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Vocapedia > Time > Day > USA > Thanksgiving > Black Friday, Cyber Monday




















Adam Zyglis

The Buffalo News

Buffalo, NY


18 November 2010

















The successful purchase from a Target store in Los Angeles of a 55in TV


Photograph: Mark Ralston/AFP/Getty


Black Friday bargain-hunters hit the shops – in pictures


Friday 27 November 2015        12.43 GMT
















Black Friday


the day after Thanksgiving

the first official day

of the U.S. holiday

shopping season


A carnival of capitalism,

Black Friday

is the day after Thanksgiving,

when retailers across the country

open before dawn

and dangle deep discounts

to lure customers out of bed.


Some deal-seekers

even show up in pajamas.


The name itself

is a reference to profit,

because retailers historically

"moved into the black,"

or became profitable for the year,

on this day.





































cartoons > Cagle > Black Friday 2013






cartoons > Cagle > Holiday Shopping 2011 > Black and blue Friday        November 2011






cartoons > Cagle >  Black Friday / Holiday Shopping






cyber shoppers


Cyber Monday, the first Monday after Thanksgiving

story/story.php?storyId=248243390 - December 2, 2013











Cyber Monday        UK













The Transformation of Black Friday


November 23, 2013

The New York Times



The word “black” in front of a day of the week has almost never meant anything good.

Black Monday was the sell-off the day before the stock market crash of 1929, Black Tuesday. Black Wednesday was used to refer to a day of widespread air traffic snarls in 1954 as well as the day the British government was forced to withdraw a battered pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992. Black Thursday has variously been used for days of devastating brush fires, bombings and athletic defeats, among other unpleasantness.

So how is it that the term Black Friday has now come almost universally to denote joyous commercial excess, stupendous deals and big profits as the day when everyone heads out to shop for the holidays the day after Thanksgiving?

It wasn’t always this way. The New York Times first used the term Black Friday in an article in 1870 to refer to the day the gold market collapsed in September 1869.

Ben Zimmer, executive producer of Vocabulary.com, who has researched and written about the term, says its association with shopping the day after Thanksgiving began in Philadelphia in the 1960s — and even then the reference wasn’t positive. The local police took to calling the day after Thanksgiving Black Friday because they had to deal with bad traffic and other miseries connected to the throngs of shoppers heading for the stores that day.

Needless to say, that use didn’t sit well with local retailers. They tried, according to Mr. Zimmer, to give the day a more positive name: Big Friday. That did not take, but eventually retailers — in Philadelphia and beyond — managed to spin a new connotation: The day retailer’s books went from red ink to black.

Most consumers probably don’t know — and don’t care — about any of this. All they want are deals.

But the rebranding of Black Friday has been so successful that others have tried to spread the wealth across other days of the week as the holiday shopping season grows ever more competitive. In 2005, Cyber Monday was introduced as the day online retailers offered big savings to holiday shoppers. A few years ago, American Express came up with “Small Business Saturday” to encourage people to shop (presumably with their AmEx cards) at independent local businesses the day after Black Friday.

And as retailers begin their holiday promotions earlier and earlier, there have even been efforts to change the name of the day before Black Friday to Gray, Brown, even Black Thursday.

But for most people it will still forever be Thanksgiving.

The Transformation of Black Friday,






For a Weekend, at Least,

Retailers See Record Numbers


November 27, 2011
The New York Times


Spurred by aggressive promotions from retailers, American consumers opened their wallets over the holiday weekend in a way they had not since before the recession, setting records in sales and traffic.

The National Retail Federation said Sunday that spending per shopper surged 9.1 percent over last year — the biggest increase since 2006 — to an average of almost $400 a customer. In all, 6.6 percent more shoppers visited stores on the Thanksgiving weekend than last year.

“American consumers have been taking a deep breath and making a decision that it’s O.K. to go shopping again,” despite the high unemployment rate and other signs of caution, said Ellen Davis, vice president at the National Retail Federation.

Numbers from ShopperTrak, a consumer research service, showed equally strong results, with in-store sales on Friday rising by 6.6 percent over last year’s Thanksgiving Friday to $11.4 billion.

Yet there were signs the gains might not last. Analysts said that traffic to stores seemed to slow through the weekend, suggesting that the big start to the holiday season might peter out over time. And shoppers were using credit cards in large numbers, mall owners and analysts said, signaling that consumers were willing to sacrifice savings more than last year, when they paid with cash more frequently.

