bloombergs-super-tuesday-flop

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday        2016

 

What is Super Tuesday?

 

It's when more states vote

and more delegates are at stake

than on any other single day

in the presidential primary campaign.

 

 

Isn't it also called the SEC Primary?

 

That's a colloquial term used by some.

It refers to the collegiate athletic conference,

the Southeastern Conference,

known for its powerhouse football teams.

 

Several states holding contests

on Super Tuesday

have teams that play in the SEC

Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee and Texas.

 

But many others do not.

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/27/
468249702/super-tuesday-heres-what-you-need-to-know

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/02/
468846128/super-tuesday-brings-harsh-light-
and-heartaches-on-the-morning-after

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/02/
468836907/super-tuesday-how-it-happened-state-by-state

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/01/
468792843/super-tuesday-trump-and-clinton-eye-big-wins

http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/100000004241898/
super-tuesday-from-past-to-present.html - Mar. 1, 2016

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/29/
468253626/a-history-of-super-tuesday

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/27/
468249702/super-tuesday-heres-what-you-need-to-know

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/22/us/
politics/ted-cruz-and-donald-trump-have-deepest-pockets-
ahead-of-super-tuesday.html

 

 

 

 


A History Of Super Tuesday        NPR        February 29, 2016 6:00 AM ET

 

The phrase "Super Tuesday"

first emerged in 1980,

when three southern states

— Alabama, Florida and Georgia —

held their primaries on the same day.

 

It grew to nine in 1984.

 

But the modern-day

Super Tuesday was born in 1988,

when a dozen southern states

on the Democratic side,

upset with the nomination of Walter Mondale

four years earlier

and frustrated with being out of power

in the White House for 20 years,

save for one term of Jimmy Carter,

banded together to try and nominate

someone more moderate.

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/29/
468253626/a-history-of-super-tuesday
 

 

 

 

 

southern Super Tuesday states        UK

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/feb/24/
the-new-south-alabama-voting-rights

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday        2012

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/mar/07/
super-tuesday-romney-ohio-santorum

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2012/mar/06/
ohio-republican-primary-super-tuesday

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2012/mar/07/
super-tuesday-republican-reaction-video

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/
opinion/super-tuesday.html

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday > Results state by state        UK        2008

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2008/feb/01/
uselections2008

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/feb/06/
uselections2008 

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday polls        2008

http://www.reuters.com/news/globalcoverage/2008candidates

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday        2008

http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-02-06-
super-tuesday-slideshow_N.htm

http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/usa/2008/02/
podcast_super_tuesday_explaine.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/feb/05/us
elections2008.photography?picture=332380700

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uselections08/comment/story/0,,2252428,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2008/feb/01/uselections2008

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN0442454120080205

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN3131092220080204

http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN2852828020080204

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/05/opinion/05tue1.html

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0145760920080202

http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN0145760920080201

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN3130813920080202

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday > Cartoons        2008

http://www.cagle.com/news/SuperTuesday08/main.asp

 

 

 

 

Mega Tuesday

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/16/
470621382/5-mega-tuesday-takeaways-trump-clinton-both-building-broad-party-coalitions

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/15/
470422003/mega-tuesday-possibly-the-most-consequential-day-of-voting-yet

http://www.npr.org/2016/03/11/
470117672/heres-what-you-need-to-know-about-the-march-15-mega-tuesday-contests

 

 

 

 

contest

https://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN22489657
20080122 

 

 

 

 

support

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/13/
opinion/why-im-supporting-bernie-sanders.html

 

http://politics.nytimes.com/election-guide/2008/
results/superdelegates/index.html

 

 

 

 

nominating season

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/03/us/
politics/03cnd-campaign.html

 

 

 

 

run for the Republican nomination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

political conventions

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/08/14/
902160886/political-conventions-will-likely-never-be-the-same

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Democratic National Convention    DNC

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/2016-democratic-convention

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/29/
487954029/photos-dissent-drama-and-unity-at-the-democratic-convention

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/29/
487889370/clinton-makes-history-clearing-multiple-hurdles-at-philly-convention

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/29/
opinion/hillary-clinton-victim-of-her-own-success.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/29/
opinion/hillary-clinton-makes-history.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/29/us/
politics/convention-highlights.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/29/us/
politics/clinton-women-reaction.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/07/28/
opinion/campaign-stops/Hillary-Clinton-Convention-Day-4.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487836778/final-day-of-the-dnc-hillary-clinton-will-accept-her-nomination

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HNEIQ8olnro - 28 July 2016

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487817725/fact-check-hillary-clintons-speech-to-the-democratic-convention-annotated

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487856654/watch-muslim-father-of-fallen-soldier-tells-trump-you-have-sacrificed-nothing

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487780012/dncs-oldest-delegates-life-spans-early-days-of-suffrage-to-historic-nomination

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487729936/at-democratic-convention-making-the-case-for-hillary-clintons-readiness

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/28/
487729894/in-his-convention-speech-obama-sees-a-fundamental-choice

http://www.gocomics.com/scottstantis/2016/07/27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republican National Convention    RNC

 

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2016/06/19/
opinion/sunday/the-strip/s/2016-strip-slide-OJU4.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > A historic look at the Republican national convention – in pictures        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2016/jul/17/
republican-national-convention-history-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Corpus of news articles

 

Politics > USA > Presidential elections

 

Primaries / Caucuses

 

Delegates > Conventions > Nominations
 

 

 


The Not So Super Delegates

 

APRIL 12, 2016

The New York Times

Emma Roller

 

The paradox of a strong system of superdelegates in the 2016 primary season is that a significant section of the Democratic Party, which has them, wishes it didn’t, while the leadership of the Republican Party, which doesn’t have them, may well wish it did.

Left-wing Democrats have long argued that their party’s system of superdelegates is unfair because it gives too much weight to ruling elites, disenfranchising ordinary voters. Hillary Clinton’s lead in the delegate count — even as her rival, Senator Bernie Sanders, racks up win after win in state primaries and caucuses — has only sharpened the debate.

