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Vocapedia > Technology > Internet > Privacy

 

Web tracking, Data tracking, Data mining,

Big Data, Data harvesting, Algorithms

 

 

 

How You Look On The Net

editorial cartoon

By Chris Slane

New Zealand

Cagle

8 February 2005

http://www.politicalcartoons.com/cartoon/
a9f8e9cd-48ed-4eab-b990-eaac7de5b900.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cookies and web tracking        UK / USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/21/
technology/21cookie.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/sep/28/
newmedia.business

https://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/sep/28/
newmedia.business 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

track        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/06/
technology/legislation-would-regulate-tracking-of-cellphone-users.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

track consumers online

without their knowledge        USA

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/19/
technology/google-to-pay-17-million-to-settle-privacy-case.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

data tracking        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/04/
616280585/apple-requested-zero-personal-data-in-deals-with-facebook-ceo-tim-cook-says

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

data mining        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/04/
616280585/apple-requested-zero-personal-data-in-deals-with-facebook-ceo-tim-cook-says

 

 

 

 

Google > tracking purchases

Internet users make in person,

at physical store locations.        USA

http://www.npr.org/2017/07/31/
540610933/watchdog-group-files-complaint-over-google-tracking-in-person-purchases

 

 

 

 

Google > scan emails in Gmail accounts

in order sell targeted advertising        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/06/26/
534451513/google-says-it-will-no-longer-read-users-emails-to-sell-targeted-ads

 

 

 

 

tracker        USA

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/09/26/
495502526/online-trackers-follow-our-digital-shadow-by-fingerprinting-browsers-devices

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/
technology/ftc-moves-to-tighten-online-privacy-protections-for-children.html

 

 

 

 

Tracking the trackers:

who are the companies monitoring us online? - interactive        April 23, 2012

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/interactive/2012/apr/23/
tracking-trackers-companies-following-online - broken link

 

 

 

 

collect information on users

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/24/us/
politics/facebook-ads-politics.html

 

 

 

 

collect information

about the online activities

of millions of young Internet users        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/
technology/ftc-moves-to-tighten-online-privacy-protections-for-children.html

 

 

 

 

collect, collate and analyze information

about a wide range

of consumer activities and traits        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/
technology/ftc-moves-to-tighten-online-privacy-protections-for-children.html

 

 

 

 

online behaviour        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/05/
algorithms-rate-credit-scores-finances-data

 

 

 

 

detailed personal information        USA

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/06/21/
opinion/sunday/facebook-patents-privacy.html

 

 

 

individual ratings        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/05/
algorithms-rate-credit-scores-finances-data

 

 

 

 

algorithms        UK

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=FXdYSQ6nu-M - G - 17 March 2018

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/05/
algorithms-rate-credit-scores-finances-data

 

 

 

 

big data        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/05/
algorithms-rate-credit-scores-finances-data

 

 

 

 

big data        USA

http://www.npr.org/2016/09/09/
492297006/how-will-big-data-change-the-way-we-live

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/11/28/
503035862/big-data-coming-in-faster-than-biomedical-researchers-can-process-it

http://www.npr.org/2016/09/12/
493654950/weapons-of-math-destruction-outlines-dangers-of-relying-on-data-analytics

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/08/06/
is-big-data-spreading-inequality

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/02/us/
white-house-report-calls-for-transparency-in-online-data-collection.html

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/nation/jan-june14/privacy2_01-23.html

 

 

 

 

gather        USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/07/17/
629441555/health-insurers-are-vacuuming-up-details-about-you-and-it-could-raise-your-rates

 

 

 

 

data-gathering practices        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/
technology/ftc-moves-to-tighten-online-privacy-protections-for-children.html

 

 

 

 

data garb        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/feb/28/
google-summoned-data-grab-excesses 

 

 

 

 

data dealers        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/
business/on-the-data-sharing-trail-try-following-the-breadcrumbs.html

 

 

 

 

data sellers        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/25/
technology/congress-opens-inquiry-into-data-brokers.html

 

 

 

 

data brokers        USA

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/02/
opinion/facebook-silicon-valley-regulation.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/08/06/
is-big-data-spreading-inequality

 

 

 

 

data harvesting        USA

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=FXdYSQ6nu-M - G - 17 March 2018

 

 

 

 

data harvesting        USA

 

Google’s harvesting

of e-mails, passwords

and other sensitive personal information

from unsuspecting households

in the United States and around the world

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/
technology/google-engineer-told-others-of-data-collection-fcc-report-reveals.html

 

 

 

 

data privacy vault        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/
business/company-envisions-vaults-for-personal-data.html

 

 

 

 

Privacy and the Apps You Download        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/11/
privacy-and-the-apps-you-download

 

 

 

 

 violate the federal Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act        USA

http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/
new-concerns-over-apps-for-children/

 

 

 

 

The Center for Digital Democracy

and Common Sense Media

have partnered for a campaign

to support

the Federal Trade Commission's

proposed rule changes to update

the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

for the digital era.        USA

https://www.democraticmedia.org/ 

 

 

 

 

Mapping, and Sharing, the Consumer Genome        USA        2012

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/17/
technology/acxiom-the-quiet-giant-of-consumer-database-marketing.html

 

 

 

 

charting consumers' buying power        USA        2012

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/
business/electronic-scores-rank-consumers-by-potential-value.html

 

 

 

 

Rubicon Project

 

Ever wonder why

that same ad for a car or a couch

keeps popping up on your screen?

 

Nearly always,

the answer is real-time bidding,

an electronic trading system

that sells ad space

on the Web pages people visit

at the very moment

they are visiting them.

 

Think of these systems

as a sort of Nasdaq stock market,

only trading in audiences for online ads.

 

Millions of bids

flood in every second.

