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Vocapedia > USA > Gun violence > Police shootings


Terence Crutcher - 18 September 2016


















The families left behind after police killings:

'You never get over losing a child'    G    23 August 2019





The families left behind after police killings: 'You never get over losing a child'        The Guardian        23 August 2019


Tamir Rice, Terence Crutcher and Ramarley Graham

were all killed by police officers.


The Guardian

meets the women, men and children

who lived with them, raised them,

called them brother or father or son,

and hears how they now live

with the grief of their loss


















Police Shoot Unarmed Man in Oklahoma [CAUGHT ON TAPE]    ABC    20 September 2016





Police Shoot Unarmed Man in Oklahoma [CAUGHT ON TAPE]        Video        ABC News        20 September 2016


Terence Crutcher, 40,

was shot and killed by police Friday night in Tulsa, Oklahoma,

after officers say he wasn't cooperating

and moved for something inside his car.


















Video shows police shooting

Terence Crutcher, who was unarmed.

16 September 2016




Footage from a police dashboard camera

captured the moment when officers shot Terence Crutcher,

who was unarmed.


on Publish Date September 19, 2016.

















Terence Crutcher shooting    18 September 2016








































corpus of news articles


Gun violence > Police shootings > USA




How Segregation

Shapes Fatal Police Violence


March 2, 2018
9:04 AM ET
Code Switch

On the afternoon of April 13, 2014, Dontre Hamilton was lying on the ground near a bench in a Milwaukee city park. A police officer on patrol walked over to Hamilton and asked him to stand up. Their encounter would end in disaster.

The officer patted Hamilton down for weapons — which the police chief later said was not in line with department policy as Hamilton posed no apparent danger — and Hamilton, who had a history of mental health issues, grabbed the officer's baton. The officer in turn pulled out his service weapon. By the end of the interaction, Hamilton was dead, shot 14 times.

What happened to Hamilton part of a larger national phenomenon, in which unarmed black people are more likely to be shot and killed by the police than unarmed white people. And according to new research from the Boston University School of Public Health, there is no state where that disparity is larger than in Wisconsin.

The study's authors say that the biggest reason for that difference is segregation.

That finding was part of a study that the authors say is the first of its kind: an examination of how much structural racism shapes fatal police shootings. But in order to examine structural racism, the researchers first needed a way to capture it. So they created a metric called the "state racism index." It took state-level data on black-white residential segregation, as well as disparities in educational attainment, employment status, economic status, and incarceration status, and scored each of these variables. Those scores were then tabulated into a number on on a zero to 100 scale; the higher the number, the more pronounced the structural racism in a state.

Wisconsin topped the researchers' list with a state racism index of 74.9, followed by Minnesota (70.0), New Jersey (68.5) , Illinois (67.8) and Connecticut (63.9). (For comparison, the lowest state racism score belonged to Montana, at 25.9, followed by Hawaii, Kentucky, New Hampshire, and Nevada, which all had scores below 35.)

According to Michael Siegel, one of the study's authors, one variable in their racism index mattered more than the rest. "The more racially segregated the neighborhoods in a state, the more striking the ratio of black to white police shootings of unarmed victims," Siegel said.

"It came as a surprise to me personally," Siegel said. "Traditionally, we're taught that racism is [most visible] in the South, but we're seeing here that it's the Midwest and the Northeast."

Siegel said the findings underlined the different regional mechanics of American racism. In the South, the oppressive systems of slavery violently entrenched racial caste in a way that, paradoxically, brought black and white Southerners into fraught social and geographic proximity. But black Southerners who moved to the North in the early 20th century for jobs in big industrial centers like Milwaukee, Chicago, and Newark, settled into racially and economically isolated neighborhoods and ghettos. That separation was maintained through insidious housing policies like redlining. While the legal underpinnings of segregation in the South were formally, if not practically, overturned by the courts, the ways cities in the North and Midwest maintain segregation are enduring and hard to see. That means major metro areas outside of the South are among the nation's most diverse and most deeply partitioned.

So why does black-white residential segregation influence fatal police shootings of unarmed black people? One theory is that segregated black neighborhoods tend to be more heavily policed than others. That's definitely true in Wisconsin: the state incarcerates a higher percentage of its black male population than any other in the country — and it's not even particularly close. A study from 2013 found that in Milwaukee, the state's largest city, half of all black men between the ages 30 and 40 have been behind bars at some point in their lives. And the city's 53206 ZIP code is 95 percent black and has the highest incarceration rate of any in the country.

But Siegel says that doesn't explain the whole story, and instead suggests that residential segregation manipulates implicit bias — the way people of all races subconsciously internalize ideas about the dangers of certain racial groups. "We know that officers...have to make split-second decisions in situations of high perceived threat, and you can see how officers who work in a so-called 'black' neighborhood can perceive a much higher level of threat than officers who are working a similar beat in a white or mixed community," Siegel said. "It doesn't seem to be the case that all police officers out there have an equal level of implicit bias — of course they all do to some degree — but we're finding that implicit bias is much more marked in states that have higher degrees of structural racism."