At the same time, with the failure of any establishment candidate to stop the populist insurgency of Donald J. Trump, the Republican Party also seems saddled with rules it doesn’t like. In its case, though, party leaders may wish they had something more like the Democratic approach.

Where the two parties’ systems are similar is the basic delegate mechanism: For both Republicans and Democrats, party members run in their home state to become “pledged” delegates at the party’s national convention. Pledged delegates are bound by the parties’ rules to vote for the winner in their state’s primary contest (or caucus).

Superdelegates are pre-eminently a Democratic institution: a group of more than 700 elected officials and senior party officers who are automatically entered into the delegation by virtue of their position. They account for about 15 percent of the convention’s total votes. Crucially, these superdelegates are “unpledged” or “unbound,” meaning they can change their mind about which candidate they will vote for at the Democratic National Convention in July. In other words, primary voters have no direct bearing on whom superdelegates choose to support. (Currently, of the 2,383 delegates needed to secure the Democratic nomination, Mrs. Clinton has 1,756, of which 469 are superdelegates, to Mr. Sanders’s total of 1,037, which includes 31 superdelegates.)

Robert Shrum, a veteran Democratic consultant and a politics professor at the University of Southern California, said superdelegates are “cushy patronage for party officials and past political officeholders.”

“They’re fundamentally undemocratic,” he said. “They shouldn’t exist, and it would be wonderful if we got rid of them. Superdelegates are a poison pill that the Democratic Party has never swallowed, in the sense that they have never determined a nominee against the will of the voters.”

The story starts in 1968, when the Democratic Party made a concerted effort to shift power over the nomination process from party bosses to primary voters. Four years later, that strategy appeared to backfire when the party nominated Senator George S. McGovern, an antiwar candidate, who proceeded to lose 49 states to President Richard M. Nixon. In 1976, Jimmy Carter won as another outsider candidate, only to lose the White House after a single term to Ronald Reagan in 1980’s 44-state landslide.

“The system as it was constructed at the time — with no superdelegates — allowed for insurgent candidates to gather momentum early and win the nomination,” said Joshua Putnam, a political scientist at the University of Georgia. “But those insurgent types of candidates were not necessarily well suited for the general election.”

That’s why, in 1981, the Democratic Party asked James B. Hunt, the governor of North Carolina, to lead an inquiry to figure out how the party could regain some control over the nominating process. In 1982, the Hunt Commission proposed the superdelegates system as an institutional backstop against maverick candidates.

The Hunt system is still largely in place today, despite subsequent attempts to dismantle it. In 2009, after a bruising primary between then Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton in which an extremely tight and drawn-out contest was decided only when a surge of superdelegate endorsements tipped the balance in Mr. Obama’s favor, the Democratic National Committee convened a new group to look at the issue. But in talks with committee leaders, who are granted automatic superdelegate status under the current system, the reformers’ efforts ran into a brick wall.

The Democratic strategist Bill Carrick, who served on both the 1982 and 2009 commissions, has opposed the idea of superdelegates since its inception. He lobbied to get rid of at least some superdelegates, starting with members of the national committee.

“Of course, that’s the Catch-22,” he said. “Whatever you do has to be approved by the D.N.C., who obviously are not very enthusiastic about voting away their automatic delegate status.”

On the surface, getting rid of superdelegates seems an easy fix to make the Democratic primary more, well, democratic. But it’s not that simple. The party can’t simply get rid of superdelegates by dispensing with the title: The elites would simply run to become delegates from their states, and might end up making the convention less representative of the party’s more diverse grass roots. These officials “would have to run for a delegate slot by competing against their own constituents,” Mr. Carrick said. There are those who argue that including many elected officials actually ensures diversity and enhances the democracy of the process.

The Republican Party already has some superdelegates, made up of three members from each state’s national party committee. However, they comprise only 7 percent of the total delegation, and are required to cast their ballots for the candidate who won their state’s primary or caucus. The rules get more complicated, naturally, in the case of a brokered convention.

The law of unintended consequences also applies to any reform. Between 2012 and 2016, the Republican National Committee made several rule changes that were meant to consolidate the Republican primary field more quickly and produce a competitive nominee. The party moved its convention earlier, made more primaries winner take all and mandated that superdelegates must vote for whichever candidate won their home state’s contest. Yet the new rules have merely smoothed Mr. Trump’s path to the nomination, while more moderate or establishment candidates have been shut out.

“The Trump thing is like a hostile takeover of one of the national political parties,” Mr. Carrick said. He predicts that party officials will have to take “a hard look at how they can get more control over the process.”

Dan Schnur worked on Senator John McCain’s 2000 presidential campaign and is now the director of the Jesse M. Unruh Institute of Politics at the University of Southern California. The very concept of superdelegates goes against the party’s federalist, bottom-up approach to politics, but after this cycle, traditional Republicans could be “very excited about the concept of superdelegates,” he said.

But there’s a big obstacle. “The only way it could possibly happen is for a Republican president elected with strong grass-roots conservative support to find a way to pitch it,” he said. “But it’s difficult to see any current elected Republican or party official who’d have the clout or the nerve to try it.”

Other Republican veterans remain uneasy at the prospect of a system of unpledged delegates.

“I believe the nominee should be chosen by delegates selected in each state — not some superdelegate who is only a delegate because of his or her status,” the former presidential candidate Bob Dole said in an email.

Democratic Party leaders will also be unlikely to revise their system. As Mr. Putnam, the political scientist from the University of Georgia, said: “Their goal is not democracy, per se. It’s a system that produces a candidate who can win a general election. Sometimes those things don’t align perfectly.”

While Mr. Sanders has made the idea of a “political revolution” central to his campaign, he has been notably reticent about the outsize role that superdelegates play in the nominating process. It’s not hard to figure out why: His campaign still holds out hope that he can peel superdelegates away from Mrs. Clinton as long as he keeps winning states.

“Sanders really can’t be attacking the superdelegates as long as he still hopes to win their support,” Mr. Schnur said. “At the precise moment that he determines that they’re not switching is when he goes on the attack.”

Emma Roller, a former reporter for National Journal,
is a contributing opinion writer.