 

And those bids

— essentially what your eyeballs

are worth to advertisers —

could determine whether you see an ad for,

say, a new Lexus or a used Ford,

for sneakers or a popcorn maker.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/18/
technology/your-online-attention-bought-in-an-instant-by-advertisers.html

 

 

 

 

profile

 

 

 

 

profiling spending,

Web browsing and social media habits        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/
business/on-the-data-sharing-trail-try-following-the-breadcrumbs.html

 

 

 

 

compile psychological profiles of millions of web users        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/media/2007/may/12/
newmedia.news

 

 

 

 

privacy / personal data        UK / USA

https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2018/05/28/
614419275/do-not-sell-my-personal-information-california-eyes-data-privacy-measure

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/19/
technology/with-graph-search-facebook-bets-on-more-sharing.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/oct/16/
google-privacy-policies-eu-data-protection 

 

 

 

 

privacy advocates        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/
technology/google-engineer-told-others-of-data-collection-fcc-report-reveals.html

 

 

 

 

Deleting your online presence

- share your experiences        25 March 2013        UK

 

Your online profile

can be an increasingly useful tool

in controlling your image,

but what if you wanted

to delete the 'online' you

and start over again?

 

Help the Guardian news team

investigate profile deletion processes

https://www.theguardian.com/news/blog/2013/mar/25/
delete-your-online-presence 

 

 

 

 

Secure Sockets Layer    SSL

 

That cryptography system,

called SSL for short

and used by many online

banking and e-commerce sites,

protects people who log in to sites

over an open Wi-Fi network

— like the kind offered

by many coffee shops —

from strangers who might be using

snooping software on the same network.

 

(An “https” at the beginning of a URL

indicates SSL encryption.)


http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/23/
business/data-security-is-a-classroom-worry-too.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

policing > data analysis        USA

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/25/
622715984/how-data-analysis-is-driving-policing
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Their Apps Track You.

Will Congress Track Them?

 

January 5, 2013

The New York Times

By NATASHA SINGER

 

WASHINGTON

THERE are three things that matter in consumer data collection: location, location, location.

E-ZPasses clock the routes we drive. Metro passes register the subway stations we enter. A.T.M.’s record where and when we get cash. Not to mention the credit and debit card transactions that map our trajectories in comprehensive detail — the stores, restaurants and gas stations we frequent; the hotels and health clubs we patronize.

Each of these represents a kind of knowing trade, a conscious consumer submission to surveillance for the sake of convenience.

But now legislators, regulators, advocacy groups and marketers are squaring off over newer technology: smartphones and mobile apps that can continuously record and share people’s precise movements. At issue is whether consumers are unwittingly acquiescing to pervasive tracking just for the sake of having mobile amenities like calendar, game or weather apps.

For Senator Al Franken, the Minnesota Democrat, the potential hazard is that by compiling location patterns over time, companies could create an intimate portrait of a person’s familial and professional associations, political and religious beliefs, even health status. To give consumers some say in the surveillance, Mr. Franken has been working on a locational privacy protection bill that would require entities like app developers to obtain explicit one-time consent from users before recording the locations of their mobile devices. It would prohibit stalking apps — programs that allow one person to track another person’s whereabouts surreptitiously.

The bill, approved last month by the Senate Judiciary Committee, would also require mobile services to disclose the names of the advertising networks or other third parties with which they share consumers’ locations.

“Someone who has this information doesn’t just know where you live,” Mr. Franken said during the Judiciary Committee meeting. “They know the roads you take to work, where you drop your kids off at school, the church you attend and the doctors that you visit.”

Yet many marketers say they need to know consumers’ precise locations so they can show relevant mobile ads or coupons at the very moment a person is in or near a store. Informing such users about each and every ad network or analytics company that tracks their locations could hinder that hyperlocal marketing, they say, because it could require a new consent notice to appear every time someone opened an app.

“Consumers would revolt if this was the case, and applications could be rendered useless,” said Senator Charles Grassley, the Iowa Republican, who promulgated industry arguments during the committee meeting. “Worse yet, free applications that rely on advertising could be pushed by the consent requirement to become fee-based.”

Mr. Franken’s bill may seem intended simply to protect consumer privacy. But the underlying issue is the future of consumer data property rights — the question of who actually owns the information generated by a person who uses a digital device and whether using that property without explicit authorization constitutes trespassing.

In common law, a property intrusion is known as “trespass to chattels.” The Supreme Court invoked the legal concept last January in United States v. Jones, in which it ruled that the government had violated the Fourth Amendment — which protects people against unreasonable search and seizure — by placing a GPS tracking device on a suspect’s car for 28 days without getting a warrant.

Some advocacy groups view location tracking by mobile apps and ad networks as a parallel, warrantless commercial intrusion. To these groups, Mr. Franken’s bill suggests that consumers may eventually gain some rights over their own digital footprints.

“People don’t think about how they broadcast their locations all the time when they carry their phones. The law is just starting to catch up and think about how to treat this,” says Marcia Hofmann, a senior staff lawyer at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital rights group based in San Francisco. “In an ideal world, users would be able to share the information they want and not share the information they don’t want and have more control over how it is used.”

Even some marketers agree.

One is Scout Advertising, a location-based mobile ad service that promises to help advertisers pinpoint the whereabouts of potential customers within 100 meters. The service, previously known as ThinkNear and recently acquired by Telenav, a personalized navigation service, works by determining a person’s location; figuring out whether that place is a home or a store, a health club or a sports stadium; analyzing weather and other local conditions; and then showing a mobile ad tailored to the situation.

Eli Portnoy, general manager of Scout Advertising, calls the technique “situational targeting.” He says Crunch, the fitness center chain, used the service to show mobile ads to people within three miles of a Crunch gym on rainy mornings. The ad said: “Seven-day pass. Run on a treadmill, not in the rain.”

When a person clicks on one of these ads, Mr. Portnoy says, a browser-based map pops up with turn-by-turn directions to the nearest location. Through GPS tracking, Scout Advertising can tell when someone starts driving and whether that person arrives at the site.

Despite the tracking, Mr. Portnoy describes his company’s mobile ads as protective of privacy because the service works only with sites or apps that obtain consent to use people’s locations. Scout Advertising, he adds, does not compile data on individuals’ whereabouts over time.

