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grammaire anglaise > expressions du but > nuances


index, but, visée,

enjeu, objectif commun,

pointage, cadrage, aiguillage,

direction, destination, destinataire




Fiction du jamais-dit,

effet d'annonce, valeur emphatique


toviseur -> Base Verbale












toviseur -> Base Verbale














d'un élément discursif prévisible, attendu,

d'un cliché


toreprise (préposition) + forme nominale (Pronom, N, GN, N-ing)










Objectif présenté comme

faisable, consensuel, inéluctable


segment -ing










Explication / cause ou objectif bien connu


forpréposition + N / N-ing










(be) set + forpréposition + N










soconjonction + proposition
















exprimer un but, un objectif


fiction du jamais-dit, effet d'annonce, ultimatum


toviseur -> Base Verbale


you have one more week to blast Hizbullah

















objectif présenté

comme faisable, fédérateur, consensuel, inéluctable


segment -ing




The Guardian        Education        p. 2        20 January 2009















Reprise d'un élément discursif prévisible, d'un cliché


topréposition + N / N-ing


the right way to reform


















d'un élément discursif prévisible, d'un cliché


toreprise (préposition)  + N / N-ing


the quickest route to senior management




The Guardian        Society        p. 19        19.7.2006
















d'un élément discursif prévisible, d'un cliché


toreprise (préposition)  + PRON / N (ici le pronom YOU) / N-ing



The Guardian        p. 30        17.3.2005















comment exprimer un but en anglais


deux formes concurrentes

pour exprimer un but,

deux manières

de mettre en scène le discours :


toviseur -> Base Verbale


toreprise (préposition)  + N / N-ing






toviseur -> Base Verbale


permet de présenter / vendre une idée

comme une nouvelle idée :


A kinder way to tackle truancy


on a enfin trouvé une manière

de lutter contre l'absentéisme scolaire






toreprise (préposition)  + GN / -ing


reprend la même idée,

en la présentant

comme un problème / enjeu bien connu :


Fines are tough on troubled families,

so schools have a new idea

for solving this problem






A kinder way to tackle truancy


Fines are tough on troubled families,

so schools have a new idea for solving this problem

– surrogate parents who make sure children

do their homework, eat properly,

go to bed and get up on time


Tuesday 3 April 2012
















autres énoncés




The Guardian        Sport        p. 1        29 November 2005
















Mark Trail        Jack Elrod

Created by Ed Dodd in 1946        7.5.2005







The Phantom        George Olesen and Graham Nolan

Created by Lee Falk        15.1.2005







Spiderman        Stan Lee        151.2005
















toreprise (préposition) + N    /    toviseur -> Base Verbale



in order toviseur, so as to viseur, so / so that



(be) set + forpréposition + N


objectif programmé


(s'apprêter à, se préparer à)







forpréposition + N-ing



à un objectif déjà formulé, connu, atteint,

à des mesures établies, de l'accompli


Japan: Hopes fade for finding more survivors

a plan for coping with blackouts






forpréposition + -ing


information connue, de second plan


support for taking this nation to war in Iraq






forpréposition + -ing




jailed for shooting at yobs


















Vic Harville


Little Rock, Arkansas

Stephens Media Group





L to R: U.S. vice-president Dick Cheney,

president George W. Bush (2001-2009)
















The Phantom        George Olesen and Graham Nolan

Created by Lee Falk        18.11.2004































expressions du but > autres énoncés




Obama Asking Congress for $60.4 Billion

to Help States Recover From Storm


December 7, 2012
The New York Times



President Obama proposed a $60.4 billion emergency spending

bill on Friday to finance recovery efforts in areas pummeled

by Hurricane Sandy, a sum that White House officials called

a “robust” investment in the region but that was far less than

what the states had requested.

Obama Asking Congress for $60.4 Billion to Help States Recover From Storm,
NYT, 7.12.2012,






To Stop Climate Change,

Students Aim at College Portfolios


December 4, 2012
The New York Times



A group of Swarthmore College students is asking the school

administration to take a seemingly simple step to combat pollution

and climate change: sell off the endowment’s holdings

in large fossil fuel companies.

For months, they have been getting a simple answer: no.

As they consider how to ratchet up their campaign,

the students suddenly find themselves

at the vanguard of a national movement.

    To Stop Climate Change, Students Aim at College Portfolios, NYT, 4.12.2012,






To Reduce Inequality, Tax Wealth, Not Income


November 18, 2012
The New York Times


WHETHER you’re in the 99 percent,

the 47 percent or the 1 percent,

inequality in America may threaten your future.