The Not So Super Delegates,
NYT, April 12, 2016,
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/12/
opinion/campaign-stops/the-not-so-super-delegates.html

 

 

 

 

 

Factbox: The race to the U.S.

presidential nominations:

How delegates are selected

 

Wed Feb 24, 2016

9:45pm EST

Reuters

 

The nominating contests that will determine the Democratic and Republican nominees for the Nov. 8 U.S. presidential election are about to enter a critical phase. On March 1, known as Super Tuesday, primaries or caucuses will be held in about a dozen states, and they could be turning points in both parties.

But the key to winning the nomination for each party is ultimately not about the popular vote. It is about securing the number of delegates needed to win the nomination at each party's convention - July 18-21 in Cleveland for the Republicans and July 25-28 in Philadelphia for the Democrats.

Like so many things in politics, there are twists and turns in how the popular vote is used to ultimately select each party's candidate.

The following is a guide to the nominating process:

Q: Is the delegate selection process the same for the Republican and Democratic parties?

A: No. The parties set their own rules. One thing that is the same is that at each party convention, a candidate only needs to reach a simple majority of the delegate votes to win the nomination.

Q: How many delegates are there?

A: The Democratic convention will be attended by about 4,763 delegates, with 2,382 delegates needed to win the nomination. The Republican convention will be attended by 2,472 delegates, with 1,237 delegates needed to win.

Q: I keep hearing about "superdelegates." Are they different from other delegates? Do both the Republicans and Democrats have superdelegates?

A: Superdelegates, officially known as unpledged delegates, are a sort of wild card in the nominating process, but only the Democrats have them.

The category was created for the 1984 Democratic convention, and according to political scientists, they are a legacy of the 1980 convention when there was a fight for the nomination between President Jimmy Carter, who was seeking a second term in the White House, and Senator Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts. Members of Congress were frustrated by their lack of influence, because delegates elected to support one candidate could not switch to support another. So Democratic members of the House of Representatives led an effort to win a role for themselves. That resulted in the creation of superdelegates. Unlike other delegates, superdelegates may change what candidate they are supporting right up to the convention.

There is no fixed number of superdelegates because the group is defined by various categories whose members change from one election cycle to another. Here is who gets to be a superdelegate:

All Democratic members of the House of Representatives and the Senate; the Democratic governors; the Democratic president and vice president of the United States; former Democratic presidents and vice presidents; former Democratic leaders of the U.S. Senate; former Democratic speakers of the House and former Democratic minority leaders. Throw in the members of the Democratic National Committee and the former chairs of the DNC and you finally have the whole pool of superdelegates.

Q: What about the other delegates? Do they get to choose which candidate to support?

A: Both the Democratic and Republican parties send delegates to their conventions based on the popular vote in the primary elections and caucuses held in each of the 50 states. But the parties have different rules on how delegates are allotted to a candidate.

The Democratic Party applies uniform rules to all states. In each state, delegates are allocated in proportion to the percentage of the primary or caucus vote in each district. But a candidate must win at least 15 percent of the vote to be allocated any delegates.

The Republican Party lets states determine their own rules, although it does dictate some things. Some states award delegates proportionate to the popular vote, although most such states have a minimum percentage that a candidate must reach to win any delegates. Some other states use the winner-take-all method, in which the candidate with the highest percentage of the popular vote is awarded all the delegates. Other states use a combination of the two methods.

States that use the proportionate method may instead use the winner-take-all method if one candidate wins more than 50 percent of the popular vote.

In addition, the Republican Party requires that all states with nominating contests held between March 1 and March 14 use the proportional method, meaning that all the states holding votes on Super Tuesday will have to award delegates proportionally.

Q: What happens to delegates if a candidate drops out of the race?

A: Another good question, because we have certainly seen that happen this year.

For the Democratic Party, in every state, delegates are reallocated to the remaining candidates.

For the Republican Party, it varies by state. In some states, delegates are required to stick with their original candidate at least through the first ballot at the Republican National Convention. In some other states, if a candidate drops out, his or her delegates may immediately pledge to another candidate. There is also a middle ground in which those delegates are reallocated to the remaining candidates.

(...)


(Compiled and written by Leslie Adler;

Editing by Peter Cooney)

Factbox: The race to the U.S. presidential nominations:
How delegates are selected,
R, Feb. 24, 2016,
http://www.reuters.com/article/
us-usa-election-delegates-factbox-idUSKCN0VY094

 

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday:

Here's What

You Need To Know

 

February 27, 2016

5:09 AM ET

NPR

 

Everyone's talking about "Super Tuesday," what it means and that it's such a big deal in this presidential campaign. But why? Here's a quick explainer. Think of it as a frequently asked questions for Super Tuesday:



What is Super Tuesday?

It's when more states vote and more delegates are at stake than on any other single day in the presidential primary campaign.
 


Isn't it also called the SEC Primary?

That's a colloquial term used by some. It refers to the collegiate athletic conference, the Southeastern Conference, known for its powerhouse football teams. Several states holding contests on Super Tuesday have teams that play in the SEC (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee and Texas). But many others do not.
 


When is it?

Tuesday, March 1
 


How many states are actually voting?

13, plus the territory of American Samoa and Democrats Abroad (expatriates who consider themselves Democrats). We will see results in only 12 of those states (11 for Democrats, 11 for Republicans), because Republicans in Wyoming and Colorado begin their caucuses that day but won't have a presidential preference poll.
 


Where will we see results?

Alabama (R&D), Alaska (R only), American Samoa (D), Arkansas (R&D), Colorado (D), Georgia (R&D), Massachusetts (R&D), Minnesota (R&D), Oklahoma (R&D), Tennessee (R&D), Texas (R&D), Vermont (R&D) and Virginia (R&D), plus Democrats Abroad.

Other contests occurring on March 1, but not producing results: Wyoming (R) and Colorado (R). They are included on our calendar since Republican voters in those states will be starting the voting process that day.
 


How many delegates are up for grabs?

1,460 (865 for Democrats, 595 for Republicans). For Democrats, there are an additional 150 unpledged delegates, otherwise known as "superdelegates," in Super Tuesday states. They are free to vote however they want at the national convention this summer. With superdelegates added in, Super Tuesday represents 22 percent of all delegates.
 