Still, he says, if Congress were to enact Mr. Franken’s location privacy bill as written, it “would be a little challenging” for the industry to carry out, because of the number and variety of companies involved in mobile marketing.

“We are in favor of more privacy,” Mr. Portnoy says, “but it has to be done within the nuances of how mobile advertising works so it can scale.”

A SPOKESMAN for Mr. Franken said the senator planned to reintroduce the bill in the new Congress. It is one of several continuing government efforts to develop some baseline consumer data rights.

“New technology may provide increased convenience or security at the expense of privacy and many people may find the trade-off worthwhile,” Justice Samuel Alito wrote last year in his opinion in the Jones case. “On the other hand,” he added, “concern about new intrusions on privacy may spur the enactment of legislation to protect against these intrusions.”

Their Apps Track You. Will Congress Track Them?,
NYT,
5.1.2013,
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/06/
technology/legislation-would-regulate-tracking-of-cellphone-users.html

 

 

 

 

 

A Vault for Taking Charge

of Your Online Life

 

December 8, 2012

The New York Times

By NATASHA SINGER

 

REDWOOD CITY, Calif.

“YOU are walking around naked on the Internet and you need some clothes,” says Michael Fertik. “I am going to sell you some.”

Naked? Not exactly, but close.

Mr. Fertik, 34, is the chief executive of Reputation.com, a company that helps people manage their online reputations. From his perch here in Silicon Valley, he views the digital screens in our lives, the smartphones and the tablets, the desktops and the laptops, as windows of a house. People go about their lives on the inside, he says, while dozens of marketing and analytics companies watch through the windows, sizing them up like peeping Toms.

By now many Americans are learning that they are living in a surveillance economy. “Information resellers,” also known as “data brokers,” have collected hundreds to thousands of details — what we buy, our race or ethnicity, our finances and health concerns, our Web activities and social networks — on almost every American adult. Other companies that specialize in ranking consumers use computer algorithms to covertly score Internet users, identifying some as “high-value” consumers worthy of receiving pitches for premium credit cards and other offers, while dismissing others as a waste of time and marketing money. Yet another type of company, called an ad-trading platform, profiles Internet users and auctions off online access to them to marketers in a practice called “real-time bidding.”

As these practices have come to light, several members of Congress, and federal agencies, have opened investigations.

At least for now, however, these companies typically do not permit consumers to see the records or marketing scores that have been compiled about them. And that is perfectly legal.

Now, Mr. Fertik, the loquacious, lion-maned founder of Reputation.com, says he has the free-market solution. He calls it a “data vault,” or “a bank for other people’s data.”

Here at Reputation.com’s headquarters, a vast open-plan office decorated with industrial-looking metal struts and reclaimed wood — a discreet homage to the lab where Thomas Edison invented the light bulb — his company has amassed a database on millions of consumers. Mr. Fertik plans to use it to sell people on the idea of taking control of their own marketing profiles. To succeed, he will have to persuade people that they must take charge of their digital personas.

Pointing out the potential hazards posed by data brokers and the like is part of Mr. Fertik’s M.O. Covert online profiling and scoring, he says, may unfairly exclude certain Internet users from marketing offers that could affect their financial, educational or health opportunities — a practice Mr. Fertik calls “Weblining.” He plans to market Reputation.com’s data vault, scheduled to open for business early next year, as an antidote.

“A data privacy vault,” he says, “is a way to control yourself as a person.”

Reputation.com is at the forefront of a nascent industry called “personal identity management.” The company’s business model for its vault service involves collecting data about consumers’ marketing preferences and giving them the option to share the information on a limited basis with certain companies in exchange for coupons, say, or status upgrades. In turn, participating companies will get access both to potential customers who welcome their pitches and to details about the exact products and services those people are seeking. In theory, the data vault would earn money as a kind of authorization supervisor, managing the permissions that marketers would need to access information about Reputation.com’s clients.

To some, the idea seems a bit quixotic.

Reputation.com, with $67 million in venture capital, is not making a profit. Although the company’s “privacy” products, like removing clients’ personal information from list broker and marketing databases, are popular, its reputation management techniques can be controversial. For instance, it offers services meant to make negative commentary about individual or corporate clients less visible on the Web.

And there are other hurdles, like competition. A few companies, like Personal, have already introduced vault services. Also, a number of other enterprises have tried — and quickly failed — to sell consumers on data lockers.

Even so, Mr. Fertik contends Reputation.com has the answer. The company already has several hundred thousand paying customers, he says, and patents on software that can identify consumers’ information online and score their reputations. He intends to show clients their scores and advise them on how to improve them.

“You can’t just build a vault and wish that vendors cared enough about your data to pay for it,” Mr. Fertik says. “You have to build a business that gives you the lift to accumulate a data set and attract consumers, the science to create insights that are valuable to vendors, and the power to impose restrictions on the companies who consume your data.”
 


THE consumer data trade is large and largely unregulated.

Companies and organizations in the United States spend more than $2 billion a year on third-party data about individuals, according to a report last year on personal identity management from Forrester Research, a market research firm. They spend billions more on credit data, market research and customer data analytics, the report said.

Unlike consumer reporting agencies, which compile credit reports, however, business-to-business companies that calculate consumer valuation scores, or collect and sell consumer marketing data, are not required by federal law to show people the records the companies have about them or allow them to correct errors in their own files.

Marketing industry groups argue that regulation is unnecessary. They say Web sites have privacy policies to explain what data they and their business partners collect. They add that third-party data collectors do not know Internet users’ real names and compile consumers’ online marketing records under customer code numbers. Besides, they say, Internet users who are uncomfortable with seeing ads based on data-mining about themselves may use an industry group’s program, Your Ad Choices, to opt out of receiving customized pitches.

As the popular conversation shifts from practices like privacy policies and opt-outs to ideas like consumer empowerment and data rights, however, marketing industry efforts have not kept pace with changing public attitudes, analysts say.