“With consumers, it’s emotional, so they might feel they need Christmas this year,” said Margaret Taylor, vice president and senior credit officer in the corporate finance group at Moody’s Investors Service. “They could be willing to take on more credit.”

Mark Vitner, a senior economist at Wells Fargo Securities, said in a note to clients that he expected that “consumers will dig into savings” or “temporarily tack on a little more debt” during the holidays.

Retailers hardly objected. Total spending, including online sales, reached an estimated $52.4 billion Thursday through Sunday, the National Retail Federation said. About 35 percent of that total was spent online, slightly higher than last year, the federation said, suggesting that online retailers’ attempts to attract in-store shoppers worked well.

Bill Martin, founder of ShopperTrak, noted that the day after Thanksgiving, usually the year’s biggest sales day, is “one day in a 60-day holiday season.” Still, he said, “what we do know is without a strong start to the season it’s pretty hard to have a good season.”

Given the tight budgets of customers, major retailers aggressively wooed shoppers, moving back opening hours to midnight on Thanksgiving or earlier. It seems to have worked, attracting more shoppers and giving them more hours on Friday to spend.

Almost a quarter of people who went shopping the Friday after Thanksgiving were in stores by midnight Thursday, the federation found. Among 18- to 34-year-olds who went shopping, that percentage was higher — 36.7 percent — than it was among 35- to 54-year-olds, of whom 23.5 percent were in stores by midnight.

“Early Black Friday openings and Thanksgiving-night openings are simply to get a larger share of the customer’s wallet,” Ms. Davis said, adding that research showed that customers tend to spend more at their first stop than at subsequent ones.

Though the longer Friday hours helped bump up sales, some analysts said they might have taken away from steady shopping through the weekend.

“Our perspective is that Black Friday peaked early this year and then lost some of its luster,” said Alison Jatlow Levy, a retail strategist at the consulting firm Kurt Salmon. On Saturday, “the malls felt like an average busy Saturday, but not like a Black Friday extravaganza.”

At the midnight opening of Macy’s Herald Square on Thanksgiving, about 9,000 customers were in line, up from 7,000 last year. Most looked quite young, many saying they had come for the late-night spectacle rather than for specific deals.

Kester Richards, 18, was at the front of the line and said he had waited four hours. He said he was a regular Macy’s shopper and was looking for Ralph Lauren clothes, but had never been to Black Friday before.

Kyun Il Bae, 21, and In Jung Choi, 21, South Korean students studying in New York State, said they had heard about the event and wanted to see what it was like. “I just like the atmosphere,” Mr. Bae said. “It’s a popular place, and I heard this is crazy.” Later, in the store, Mr. Bae did not seem as enthusiastic. He shrugged when asked if he had found any good deals, and looked more exhausted than invigorated.

The midnight openings also may have contributed to the unusually high number of men who were in stores. More men than women shopped throughout the weekend, and they spent more per person, according to the retail federation.

“Men really aren’t willing to pull themselves out of bed at 4 a.m. for a bargain, but they will go” late at night, Ms. Davis said. “Men are increasingly budget-focused, and like the idea of looking for good deals.”

Stores selling to people of different income levels chose different tactics on Friday, with many of the low- and middle-income retailers opening early with “door-buster” discounts, and the luxury stores moving back their opening times by just an hour or two. Still, Mr. Martin said, sales “were pretty good across all manner of retailers.”

According to the federation, department stores and discounters were the most popular destinations over the weekend, followed by electronics stores.

Shoppers interviewed Thursday night and Friday sounded as if they were on tight budgets, and that drove them to stores.

Amanda Ponce, 40, stood outside a Target in downtown Chicago, an Xbox 360 for her 8-year-old daughter on her shopping list. At $139.99, marked down from $199.99, the savings were crucial this year, she said, since she will be buying fewer presents.

“We’ve had a lot harder time living the same lifestyle that we lived,” she said, saying that her husband, a marketing consultant, had been taking on extra work. “We’re focusing more on specifically what she wants instead of an abundance of gifts. Things she’ll actually use and play with.”

At a J. C. Penney in Rancho Cucamonga, Calif., Maria Aguilar was not buying presents — she had come in for deals on a coffeepot and a griddle.

“We are definitely cutting back,” said Ms. Aguilar, 45, an instructional assistant from Norco, Calif. She said that this year, her family was buying gifts for “just the little ones, just the children.”


Rebecca Fairley Raney and Steven Yaccino

contributed reporting.

For a Weekend, at Least, Retailers See Record Numbers,
NYT, 27.11.2011,









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