How big is Super Tuesday?

For perspective, so far, only about 2 percent of the pledged Democratic delegates and 5 percent of the Republican delegates have been allocated. After Super Tuesday, that will jump to almost a quarter (24 percent) for the Democrats and about 30 percent for the GOP.

That's not a majority, though: True. But it's the snowball effect. If Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina were the kids' snowball that started down the mountain, Super Tuesday is what happens when that snowball hits the steepest part of the slope.



What's the day with the second most states and delegates?

 March 15, when five big states vote — Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio. And the system changes. Those carry 1,058 delegates (691 for Democrats, 367 for Republicans). More states start to become winner-take-all. By the end of March, about half of all Democratic delegates (48 percent) and almost two-thirds of Republican delegates (63 percent) will have been allocated.

Super Tuesday: Here's What You Need To Know,
NPR, FEB. 27, 2016,
http://www.npr.org/2016/02/27/
468249702/super-tuesday-heres-what-you-need-to-know

 

 

 

 

 

Super Tuesday

 

March 6, 2012

The New York Times


Long before Super Tuesday, the Republican Party had cemented itself on the distant right of American politics, with a primary campaign that has been relentlessly nasty, divisive and vapid. Barbara Bush, the former first lady, was so repelled that on Tuesday she called it the worst she’d ever seen. We feel the same way.

This country has serious economic problems and profound national security challenges. But the Republican candidates are so deep in the trenches of cultural and religious warfare that they aren’t offering any solutions.

The results Tuesday night did not settle the race. Republican voters will have to go on for some time choosing between a candidate, Mitt Romney, who stands for nothing except country-club capitalism, and a candidate, Rick Santorum, so blinkered by his ideology that it’s hard to imagine him considering any alternative ideas or listening to any dissenting voice.

There are differences. Mr. Santorum is usually more extreme in his statements than Mr. Romney, especially in his intolerance of gay and lesbian Americans and his belief that religion — his religion — should define policy and politics. Mr. Santorum’s remark about wanting to vomit when he reread John F. Kennedy’s remarkable speech in 1960 about the separation of church and state is one of the lowest points of modern-day electoral politics.

Mr. Romney has been slightly more temperate. But, in his desperation to prove himself to the ultraright, he has joined in the attacks on same-sex marriage, abortion and even birth control. He has never called Mr. Santorum on his more bigoted rants. Neither politician is offering hard-hit American workers anything beyond long discredited trickle-down economics, more tax cuts for the rich, a weakening of the social safety net and more of the deregulation that nearly crashed the system in 2008.

There is also no space between Mr. Romney and Mr. Santorum in the way they distort reality to attack Mr. Obama for everything he says, no matter how sensible, and oppose everything he wants, no matter how necessary. Rising gas prices? Blame the president’s sound environmental policies. Never mind that oil prices are set on world markets and driven up by soaring demand in China and Middle East unrest.

They also have peddled the canard that the president is weak on foreign policy. Mr. Romney on Tuesday called President Obama “America’s most feckless president since Carter.” Never mind that Mr. Obama ordered the successful raid to kill Osama bin Laden and has pummeled Taliban and Al Qaeda leaders, all without the Republicans’ noxious dead-or-alive swagger. Now, for the sake of scoring political points, Mr. Romney, Mr. Santorum and Newt Gingrich, who is hanging on only thanks to one backer’s millions, seem determined to push Israel toward a reckless attack on Iran.

Republican politicians have pursued their assault on Mr. Obama, the left and any American who disagrees with them for years now. There are finally signs that they may pay a price for the casual cruelty with which they attack whole segments of society. Senator Lisa Murkowski, a Republican of Alaska, said on Tuesday that the Republicans have left people thinking they are at war with women. Women are right to think that.

A new Pew Research poll shows that 3 in 10 voters say their opinion of the Republicans has worsened during the primaries. Among Democrats, 49 percent said watching the primaries have made them more likely to vote for Mr. Obama. That is up from 36 percent in December, which shows that Mr. Obama has risen as the Republicans have fallen.

But the president, who can be frustratingly inert at times, still has a long way to go.

    Super Tuesday, NYT, 6.3.2012,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/opinion/super-tuesday.html

 

 

 

 

 

For Clinton,

a Key Group Didn’t Hold

 

June 5, 2008

The New York Times

By KATHARINE Q. SEELYE

 

This article was reported by Julie Bosman, Larry Rohter

and Katharine Q. Seelye and was written by Ms. Seelye.



By mid-March, Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton’s campaign knew it had a problem with what it had once assumed was a reliable firewall — its support among superdelegates.

The fight for pledged delegates for the Democratic nomination was essentially over. Senator Barack Obama was ahead, after winning a series of caucuses in states that Mrs. Clinton virtually ignored.

Still, it became apparent that neither he nor Mrs. Clinton could claim the presidential nomination with pledged delegates alone, and the two would need superdelegates — elected officials and party activists — to fill the gap.

For Mrs. Clinton in particular, that signaled danger. The commanding lead she had held in superdelegates at the start of the contests — she was about 100 ahead of Mr. Obama — had dwindled by mid-March, to 12.

And superdelegates were showing an independence that the Clinton campaign had not counted on, not quite buying her argument that she was more electable than Mr. Obama.

The break in Mrs. Clinton’s supposed firewall turned out to be one of the most important factors in her campaign.

“Sure, Senator Clinton was the favorite early on, but that was simply because of the institutional support that she already had,” said Jason Rae of Wisconsin, a superdelegate who endorsed Mr. Obama in February. “In the beginning, people were unsure of Senator Obama. But as they continued to see primary after primary, and him excelling, and him attracting all these new voters, I think the superdelegates really started feeling more comfortable with him.”

Of all the assumptions the Clinton campaign made going into the race, its support among the party establishment seemed like a safe bet. Many of the superdelegates, who help pick the nominee at the convention in August, came of age during the Bill Clinton presidency. Many were personal Clinton loyalists, cultivated to help deliver the vote.