“Consumers are leaving an exponentially growing digital footprint across channels and media, and they are awakening to the fact that marketers use this data for financial gain,” Fatemeh Khatibloo, an analyst at Forrester, wrote in the report. “This, combined with growing concerns about data security, means that individuals increasingly want to know when data about them is being collected, what is being stored and by whom, and how that data is being used.”

A variety of industries could respond by providing services that offer consumers greater control, she wrote. These might include online companies like Yahoo, Microsoft and Google that already house certain categories of data for consumers; social networks like Facebook and LinkedIn; data vaults like Personal, which allow consumers to store and manage certain kinds of data; and companies like Reputation.com whose business model already relies on customers willing to pay for data privacy.

In a phone interview last month, Ms. Khatibloo described how such an ecosystem might work.

Consumers could choose a variety of companies or institutions to house and manage different categories of their information. They might select a financial institution as the gatekeeper for their financial data, a medical center to manage their health data, and a consumer data locker as their retail manager. Then, when a person is ready to buy a car, she could authorize her personal vault to share relevant financial and insurance information with a car dealer. Or a person might allow his home insurer to survey his retail data vault for purchases every month and automatically increase his insurance coverage if he buys expensive items like a home entertainment system, she said.

“What is necessary to make that happen,” Ms. Khatibloo said, is “an inflection point of consumers adopting technology that makes it more valuable for marketers to come to them directly for their data.”

Marketers and information resellers will also have to acknowledge that consumers have some rights to information collected about them, she said. If the industry does not update its data capture practices, legislators and regulators are likely to mandate public data access, she said.

With increasing complaints by consumer advocacy groups and investigations by the news media, the surveillance economy is attracting greater government scrutiny. Two separate efforts in Congress are now examining practices by third-party consumer data collectors. Regulators at the Federal Trade Commission and researchers at the Government Accountability Office are also investigating. In a report this year, the F.T.C. recommended that Congress pass a law giving consumers the right to have some access to the records data brokers compile about them.

“We have a right, I think, to all of the data we have a hand in generating,” Ms. Khatibloo said. “I have the right to know who is tracking me online, who is looking at my behavior as I move from site to site, what data they are collecting, all of these.”
 


MR. FERTIK, blue marker in hand, sketches his vision of a data vault on a white board in a conference room at Reputation.com’s headquarters. “The problem is you don’t own your data,” he says. “Now, imagine owning your data.”

He sketches a silo and labeles it “data privacy vault.” To the left of the silo, he draws an arrow saying “IN: data about people.” To the right of the vault, he draws another arrow which says “OUT: data to vendors.”

It is a system he has previously described at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland; at Harvard Law School; at the Aspen Institute. He points to the diagram.

“This is the future. Let me demystify it. This is not difficult technology,” he says. “It’s a database where you put your data, or we put it for you, and there are some rules as to how it is externalized or shared.”

Mr. Fertik’s thinking on consumer privacy developed in part from what he called his Upper West Side, civil rights, “Jewish, lefty, pinko” upbringing and his Dalton, Horace Mann, Harvard College, Harvard Law School education. The result, Reputation.com, founded in 2006, is a part social justice, part profit motive.

“I thought something was wrong,” Mr. Fertik says. “You know when you go into a bank or an insurer that you may get offered different rates than the next person, but you have no idea when you go on the Internet that your options, the offers you get or whether you get a coupon, have been defined 20 steps before you get to a site.”

For $99 per year, clients can have the company remove their personal details from databases maintained by various information resellers. They can also install company software that blocks Web tracking by 200 data brokers, advertising networks and ad trading platforms. For $5,000 a year, Reputation.com also offers a “white glove” service for executives who want their personal details removed from list brokers with more cumbersome opt-out processes.

Reputation’s forthcoming data vault service is just a more elaborate attempt to monetize consumer privacy.

Mr. Fertik says he doesn’t think it will be difficult to persuade people to store their data in the vault and share some of it with selected companies in exchange for benefits like cash, coupons or status upgrades. The companies that get permission to gain access to his clients’ records, he adds, will have to sign contracts agreeing not to sell or share them with third parties.

Still, some people may not be comfortable with the fact that Reputation.com has already amassed files on millions of Americans mainly by scraping the Web. Other people may wonder whether a consumer data vault is truly secure. Mr. Fertik says Reputation.com will never share or sell clients’ information without their permission.

Convincing marketers that Reputation.com’s vault has more valuable information and consumer insights than an ordinary data broker is another challenge. “In order to make our information attractive to Best Buy, Amazon or Disney World, we’d have to tell them we have 5 percent more information about you and better insights than other sources,” Mr. Fertik says.
 


EXECUTIVES in technology, retail, marketing and other industries like to say that data is “the new oil” or, at least, the fuel that powers the Internet economy. It is a metaphor that casts consumers as natural resources with no say over the valuable commodities that companies extract from them.

Data vaults could give consumers more control over who sees certain kinds of information about them and how that information is used.

It is already a common practice in health care. Patients of the Kaiser Permanente system, for example, can use an online health manager to handle information about their health care, prescriptions and insurance. Elderly parents might also choose to give access to their health vault to offspring who help manage their care.

Still, consumers may not care enough about data-mining by marketers and information resellers to patronize data vaults. And legislators may eventually require information resellers to periodically provide consumers with free data reports, Ms. Khatibloo, of Forrester, said. That would put a dent in the fee-for-service data vault business.

In fact, some politicians and regulators already argue that services that charge people to control their personal data are not an appropriate solution to comprehensive online data collection.

“Having to pay a fee in order to engage in a retrospective effort to claw back personal information doesn’t seem to us the right way to go about this,” David Vladeck, the director of the Bureau of Consumer Protection at the Federal Trade Commission, said at a Congressional hearing in 2010.

Regulators are moving to give consumers more control over data without having to pay for it. In February, for example, the White House assigned the Commerce Department to supervise the development of a “Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights,” a code of conduct to be worked out between industry and consumer advocacy groups.