In other words: the more segregated a place, the more intense the personal bias of its police officers; the more pronounced that bias, the more it creeps into their interactions with black residents, with sometimes deadly results.

Siegel said he hopes the research helps move debates about police violence away from the language of rogue cops and "bad apples" and toward addressing the conditions that make those shootings more likely.

How Segregation Shapes Fatal Police Violence,
March 2, 2018, 9:04 AM ET,






Police Abuse Is a Form of Terror


AUG. 12, 2015

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages

Op-Ed Columnist


Writing about the wave of deadly encounters — many caught on video — between unarmed black people and police officers often draws a particular criticism from a particular subset of readers.

It is some variation of this:

“Why are you not writing about the real problem — black-on-black crime? Young black men are far more likely to be killed by another young black man than by the police. Why do people not seem to protest when those young people are killed? Where is the media coverage of those deaths?”

This to me has always felt like a deflection, a juxtaposition meant to use one problem to drown out another.

Statistically, the sentiment is correct: Black people are more likely to be killed by other black people. But white people are also more likely to be killed by other white people. The truth is that murders and other violent crimes are often crimes of intimacy and access. People tend to kill people they know.

The argument suggests that police killings are relatively rare and therefore exotic, and distract from more mundane and widespread community violence. I view it differently: as state violence versus community violence.

People are often able to understand and contextualize community violence and, therefore, better understand how to avoid it. A parent can say to a child: Don’t run with that crowd, or hang out on that corner or get involved with that set of activities.

A recent study by scholars at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies at Yale found that homicides cluster and overwhelmingly involve a tiny group of people who not only share social connections but are also already involved in the criminal justice system.

We as adults can decide whether or not to have guns in the home. According to a study in the Annals of Internal Medicine, having a gun may increase the chances of being the victim of homicide. We can report violent family members.

And people with the means and inclination can decide to move away from high-poverty, high-crime neighborhoods.

These measures are not 100 percent effective, but they can produce some measure of protection and provide individual citizens with some degree of personal agency.

State violence, as epitomized in these cases by what people view as police abuses, conversely, has produced a specific feeling of terror, one that is inescapable and unavoidable.

The difference in people’s reactions to these different kinds of killings isn’t about an exaltation — or exploitation — of some deaths above others for political purposes, but rather a collective outrage that the people charged with protecting your life could become a threat to it. It is a reaction to the puncturing of an illusion, the implosion of an idea. How can I be safe in America if I can’t be safe in my body? It is a confrontation with a most discomforting concept: that there is no amount of righteous behavior, no neighborhood right enough, to produce sufficient security.

It produces a particular kind of terror, a feeling of nakedness and vulnerability, a fear that makes people furious at the very idea of having to be afraid.

The reaction to police killings is to my mind not completely dissimilar to people’s reaction to other forms of terrorism.

The very ubiquity of police officers and the power they possess means that the questionable killing in which they are involved creates a terror that rolls in like a fog, filling every low place. It produces ambient, radiant fear. It is the lurking unpredictability of it. It is the any- and everywhere-ness of it.

The black community’s response to this form of domestic terror has not been so different from America’s reaction to foreign terror.

The think tank New America found in June that 26 people were killed by jihadist attacks in the United States since 9/11 — compared with 48 deaths from “right wing attacks.” And yet, we have spent unending blood and treasure to combat Islamist terrorism in those years. Furthermore, according to Gallup, half of all Americans still feel somewhat or very worried that they or someone in their family will become a victim of terrorism.

In one of the two Republican debates last week, Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina seemed to be itching for yet another antiterrorism war, saying at one point: “I would take the fight to these guys, whatever it took, as long as it took.”

Whatever, however, long. This is not only Graham’s position, it’s the position of a large segment of the population.

Responding to New America’s tally, Fareed Zakaria wrote in The Washington Post in July:

“Americans have accepted an unprecedented expansion of government powers and invasions of their privacy to prevent such attacks. Since 9/11, 74 people have been killed in the United States by terrorists, according to the think tank New America. In that same period, more than 150,000 Americans have been killed in gun homicides, and we have done … nothing.”

And yet, we don’t ask “Why aren’t you, America, focusing on the real problem: Americans killing other Americans?”

Is the “real problem” question reserved only for the black people? Are black people not allowed to begin a righteous crusade?

One could argue that America’s overwhelming response to the terror threat is precisely what has kept the number of people killed in this country as a result of terror so low. But, if so, shouldn’t black Americans, similarly, have the right to exercise tremendous resistance to reduce the number of black people killed after interactions with the police?

How is it that we can understand an extreme reaction by Americans as a whole to a threat of terror but demonstrate a staggering lack of that understanding when black people in America do the same?

Police Abuse Is a Form of Terror,
AUGUST 12, 2015,










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