But the Obama campaign convinced many superdelegates that they should follow the voters’ will in making their endorsements. To the puzzlement and increasing frustration of the Clinton camp, few flowed her way. Her campaign never recovered from its string of losses through February. By the time she started winning again, with Ohio on March 4, her support among superdelegates hardly inched up.

At the same time, Mr. Obama posted a small but steady increase, culminating in a flood that surged on Tuesday and helped him claim the nomination.

In retrospect, relying on superdelegates as a firewall was flawed, said superdelegates who endorsed Mr. Obama.

Representative David E. Price, a superdelegate from North Carolina, said the idea that Mrs. Clinton could amass enough superdelegates to overturn the verdict of pledged delegates “was never in the cards.”

Don Fowler, a former party chairman and a superdelegate who had supported Mrs. Clinton, said as much in a memo to the campaign on March 11 predicting that at the end of the primaries Mr. Obama would have about 100 more pledged delegates than Mrs. Clinton.

Mr. Fowler said that “everything humanly possible should be done” to keep that number below 100, because it would be easier to persuade superdelegates that the two were essentially tied.

The Clintons certainly tried, interviews with two dozen superdelegates found. Many said that the Clintons had intensely pressured them and that their endorsements became a test of personal loyalty, subject to a hard sell. At the same time, many said they were drawn to the Obama campaign’s excitement.

So even during the Obama campaign’s darkest days — an eight-week stretch between Ohio and the Pennsylvania primary on April 22, during which Mr. Obama had called rural voters “bitter” and had to renounce his ties to his former pastor because of racial comments — more superdelegates were lining up with him than with her.

The Obama campaign skillfully managed the flow. Richard Machacek, a farmer and superdelegate from Iowa, for instance, said he told the Obama campaign on a Monday, April 29, that he was endorsing Mr. Obama. The campaign waited until Tuesday afternoon, the same day that Mr. Obama held a news conference to angrily renounce Reverend Wright, to announce Mr. Machacek’s endorsement.

“I don’t know if that was on my mind,” Mr. Machacek said of the timing. “But he needed it more then than he did before.”

David Wilhelm, Mr. Clinton’s first chairman of the Democratic Party, endorsed Mr. Obama in mid-February because, he said, he recognized the race might come down to them and he wanted to send a message to other superdelegates that it was time to support Mr. Obama.

Representative Ben Chandler of Kentucky, who came out for Mr. Obama on April 29, said he timed his endorsement to an “unusually critical” moment.

Mr. Chandler made a reference to the controversial Rev. Jeremiah A. Wright Jr. “Reverend Wright’s second incarnation,” Mr. Chandler said. “I did step forward then, because I thought it would be particularly important to him at that time. They seemed to be very happy about it.”

It was the sense among many superdelegates that they should follow the voters’ lead rather than loyalty to the Clintons that prompted many to come out on Mr. Obama’s behalf.

Patsy Arceneaux, a National Committee member from Louisiana who had a friendship with the Clintons, was persuaded early this year to support Mrs. Clinton. But when Mr. Clinton made what she saw as racially inflammatory comments in South Carolina, Ms. Arceneaux said she developed serious misgivings about supporting Mrs. Clinton.

After switching to Mr. Obama two weeks ago, the Clinton campaign bombarded her with dozens of calls, she said. “You can’t imagine how stressful this has been,” Ms. Arceneaux said. “It had gotten to where my life had just been taken over by this.”

Debbie Marquez, a superdelegate from Colorado, said she had made up her mind to shift to Mr. Obama, largely because he opposed the Iraq war from the start. The ex-president called and talked for 45 minutes, she said.

“When people talk about the finger wagging and lecturing in his speeches, I kind of felt that was going on over the phone,” Ms. Marquez said.

In the end, she was not swayed.
 


Austin Bogues contributed reporting.

    For Clinton, a Key Group Didn’t Hold, NYT, 5.6.2008,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/us/politics/05superdelegates.html

 

 

 

 

 

'Super delegate' win

would be unfair, voters say

 

17 March 2008
USA Today
By Susan Page

 

WASHINGTON — A majority of Democratic voters say it would be unfair for Hillary Rodham Clinton to win the presidential nomination through the support of "super delegates" if she lags among the convention delegates elected in primaries and caucuses, according to a USA TODAY/Gallup Poll.

If that happens, one in five say they wouldn't vote for the New York senator in the general election.

The findings in the survey, taken Friday through Sunday, underscore some of the perils ahead for Democrats as the closely fought nomination battle between Clinton and Illinois Sen. Barack Obama continues.

By 55%-37%, Democrats and independents who "lean" Democratic say an outcome in which Clinton lost among pledged delegates but prevailed with the help of super delegates would be "flawed" and unfair" — including 77% of Obama supporters and 28% of Clinton supporters.

Super delegates are party leaders and elected officials who can vote at the national convention and aren't bound by the results of their state's primary or caucus.

Most at risk is Democratic support from independents. Nearly two-thirds of those voters call that result unfair, and one-third say they would then vote for the Republican or stay home in November.

"It goes back to this notion: As this race winds down, it's not how we started the campaign, it's how we end it," says Donna Brazile, campaign manager for Al Gore's 2000 campaign, expressing concern that divisions in the party will present "obstacles" to a Democratic victory in November.

"I feel the emotions on both sides," says Brazile, herself an uncommitted super delegate. "I feel the pain and I feel the bruising."

Obama leads Clinton by 1,617 delegates to 1,498, according to an Associated Press count.

Neither candidate is likely to reach the 2,024 needed for nomination without including the support of super delegates.

The two campaigns have clashed over whether the super delegates should feel obligated to support the candidate with the most pledged delegates.

In the nationwide poll, Obama leads Clinton 49%-42% among Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents, a narrower margin than his record 12-percentage-point lead late last month.

In another shift from the February survey, Clinton does better than Obama against the presumptive Republican nominee, Arizona Sen. John McCain, though the numbers are within the poll's margin of error of +/—3 points.

Clinton beats McCain by 51%-46%. Obama leads McCain by 49%-47%.

The survey of 1,025 adults also asked Americans to assess the traits of the major presidential contenders.