While governmental efforts inch along, companies like Reputation.com are forging ahead with new services that promise consumers more insight into the data collected about them. This month, for example, the direct-to-consumer division of Equifax, the credit information services company, plans to begin offering its customers a separate personal data report from Reputation.com in addition to their credit report. Some Equifax customers will also be offered the option to have Reputation.com delete personal details, like home addresses and phone numbers, from certain information broker databases.

“We see broadening consumers’ understanding of what’s out there about them online as a very natural extension of what we do today,” said Trey Loughran, the president of Equifax Personal Information Solutions.

Next spring, TransUnion Interactive, the consumer division of the TransUnion credit information company, plans to offer its customers similar services from Reputation.com.

These deals in no way signify that data vaults are a sure thing or, if they are, that Reputation.com is the company to take them to the masses. But the sudden interest from corporations like Equifax and TransUnion gives credence to the idea that consumers increasingly want to see data collected about themselves and that there is some commercial benefit in showing it to them.

After all, Mr. Fertik says, “it’s your data.”

    A Vault for Taking Charge of Your Online Life, NYT, 8.12.2012,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/business/
    company-envisions-vaults-for-personal-data.html

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Is Tightening Web Privacy Rule

to Shield Young

 

September 27, 2012
The New York Times
By NATASHA SINGER

 

Federal regulators are about to take the biggest steps in more than a decade to protect children online.

The moves come at a time when major corporations, app developers and data miners appear to be collecting information about the online activities of millions of young Internet users without their parents’ awareness, children’s advocates say. Some sites and apps have also collected details like children’s photographs or locations of mobile devices; the concern is that the information could be used to identify or locate individual children.

These data-gathering practices are legal. But the development has so alarmed officials at the Federal Trade Commission that the agency is moving to overhaul rules that many experts say have not kept pace with the explosive growth of the Web and innovations like mobile apps. New rules are expected within weeks.

“Today, almost every child has a computer in his pocket and it’s that much harder for parents to monitor what their kids are doing online, who they are interacting with, and what information they are sharing,” says Mary K. Engle, associate director of the advertising practices division at the F.T.C. “The concern is that a lot of this may be going on without anybody’s knowledge.”

The proposed changes could greatly increase the need for children’s sites to obtain parental permission for some practices that are now popular — like using cookies to track users’ activities around the Web over time. Marketers argue that the rule should not be changed so extensively, lest it cause companies to reduce their offerings for children.

“Do we need a broad, wholesale change of the law?” says Mike Zaneis, the general counsel for the Interactive Advertising Bureau, an industry association. “The answer is no. It is working very well.”

The current federal rule, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, requires operators of children’s Web sites to obtain parental consent before they collect personal information like phone numbers or physical addresses from children under 13. But rapid advances in technology have overtaken the rules, privacy advocates say.

Today, many brand-name companies and analytics firms collect, collate and analyze information about a wide range of consumer activities and traits. Some of those techniques could put children at risk, advocates say.

Under the F.T.C.’s proposals, some current online practices, like getting children under 13 to submit photos of themselves, would require parental consent.

Children who visit McDonald’s HappyMeal.com, for instance, can “get in the picture with Ronald McDonald” by uploading photos of themselves and combining them with images of the clown. Children may also “star in a music video” on the site by uploading photos or webcam images and having it graft their faces onto dancing cartoon bodies.

But according to children’s advocates, McDonald’s stored these images in directories that were publicly available. Anyone with an Internet connection could check out hundreds of photos of young children, a few of whom were pictured in pajamas in their bedrooms, advocates said.

In a related complaint to the F.T.C. last month, a coalition of advocacy groups accused McDonald’s and four other corporations of violating the 1998 law by collecting e-mail addresses without parental consent. HappyMeal.com, the complaint noted, invites children to share their creations on the site by providing the first names and e-mail addresses of their friends.

“When we tell parents about this they are appalled, because basically what it’s doing is going around the parents’ back and taking advantage of kids’ naïveté,” says Jennifer Harris, the director of marketing initiatives at the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, a member of the coalition that filed the complaint. “It’s a very unfair and deceptive practice that we don’t think companies should be allowed to do.”

Danya Proud, a spokeswoman for McDonald’s, said in an e-mail that the company placed a “high importance” on protecting privacy, including children’s online privacy. She said that McDonald’s had blocked public access to several directories on the site.

Last year, the F.T.C. filed a complaint against W3 Innovations, a developer of popular iPhone and iPod Touch apps like Emily’s Dress Up, which invited children to design outfits and e-mail their comments to a blog. The agency said that the apps violated the children’s privacy rule by collecting the e-mail addresses of tens of thousands of children without their parents’ permission and encouraging those children to post personal information publicly. The company later settled the case, agreeing to pay a penalty of $50,000 and delete personal data it had collected about children.

It is often difficult to know what kind of data is being collected and shared. Industry trade groups say marketers do not knowingly track young children for advertising purposes. But a study last year of 54 Web sites popular with children, including Disney.go.com and Nick.com, found that many used tracking technologies extensively.

“I was surprised to find that pretty much all of the same technologies used to track adults are being used on kids’ Web sites,” said Richard M. Smith, an Internet security expert in Boston who conducted the study at the request of the Center for Digital Democracy, an advocacy group.

Using a software program called Ghostery, which detects and identifies tracking entities on Web sites, a New York Times reporter recently identified seven trackers on Nick.com — including Quantcast, an analytics company that, according to its own marketing material, helps Web sites “segment out specific audiences you want to sell” to advertisers.

Ghostery found 13 trackers on a Disney game page for kids, including AudienceScience, an analytics company that, according to that company’s site, “pioneered the concept of targeting and audience-based marketing.”

David Bittler, a spokesman for Nickelodeon, which runs Nick.com, says Viacom, the parent company, does not show targeted ads on Nick.com or other company sites for children under 13. But the sites and their analytics partners may collect data anonymously about users for purposes like improving content. Zenia Mucha, a spokeswoman for Disney, said the company does not show targeted ads to children and requires its ad partners to do the same.

