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Vocapedia > Media > Journalism > News > Free press, Censorship

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

free press        UK

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/jan/01/
worlddispatch.johnaglionby

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

free press > The Sixties        UK

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2006/oct/08/2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

free press        USA

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/08/15/
opinion/editorials/free-press-local-journalism-news-donald-trump.html

 

 

 

 

control of news        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/28/
business/media/behind-the-scenes-billionaires-growing-control-of-news.html

 

 

 

 

proprietors > editorial control        UK

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/jul/27/
newspaper-owners-editorial-control

 

 

 

 

Richard Desmond        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/media/richard-desmond 

 

 

 

 

press freedom        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/media/press-freedom

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/27/
leveson-press-regulation-steve-coogan-david-mitchell

 

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2004/jan/07/
pressandpublishing.television

 

 

 

 

press freedom        USA

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/12/
obituaries/murray-fromson-champion-of-press-freedom-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

freedom of information        UK

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/freedomofinformation

 

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/oct/30/
mondaymediasection.freedomofinformation1

 

 

 

 

free speech        USA

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/19/nyregion/
herald-price-fahringer-a-defender-of-free-speech-dies-at-87.html

 

 

 

 

USA > New York Times v. Sullivan        Decision Date: March 9, 1964

 

Freedom of the press:

libel and slander

 

Background:

In 1960, the New York Times

ran a full-page advertisement paid for

by civil right activists.

 

The ad openly criticized

the police department

in the city of Montgomery, Alabama

for its treatment of civil rights protestors.

 

Most of the descriptions in the ad

were accurate,

but some of the statements

were false.

 

The police commissioner,

L. B. Sullivan,

took offense to the ad

and sued the New York Times

in an Alabama court.

 

Sullivan argued

that the ad

had damaged his reputation,

and he had been libeled.

 

The Alabama court

ruled in favor of Sullivan,

finding that the newspaper ad

falsely represented

the police department and Sullivan.

 

After losing an appeal

in the Supreme Court of Alabama,

the New York Times took its case

to the United States Supreme Court

arguing that the ad was not meant

to hurt Sullivan's reputation

and was protected

under the First Amendment.

 

Decision:

The United States Supreme Court

unanimously ruled in favor of the newspaper.

 

The Court said

the right to publish all statements

is protected under the First Amendment.

 

The Court also said

in order to prove libel,

a public official must show

that what was said against them

was made with actual malice

"that is, with knowledge

that it was false

or with reckless disregard for the truth."

http://www.uscourts.gov/multimedia/podcasts/Landmarks/NewYorkTimesvSullivan.aspx

 

http://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/
supreme-court-landmarks/new-york-times-v-sullivan-podcast 

 

 

 

 

censorship

 

 

 

 

ban

 

 

 

 

ban

 

 

 

 

gag order

 

 

 

 

issue gagging order

 

 

 

 

gag the press / a newspaper

 

 

 

 

legal gag

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/nov/24/
pressandpublishing.usnews 

 

 

 

 

be gagged

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/mar/03/uk.media 

 

 

 

 

gag

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/jan/07/
bigbrother.channel4 

 

 

 

 

prior restraint injunctions -

forcing a newspaper or broadcaster

not to run a story

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2007/mar/07/
pressandpublishing.partyfunding 

 

 

 

 

the right to know

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2007/mar/07/pressandpublishing.partyfunding 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/mar/07/politics.pressandpublishing 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/dec/21/freedomofinformation.media 

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/oct/30/mondaymediasection.freedomofinformation1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution        1791

 

 

media, press, newspapers, radio, TV,

journalism, photojournalism, free speech, free press,

cartoons, advertising