Among the findings:

•Obama rates highest on five of 10 characteristics. He is seen as a candidate who "understands the problems Americans face in their daily lives" and "would work well with both parties in Washington to get things done." His weakest showing was in having "a clear plan for solving the country's problems."

•McCain ranks first on three characteristics: As "a strong and decisive leader," as honest and trustworthy, and as someone who could "manage the government efficiently." His lowest rating also is on having a clear plan to solve the nation's problems.

•Clinton rates highest on two traits, on having a vision for the country's future and a clear plan for solving the nation's problems. Her lowest rating is as someone who is honest and trustworthy.

    'Super delegate' win would be unfair, voters say, UT, 17.3.2008,
    http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-03-17-poll_N.htm

 

 

 

 

 

FACTBOX:

Delegate counts

for presidential candidates

 

Wed Mar 5, 2008
Reuters
1:56am EST

 

(Reuters) - Delegates at national party conventions in August and September will be the key to selecting the Democratic and Republican candidates who will face off in the presidential election on November 4.

Voters choose the delegates state by state.

The field of candidates has narrowed and Sen. John McCain of Arizona has taken a commanding lead in the Republican race, while the Democratic contest remains close between Sen. Barack Obama of Illinois and Sen. Hillary Clinton of New York.

Here are the total numbers of delegates awarded so far in nominating contests to the leading candidates, as estimated by MSNBC. Other news organizations may have reached different estimates.
 

 


DEMOCRATS (number needed for nomination 2,025)

- Barack Obama 1,202

- Hillary Clinton 1,042
 


REPUBLICANS (number needed for nomination 1,191)

- John McCain 1,205

- Mike Huckabee 248

- Ron Paul 14

 

 

HOW DELEGATES ARE AWARDED

Democrats distribute delegates in proportion to candidates' vote statewide and in individual congressional districts. That means candidates can come away with big chunks of delegates even in states they lose.

In contrast, most Republican contests are winner-take-all when awarding delegates. McCain became the likely Republican nominee when his chief rival dropped out. But former Arkansas Gov. Huckabee remains in the race.

In addition to those elected state by state, a certain number of delegates at the conventions are set aside for members of Congress, elected state officers and other leading party officials.

These "superdelegates" are not committed to a particular candidate and can back anyone they choose.

 

Source of Delegate Count: msnbc.com 

(Compiled by Deborah Charles and Donna Smith;

Editing by David Wiessler)

    FACTBOX: Delegate counts for presidential candidates, R, 5.3.2008,
    http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN0336894120080305

 

 

 

 

 

Democrats Vie for Delegates

 

March 5, 2008
Filed at 2:20 a.m. ET
The New York Times
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

 

WASHINGTON (AP) -- Democrats Barack Obama and Hillary Rodham Clinton split delegates in four states Tuesday while Republican John McCain claimed his party's nomination for president.

Clinton picked up at least 115 delegates in Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont and Texas, while Obama picked up at least 88. Nearly 170 delegates were still to be awarded, including 154 in Texas.

Obama had a total of 1,477 delegates, including separately chosen party and elected officials known as superdelegates, according to the Associated Press count. He picked up three superdelegate endorsements Tuesday,

Clinton had 1,391 delegates. It will take 2,025 delegates to secure the Democratic nomination.

McCain surpassed the 1,191 delegates needed to secure the nomination by winning delegates in the four states. He also picked up new endorsements from about 30 party officials who will automatically attend the convention and can support whomever they choose.

McCain had 1,224 delegates, according to the AP count. Former Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee, who had 261 delegates, dropped out of the race Tuesday night.

The AP tracks the delegate races by calculating the number of national convention delegates won by candidates in each presidential primary or caucus, based on state and national party rules, and by interviewing unpledged delegates to obtain their preferences.

Most primaries and some caucuses are binding, meaning delegates won by the candidates are pledged to support that candidate at the national conventions this summer.

Political parties in some states, however, use multistep procedures to award national delegates. Typically, such states use local caucuses to elect delegates to state or congressional district conventions, where national delegates are selected. In these states, the AP uses the results from local caucuses to calculate the number of national delegates each candidate will win, if the candidate's level of support at the caucus doesn't change.

    Democrats Vie for Delegates, NYT, 5.3.2008,
    http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-Campaign-Delegates.html

 

 

 

 

 

Obama and Clinton

Spending Furiously

 

February 21, 2008
The New York Times
By MICHAEL LUO

 

Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Rodham Clinton both spent at the furious clip of nearly a million dollars a day in January as they battled to win the initial contests for the Democratic nomination, according to filings on Wednesday with the Federal Election Commission.

But by the end of the month, Mr. Obama was in a much better position financially because he raised more than twice as much as Mrs. Clinton did in January, giving him a commanding cash advantage heading into a pivotal series of contests in February.

Mr. Obama spent more than $30 million in January, compared with the $28.4 million spent by Mrs. Clinton. But Mr. Obama brought in $36.1 million in January, more than anyone has ever raised in a single month in the history of American politics, with $28 million coming over the Internet, according to his campaign. Mrs. Clinton raised just $13.8 million in January. She also lent her campaign $5 million at the end of the month and still has $7.6 million in outstanding debts.

As a result, aided by money he began the month with in the bank, Mr. Obama ended January with $18.9 million heading into the coast-to-coast primaries and caucuses on Feb. 5.

In contrast, Mrs. Clinton was left at the end of January with just $8.9 million in cash available for the nominating contests, along with more than $20.3 million set aside for the general election that cannot be used to help her in the primaries.

As of the end of January, the Clinton campaign had spent $106 million over all on Mrs. Clinton’s primary campaign and raised $118 million, including money for both the primary and the general election, although her total receipts were $138 million, including transfers from her Senate campaign fund as well as her loan and other money. Mr. Obama had spent $115 million for operating expenditures and raised $137 million. Most significant, all but $6 million of his money is available for use in the primary.

On the Republican side, candidates saw their financial fortunes in January rise and fall with their political prospects. Senator John McCain, who emerged at the end of the month as the Republican front-runner, brought in $11.7 million in contributions for the month, close to the most he had ever raised in a three-month span, as Republican donors jumped on his bandwagon with his victories in New Hampshire, South Carolina and Florida.