Another popular children’s site, Webkinz, says openly that its advertising partners may aim at visitors with ads based on the collection of “anonymous data.” In its privacy policy, Webkinz describes the practice as “online advanced targeting.”

If the F.T.C. carries out its proposed changes, children’s Web sites would be required to obtain parents’ permission before tracking children around the Web for advertising purposes, even with anonymous customer codes.

Some parents say they are trying to teach their children basic online self-defense. “We don’t give out birth dates to get the free stuff,” said Patricia Tay-Weiss, a mother of two young children in Venice, Calif., who runs foreign language classes for elementary school students. “We are teaching our kids to ask, ‘What is the company getting from you and what are they going to do with that information?’ ”

    U.S. Is Tightening Web Privacy Rule to Shield Young, NYT, 27.9.2012,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/technology/
    ftc-moves-to-tighten-online-privacy-protections-for-children.html

 

 

 

 

 

Facebook’s Prospects

May Rest on Trove of Data

 

May 14, 2012
The New York Times
By SOMINI SENGUPTA

 

SAN FRANCISCO — Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief, has managed to amass more information about more people than anyone else in history.

Now what?

As Facebook turns to Wall Street in the biggest public offering ever by an Internet company, it faces a new, unenviable test: how to keep growing and enriching its hungry new shareholders.

The answer lies in what Facebook will be able to do — and how quickly — with its crown jewel: its status as an online directory for a good chunk of the human race, with the names, photos, tastes and desires of nearly a billion people.

Facebook’s shares are expected to begin trading as early as this week. Already, lots of investors are scrambling to buy those shares, with giddy hopes that it will become a big moneymaker like Google. Because of that high demand, Facebook is expected to increase its offering price from its initial range, giving the company a valuation possibly as high as $104 billion.

In the eight years since it sprang out of a Harvard dorm room, Facebook has signed up users at breakneck speed, kept them glued to the site for longer stretches of time and turned a profit by using their personal information to customize the ads they see.

Whether it can spin that data into enough gold to justify a valuation of as much as $104 billion remains unclear.

“We know Facebook has an awful lot of data, but what they have not worked out yet is the most effective means of using that data for advertising,” said Catherine Tucker, a professor of marketing at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “They are going to have to experiment a lot more.”

Analysts, investors and company executives can rattle off any number of challenges facing the company. As it works to better match ads to people, it has to avoid violating its users’ perceived sense of privacy or inviting regulatory scrutiny. It needs to find other ways to generate revenue, like allowing people to buy more goods and services with Facebook Credits, a kind of virtual currency. Most urgently it has to make money on mobile devices, the window to Facebook for more and more people.

All the while, its ability to innovate with new features and approaches — to “break things,” in the words of Mr. Zuckerberg — may be markedly constrained once it has investors to answer to.

“They are going to have to think about whether they can continue with the motto ‘Done is better than perfect,’ ” said Susan Etlinger, an industry analyst at the Altimeter Group. “When you’re operating as a public company, life is very different. We haven’t seen that play out yet. It’s going to take a few quarters to figure out what a public Facebook is going to look like.”

Skeptics point out that the company’s revenue growth showed signs of slowing in the first quarter of 2012. And a Bloomberg survey of 1,253 investors, analysts and traders found that a substantial majority were dubious about the eye-popping valuation Facebook was seeking. “It’s a risky asset. No doubt about that,” said Brian Wieser, of Pivotal Research Group. “Google was less risky.” No matter. Mr. Wieser says he thinks that Facebook is worth $83 billion and that its revenue will grow by at least 30 percent for the next five years.

The comparisons to Google are inevitable. When that company went public in 2004, there were so many doubters that the company lowered its offering price to $85 a share. It closed at just over $100 on the first day of trading, and now sells for more than $600. Facebook is farther along than Google was in terms of revenue, having brought in nearly $4 billion last year, or $5.11 a user, compared with Google’s $2 billion in 2003.

One Facebook investor, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of market regulations as the offering draws near, noted that when Google went public it already had a clear business strategy. By contrast, he described Facebook this way: “They have built an incredibly valuable asset — as opposed to a business they have executed well.”

The most pressing issue for Facebook executives may be the mobile challenge. Already, over half of Facebook’s 901 million users access the site through mobile devices. In regulatory filings, the company says mobile use is growing fastest in some of Facebook’s largest markets, including the United States, India and Brazil. Facebook goes on to acknowledge that it makes little to no money on mobile and that “our ability to do so successfully is unproven.”

There is not much space on mobile screens to show advertisements. And Google and Apple, two of Facebook’s biggest rivals, control the basic software on most smartphones, which could make it harder for the company to make inroads there. Facebook’s response to this challenge so far has been to aggressively acquire companies focused on mobile, including Instagram, for which it paid $1 billion in April. But it warned in a revision to its offering documents last week that the mobile shift meant it was adding users faster than it was increasing the number of ads it displayed.

What Facebook already has — more than any other digital company — is a spectacularly rich vault of information about its users, who cannot seem to stay away from the site. Americans, on average, now spend 20 percent of their online time on Facebook alone, thanks to the ever-growing menu of activities the company has introduced, from playing games to sampling music to posting pictures of baby showers and drunken escapades. Some 300 million photos are uploaded to the site daily.

How Facebook exploits its users’ information — and how those users react — is the next reckoning. David Eastman, worldwide digital director for the advertising agency JWT, said Facebook would need to give marketers more data about what kinds of users click on what kinds of advertising, and about their travels on the Internet before and after they click on an ad. Most brands want to have a presence on Facebook, he said, but they do not quite understand who sees their pitches and whether they lead to greater sales.

“They need to make the data work more,” Mr. Eastman said. “They need to provide deeper data. Right now the value of Facebook advertising is largely unknown.”

While the bulk of Facebook’s revenue comes from North America, it is banking on international growth. The company has expanded its global footprint so rapidly that four out of five Facebook users are now outside the United States. It is the dominant social network in large emerging markets like Brazil and India, though it shows no signs of penetrating China — where it would face not only government censorship but stiff competition from homegrown social networks.

Mr. Zuckerberg, who has studied Mandarin, signaled his ambitions to crack the vast Chinese market as far back as 2010. He suggested that Facebook would first try to advance deeper into markets like Russia and Japan before it took on a country as “complex” as China.

With international growth comes international regulatory headaches. Facebook already faces audits in Europe on whether the company is living up to promises made to consumers about how it uses their data — and now, a stringent new data protection law. In India, it has been sued for spreading offensive content. And in the United States, it faces privacy audits by the Federal Trade Commission for the next 20 years. In its offering documents, Facebook repeatedly warns of legislative and regulatory scrutiny over user privacy, “which may adversely affect our reputation and brand.”

Maintaining brand loyalty is excruciatingly difficult in the Internet business. Across Silicon Valley, investors are plotting the next big thing in social networks. Already, the clock may be ticking for Facebook.

“There is no consumer-facing Internet brand or site that ever keeps consumers’ attention for more than 10 years,” said Tim Chang, a managing director at Mayfield Fund. “It is not hard to imagine that in 10 years, people are going to be off of Facebook even.”

Mr. Zuckerberg has an answer to that. In the video for investors released this month, Mr. Zuckerberg hinted at the ambitions he had for the company. Facebook, in his vision, will hook itself into the rest of the Web, making itself indispensable. Already Facebook serves as a de facto Internet passport, allowing users to log in with their Facebook identities and explore millions of other Web sites and applications.

“I think that we’re going to reach this point where almost every app that you use is going to be integrated with Facebook in some way,” Mr. Zuckerberg says in the video. “We make decisions at Facebook not optimizing for what is going to happen in the next year, but what’s going to set us up for this world where every product experience you have is social, and that’s all powered by Facebook.”

    Facebook’s Prospects May Rest on Trove of Data, NYT, 14.5.2012,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/15/technology/
    facebook-needs-to-turn-data-trove-into-investor-gold.html

 

 

 

 

 

Following the Breadcrumbs

on the Data-Sharing Trail

 

April 28, 2012
The New York Times
By NATASHA SINGER

 

WOULD you like to donate to the Obama campaign? Sign up for a college course? Or maybe subscribe to Architectural Digest?

If you have ever felt inundated by such solicitations, by e-mail or by snail mail, you may have wondered what you did to deserve it.

I did.

I wondered how all those campaigns, companies and institutions got my number. And how much money data brokers behind the scenes might make by flipping my name and address.

Turns out there’s no easy way for consumers in the United States to track the data dealers who profile our spending, Web browsing and social media habits, the better to sell us stuff. Although the Federal Trade Commission issued a consumer privacy report last month urging companies that collect and share customer information to give people more notification and control over the proliferation of their personal details, the recommendations don’t have the force of binding regulations.

So, without a right to compel vendors to show me where my data goes, I decided to do some profiling of my own.

I subscribed to a half-dozen print magazines last year, signing up for each with a different typo in my name or variation in my address. Then I collected the direct mail that resulted, tracking the solicitations back to the publishers who had shared my erroneous contact information.

Admittedly, it was unscientific. But I figured this little off-line experiment might provide insight into an even more opaque world — online behavioral targeting — where ad networks deliver tailored marketing pitches to people based on their location, search queries, online purchases and the like.

Here are the results:

Natawsha, the name under which I had subscribed to Wired and The New Yorker, got hit up for a donation to Literacy Partners, a tutoring company in Manhattan, and received a bulletin from the New-York Historical Society.

Nafasha, who signed up for Fast Company, received solicitations from Forbes. The mangled address I had submitted to Foreign Policy received a cascade of mail from, among others, the World Monuments Fund, Barron’s and the Kiplinger Letter. And a subscription to The New York Review of Books led to solicitations from the Central Park Conservancy, the New York Public Library and The New York Times — and, on behalf of President Obama’s 2012 campaign, an appeal from Michelle Obama.

“It is revenue-producing for a publisher to collect subscribers’ information and sell it,” said Paul Stephens, the director of policy and advocacy at the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, a consumer group in San Diego. “It’s just information that is very valuable to advertisers who want to target individuals based on their interests.”*

 

INDEED, the Direct Marketing Association, a trade group, has estimated that spending on direct marketing in the United States reached $163 billion in 2011.

Still, a report earlier this year from the White House, laying out a privacy bill of rights for consumers, implicates the decades-old practice of list-sharing, among others. The report says consumers have a right to expect that companies will collect, use and share information in ways consistent with the context in which people provided it.

In other words, if you subscribe to a magazine, you might reasonably expect to receive offers from magazines owned by the same publishing house, said Nancy J. King, a privacy law expert who is an associate professor at Oregon State University’s College of Business.

“But you probably would not have expected a magazine to share your information with a political campaign” that has inferred your political preferences from your choice of periodicals, Professor King said.

Of course, publishers are hardly the only businesses sharing and selling consumer information. In the United States, with the exception of specific sectors like credit and health care, companies are free to use their customers’ data as they deem appropriate. That means every time a person buys a car or a house, takes a trip or stays in a hotel, signs up for a catalog or shops online or in a mall, his or her name might end up on a list shared with other marketers. That can happen directly, or through middlemen known as list brokers and data brokers.

The ultimate purpose of all this sharing and profiling is to personalize marketing, using analytics to predict the offers most likely to interest consumers based on their past behavior, says Linda A. Woolley, the executive vice president of Washington operations at the Direct Marketing Association.

“Sometimes the analytics are right; sometimes they are wrong,” Ms. Woolley said. “The industry exists to try to perfect those guesses.”

For those who’d rather not receive such offers, she said, the trade group offers a dedicated Web site, dmachoice.org, where people can opt out of getting all kinds of direct mail or specific categories of it, like credit card offers.