Even with his best fund-raising month yet, however, Mr. McCain had raised just $48 million since his campaign began through January, a fraction of the nearly $140 million that Mr. Obama brought in during the same period.

Mr. McCain’s financial report for January illustrates the depths he rose from. With his hopes for the Republican nomination pinned almost entirely on winning the New Hampshire primary on Jan. 8, Mr. McCain turned to what was left of a $4 million loan that he took out in November to bolster his final push there.

Mr. McCain had already drawn down nearly $3 million from that loan in multiple installments in November and December to keep his flagging campaign afloat. In early January, he pulled out another $950,000 — almost all of what was left in the loan — to help him in the homestretch for New Hampshire’s primary. The infusion of cash enabled him to beat back Mitt Romney’s well-financed campaign in New Hampshire, setting Mr. McCain on the path to the nomination.

Mr. Romney’s report showed that he pumped in another $7 million of his own money into his campaign, bringing the total amount of money he gave his campaign to $42.3 million. He also raised $9.7 million in January and was left with $8.8 million in the bank at the end of the month, although he would ultimately pull out of the race after a disappointing performance in the states that voted on Feb. 5.

Bolstered by his newfound fund-raising prowess and the loan to his campaign, Mr. McCain ended up matching Mr. Romney’s spending for the month as they battled each other from New Hampshire to Michigan and then on to South Carolina and Florida, which proved to be pivotal. Mr. McCain spent $10.4 million in January, compared with Mr. Romney’s $10.3 million.

Mr. McCain finished the month with $5.2 million in cash on hand, although his campaign owes $5.5 million to various creditors. Also, $2.5 million of his money is general election money. At this point, however, he is the presumptive nominee of his party. His advisers said many former fund-raisers for rival Republican campaigns are signing up to help Mr. McCain, and he is beginning to build a fund-raising apparatus to be able to compete with the eventual Democratic nominee.

Mike Huckabee, who won the Iowa caucus in the beginning of January but went winless throughout the rest of the month before rebounding in Southern states on Feb. 5, reported raising nearly $4 million for the month. After spending nearly $5 million, he finished the month with $929,401 in cash in hand.

Rudolph W. Giuliani’s campaign, which went into a free fall in January after leading national polls and many early state surveys for months, raised $3.1 million in January and finished the month with nearly $9 million on hand, although the campaign also listed $2.2 million in debt. Almost $6 million of his money was also set aside for the general election.

Some senior staff members voluntarily went without salaries in January, but the filings revealed that many continued to be paid, a sign that the campaign was not necessarily on the verge of bankruptcy but had been trying to save money to prepare for contests that would never materialize after Mr. Giuliani pulled out at the end of the month.



Leslie Wayne, Griffin Palmer and Aron Pilhofer

contributed reporting.

    Obama and Clinton Spending Furiously, NYT, 21.2.2008,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/21/us/politics/21donate.html

 

 

 

 

 

Op-Ed Contributors

Delegates of Steel

 

February 15, 2008
The New York Times
By THOMAS E. MANN
and NORMAN J. ORNSTEIN

 

Washington

THE Democratic presidential nomination battle is virtually dead even between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. And while Senator Obama has moved ahead in recent days, neither is likely to come close to the 2,025 delegates needed to win the nomination from the pledged delegates they are awarded in primaries and caucuses. So the key to victory is in the 796 votes given to so-called superdelegates, the elected and party officials — members of the Democratic National Committee, Democratic members of the House and Senate and others with automatic status under the party rules. Superdelegates are free agents, able to switch their endorsements or commitments at any time.

No one expected that this year’s Democratic race would evolve this way. But now that it looks as if the nomination battle could go on for months, conceivably all the way to the convention, a reaction against superdelegates has begun. Donna Brazile, a commentator, long-time party strategist and superdelegate herself, told CNN, “If 795 of my colleagues decide this election, I will quit the Democratic Party.” Gary Hart, the former senator and presidential candidate, recently declared that the influence of the superdelegates “should be curtailed.”

These reactions reflect in part a legitimate concern that heavy-handed lobbying of the superdelegates might reverse the outcome of the contest for pledged delegates in the primaries and caucuses. But a review of the history of superdelegates suggests they are likely to play a constructive role in resolving the nomination before the convention and in unifying the party for the general election campaign.

Superdelegates were created by the Hunt Commission, set up in 1982 and led by Gov. James Hunt of North Carolina. The commission was reacting in part to a nominating process in which the weight of influence was with a relatively small cadre of ideological activists whose involvement with the party was essentially limited to the once-every-four-years push to nominate a like-minded presidential candidate. Their influence coincided with election losses in 1972 and 1980, when Jimmy Carter’s re-election effort was crimped by a draining primary challenge from the left.

The Hunt Commission proposed superdelegates (initially set at 14 percent of all delegates, subsequently increased to about 20 percent) to improve the party’s mainstream appeal by moderating the new dominance of these activists and by increasing the contributions of elected and party officials to the Democratic platform and their impact on the selection of a nominee; to provide an element of peer review, weighing the requirements of the office, the strengths and weaknesses of the candidates and the chances that they’ll win; and to create stronger ties between the party and its elected officials to promote a unified campaign and teamwork in government.

In 1984, the superdelegates stepped in to provide a majority for Walter Mondale — who had a huge edge in pledged delegates over Gary Hart but not enough to win the nomination — avoiding a potentially bitter and divisive convention that would have fractured the party.

Contrary to the assertion by Mr. Hart, who is understandably unhappy with the system, the superdelegates do have to answer to the party’s electorate. They have to go through the fire of elections themselves, or, as state or local party officials, are responsible for the election of the party’s slate. No delegates are more sensitive to the potential pitfalls of the presidential candidates or their electability than the superdelegates.

They are not immune to the emotions that drive other delegates to be enthusiastic about certain candidates. But superdelegates, sensitive to the implications of internecine battles, are more likely to try to transcend emotions to find a reasonable outcome that enhances the party’s chances of winning an election. The superdelegates do not unite to block the candidate with the strongest support from voters; they have always cast a majority of their votes for the candidate who won a majority or plurality of votes in the primaries.