But Christopher Olsen, the assistant director of privacy and identity protection in the Federal Trade Commission’s bureau of consumer protection, said companies ought to notify their customers if they plan to share information about them with third parties — rather than simply permitting people to opt out after the fact. Indeed, the agency’s recent report calls on industry to be more transparent with consumers.

“If your name is flying around the ether because you have subscribed to a magazine,” Mr. Olsen said, “you ought to understand who has got that information and whether you have a choice about its onward distribution.”

 

ALTHOUGH all of the magazines contacted for this article said their subscribers could opt out, some publishers took a more active approach than others to notifying readers of their practices.

Natalie Raabe, a spokeswoman for The Atlantic, for example, said the magazine occasionally allows companies it has screened to contact subscribers about products or services that may be of interest. But the magazine does not share subscriber addresses directly with these companies, she said; it uses a third party to administer the process.

A spokeswoman for Condé Nast, publisher of The New Yorker, said it adhered to industry best practices and offered subscribers multiple ways to opt out.

Diane R. Seltzer, list manager at The New York Review of Books, vets all proposals from companies that want to market to subscribers to ensure the offers are appropriate. Those making the cut are charged a rental fee of $105 per 1,000 names for one-time use, she said. The publication runs an ad in every issue, she added, notifying subscribers of this practice and explaining how to opt out.

“We are very proactive in trying to keep subscribers happy,” she said.

In light of the new federal privacy reports, however, at least one publisher said it might halt, or at least further limit, the selling of its subscriber list.

“I think media companies are going to have to tackle this issue,” said David Rothkopf, the new chief executive of Foreign Policy. Two months into the job, he said, he had hired a new circulation director and intended to review his magazines’ list-sharing policy: “I think there are people out there who don’t want to be part of some giant circulating mailing list.”

    Following the Breadcrumbs on the Data-Sharing Trail, NYT, 28.4.2012,
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/business/
    on-the-data-sharing-trail-try-following-the-breadcrumbs.html

 

 

 

 

 


Data Harvesting at Google

Not a Rogue Act, Report Finds

 

April 28, 2012

The New York Times

By DAVID STREITFELD

 

SAN FRANCISCO — Google’s harvesting of e-mails, passwords and other sensitive personal information from unsuspecting households in the United States and around the world was neither a mistake nor the work of a rogue engineer, as the company long maintained, but a program that supervisors knew about, according to new details from the full text of a regulatory report.

The report, prepared by the Federal Communications Commission after a 17-month investigation of Google’s Street View project, was released, heavily redacted, two weeks ago. Although it found that Google had not violated any laws, the agency said Google had obstructed the inquiry and fined the company $25,000.

On Saturday, Google released a version of the report with only employees’ names redacted.

The full version draws a portrait of a company where an engineer can easily embark on a project to gather personal e-mails and Web searches of potentially hundreds of millions of people as part of his or her unscheduled work time, and where privacy concerns are shrugged off.

The so-called payload data was secretly collected between 2007 and 2010 as part of Street View, a project to photograph streetscapes over much of the civilized world. When the program was being designed, the report says, it included the following “to do” item: “Discuss privacy considerations with Product Counsel.”

“That never occurred,” the report says.

Google says the data collection was legal. But when regulators asked to see what had been collected, Google refused, the report says, saying it might break privacy and wiretapping laws if it shared the material.

A Google spokeswoman said Saturday that the company had much stricter privacy controls than it used to, in part because of the Street View controversy. She expressed the hope that with the release of the full report, “we can now put this matter behind us.”

Ever since information about the secret data collection first began to emerge two years ago, Google has portrayed it as the mistakes of an unauthorized engineer operating on his own and stressed that the data was never used in any Google product.

The report, quoting the engineer’s original proposal, gives a somewhat different impression. The data, the engineer wrote, would “be analyzed offline for use in other initiatives.” Google says this was never done.

The report, which was first published in its unredacted form by The Los Angeles Times, also states that the engineer, who began the project as part of his “20 percent” time that Google gives employees to do work on their own initiative, “specifically told two engineers working on the project, including a senior manager, about collecting payload data.”

As early as 2007, the report says, Street View engineers had “wide access” to the plan to collect payload data. Five engineers tested the Street View code, a sixth reviewed it line by line, and a seventh also worked on it, the report says.

Privacy advocates said the full report put Google in a bad light.

“Google’s rogue engineer scenario collapses in light of the fact that others were aware of the project and did not object,” said Marc Rotenberg, executive director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center. “This is what happens in the absence of enforcement and the absence of regulation.”

The Street View program used special cars outfitted with cameras. Google first said it was just photographing streets and did not disclose that it was collecting Internet communications called payload data, transmitted over Wi-Fi networks, until May 2010, when it was confronted by German regulators.

Eventually, it was forced to reveal that the information it had collected could include the full text of e-mails, sites visited and other data.

Even if a user was not working on a computer at the moment the Street View car slowly passed, if the device was on and the network was unencrypted, all sorts of information about what the user had been doing could be scooped up, data experts say.

“So how did this happen? Quite simply, it was a mistake,” a Google executive wrote on a company blog in 2010. “The project leaders did not want, and had no intention of using, payload data.”

But according to the report, the engineer suggested in his proposal that it was entirely intentional: “We are logging user traffic along with sufficient data to precisely triangulate their position at a given time, along with information about what they were doing.”

Attending to paperwork did not seem to be a high priority, however. Managers of the Street View project told F.C.C. investigators that they never read the engineer’s proposal, called a design document. A senior manager of Street View said he “preapproved” the document before it was written.

More than a dozen countries began investigations of Street View in 2010. In the United States, the Justice Department, the Federal Trade Commission, state attorneys general and the F.C.C. looked into the matter.

The engineer at the center of the project cited the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. Because F.C.C. investigators could not interview him, they said there were still unresolved questions about the case.

Data Harvesting at Google Not a Rogue Act, Report Finds,
NYT,
28.4.2012,
https://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/
technology/google-engineer-told-others-of-data-collection-
fcc-report-reveals.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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