In 2008, where two strong and capable candidates are fighting it out on every front, where the difficult issues of race and sex are on the table and where the gap between the two in total votes and pledged delegates is likely to be small, the potential for an explosive convention, where in the end half the delegates (and half the party) feels they have been cheated, is real.

In this case, the nomination could come down to a difficult and complex credentials battle over whether to seat delegates from Michigan and Florida. To have a nomination settled in this way is a bit like having an election settled by a 5-4 vote of the Supreme Court. Averting this kind of disaster is just what superdelegates are supposed to do.



Thomas E. Mann is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution.

Norman J. Ornstein is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.

They are the co-authors of “The Broken Branch.”

    Delegates of Steel, NYT, 15.2.2008,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/15/opinion/15mann.html

 

 

 

 

 

FACTBOX:

New Jersey

and its presidential primary

 

Fri Feb 1, 2008
11:56pm EST
Reuters

 

(Reuters) - New Jersey is among 24 states taking part in "Super Tuesday," the February 5 contests in which voters will choose nominees from the Democratic and Republican parties for the November U.S. presidential election.

Following are a few facts about New Jersey and its primary:

* Television advertising in New Jersey can be expensive, as the state is dominated by the large media markets of New York and Philadelphia. New York, home to Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton, holds its primary on the same day.

* Polls close at 8 p.m. EST. Democrats allocate delegates on a proportional basis, while all of the Republican delegates go to the winner of that contest.

* With a population of 8.7 million, New Jersey is the most densely populated state. The state's median household income of $66,752 was highest in the nation in 2006.

* New Jersey is home to many pharmaceutical companies, which have come under fire in the health care debate for high prices and heavy marketing practices.

* For much of the 20th century, New Jersey was a competitive state in national elections but has leaned Democratic since the 1990s. Among registered voters, 24 percent are Democrats and 18 percent are Republicans.

* The state's rich working-class culture has been celebrated by rocker Bruce Springsteen and "The Sopranos" TV show. In recent years, the state has drawn large numbers of immigrants.



Sources: Almanac of American Politics, U.S. Census Bureau

(Reporting by Andy Sullivan; Editing by Stacey Joyce)

    FACTBOX: New Jersey and its presidential primary, NYT, 1.2.2008,
    http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN3130813920080202

 

 

 

 

 

In White House race,

it's delegates that count

 

Thu Jan 31, 2008

5:15pm EST

Reuters

By John Whitesides,

Political Correspondent

 

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - In a hotly contested presidential race, votes are nice -- but it's delegates to this summer's nominating conventions that count.

While the Democratic and Republican presidential contenders dash coast-to-coast to hunt votes in 24 state contests on Tuesday, their campaign aides are focused on the state-by-state battle to accumulate convention delegates who select the nominee.

More than half of all Democratic delegates will be up for grabs on Tuesday, and about 40 percent of Republican delegates are at stake in the biggest single day of presidential primary voting in campaign history.

"It's useful to win states, but states don't vote -- delegates do," said Harold Ickes, who is heading up the delegate operation for New York Sen. Hillary Clinton.

"This is very much a race for delegates at this point," said Ickes, a longtime Clinton insider and aide to President Bill Clinton.

The delegate chase is particularly crucial for the Democratic contenders, Clinton and Illinois Sen. Barack Obama, who are running neck-and-neck for the right to represent the party in November's presidential election.

Unlike Republicans, Democrats distribute delegates among candidates in proportion to their vote statewide and in individual congressional districts. As a result, candidates can come away with big chunks of delegates even in states they lose.

In a tight race like the one between Clinton and Obama, the rules ensure no one is likely to get too big a lead and the battle is almost certain to extend to later contests in Virginia, Maryland, Wisconsin and beyond.

It could even extend to the August convention, when the delegates will cast their votes to elect the party's nominee -- although few party activists expect that to happen.

"In a two-candidate race, it's going to be very hard to deliver a knockout blow with elected delegates," Ickes said. "On the other hand, once someone gets a serious lead in delegates, it's going to be very hard to overtake them."

Democrats require 2,025 delegates to secure the party's presidential nomination. Republicans need 1,191 delegates to clinch the nomination.

The effect of the Democratic rules was evident in earlier state contests. While Clinton won the most votes in Nevada, Obama managed to win a projected 13 delegates to her 12 because of his strength in rural areas around the state.

Clinton also narrowly won New Hampshire, but the two candidates tied in delegates. Obama's win in Iowa gave him only one more projected delegate than Clinton.

"We're trying to do as well as we can in every state," said Obama campaign manager David Plouffe, who added next week's winner "will be very clear on February 6 in terms of the amount of delegates won."

 

REPUBLICANS DIFFERENT

Republican rules, in contrast, make many of their state contests winner-take-all, in which the top vote-getter corrals all of the state's delegates.

That could give Arizona Sen. John McCain, the front-runner among Republicans after his victory in Florida, an opportunity to take a prohibitive lead on Tuesday over former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney.

California, the biggest prize in either party, is an exception for Republicans. It allocates delegates by congressional district, meaning Romney or former Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee can lose the state to McCain but still pick up delegates if they do well in selected regions.

"If most people agree February 5 is a big delegate hunt, it puts us in a good position," said Romney spokesman Kevin Madden. "We're competitive in California and we have a lot of opportunities there."

The Democratic delegate picture also is complicated by the party's nearly 800 "super-delegates" -- members of Congress, governors and about 400 Democratic National Committee members who are not bound by vote results and can switch their allegiance at any time.

Both campaigns have made a heavy effort to woo those party insiders, and by most estimates Clinton has an early lead on Obama among them.

Tracking and courting those super-delegates is a one-on-one process involving phone calls, donors and whatever methods of persuasion work best, Ickes said.

"Delegate hunting is a unique operation where you talk to people, find out their concerns and talk it through with them," Ickes said.

"It's a very individualized, very tailored, very customized operation and we try to know as much about every super-delegate as possible before we go after them."
 


(Editing by David Wiessler)

In White House race, it's delegates that count,
R, 31.1.2008,
http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN3124420220080131
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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