Often decried for moral or social reasons,

inequality imperils the economy, too;

the International Monetary Fund recently warned

that high income inequality could damage

a country’s long-term growth.

But the real menace for our long-term prosperity

is not income inequality — it’s wealth inequality,

which distorts access to economic opportunities.

    To Reduce Inequality, Tax Wealth, Not Income, NYT, 18.11.2012,






To Fight Radical Islam,

U.S. Wants Muslim Allies


August 3, 2011
The New York Times



Rolling out a new strategy for combating radicalization,

White House officials on Wednesday warned

that casting broad suspicion on Muslim Americans

is counterproductive and could backfire

by alienating a religious minority and fueling extremism.

    To Fight Radical Islam, U.S. Wants Muslim Allies, NYT, 3.8.2011,






To Track Militants,

U.S. Has System That Never Forgets a Face


July 13, 2011
The New York Times



When the Taliban dug an elaborate tunnel system

beneath the largest prison in southern Afghanistan this spring,

they set off a scramble to catch the 475 inmates who escaped.

One thing made it easier. Just a month before the April jailbreak,

Afghan officials, using technology provided by the United States,

recorded eye scans, fingerprints and facial images

of each militant and criminal detainee in the giant Sarposa


    To Track Militants, U.S. Has System That Never Forgets a Face, R, 13.7.2011,






US set for 1,000th execution


Thu Dec 1, 2005
12:02 PM ET
By Andy Sullivan


WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

Barring an unlikely intervention,

a convicted killer will die by lethal injection

in the dead of night on Friday

in the 1,000th execution in the United States

since the death penalty was reinstated three decades ago.

Kenneth Boyd, 57, was scheduled to die

at Central Prison in Raleigh, North Carolina at 2 a.m. EST

(0700 GMT) for killing his estranged wife and her father

in 1988 in front of his children.

His execution has attracted worldwide attention not

because of the nature of the crime,

but because it will mark a symbolic milestone in the history

of the death penalty.

Experts on the issue said state Gov. Mike Easley

was unlikely to commute his sentence

as happened in Virginia on Tuesday

when a convict was spared becoming the 1,000th execution

thanks to a last minute decision by the governor.

"He's not one to limit these sorts of things," That Beyle,

a political science professor at the University of North Carolina,

said of Easley.

Death penalty opponents were expected to gather

near the prison late on Thursday to protest Boyd's execution.

On Wednesday, about 100 people demonstrated

outside the U.S. embassy in Rome

as part of worldwide vigils and rallies organized by

a Catholic Church group against judicial killing.



Even if there is a last minute change in Raleigh,

16 hours later on Friday at 6 p.m. EST (2300 GMT),

Shawn Paul Humphries was due to die in South Carolina,

also by lethal injection,

for the killing of a convenience store owner in a robbery.

A spokesman for South Carolina Gov. Mark Sanford said

the governor's legal team was not going to recommend


The U.S. Supreme Court allowed reintroduction

of the death penalty in 1976 and 38 of the 50 American states

and the federal government now permit capital punishment.

    US set for 1,000th execution, R, 1.12.2005,  US set for 1,000th execution,
    R, 1.12.2005,






Underground radar hunt for life on Mars


Scientists are about to deploy

a giant radar telescope above Mars

in a bid to pinpoint underground lakes and flooded caverns

Headline and §1, O, 1.5.2005,







BNP tries scare tactics to win target voters


In Yorkshire and London

the far right is putting the frighteners on the white working-class

Headline and sub, G, 27.4.2005,






To infinity and beyond


We're all boldly going where we haven't been before.

Owen Sheers opens our adventure special on a cargo boat

plying its trade between the islands of the South Pacific

Headline and sub, G, 12.2.2005,






twenty-seven to eight

BBC Radio 4, Today, 3.2.2005.






Trump to Martha: 'You're Hired'


Wed Feb 2, 2005
11:22 PM ET


LOS ANGELES (Reuters) -

Lifestyle mogul Martha Stewart will star

in a prime-time spinoff of NBC's hit reality show "The Apprentice"

sometime after her release from prison next month,

the network said on Wednesday.

    Trump to Martha: 'You're Hired', R, Wed Feb 2, 2005 11:22 PM ET,






P&G to Buy Gillette for $55.8 Billion


Fri Jan 28, 2005
07:41 PM ET
By Jessica Wohl


NEW YORK (Reuters) -

Procter & Gamble Co. (PG.N: Quote, Profile, Research)

on Friday  said it would buy Gillette Co.

(G.N: Quote, Profile, Research)

in a deal worth about $55.8 billion,

uniting two of the world's largest makers of household goods

ranging from Pampers diapers to Duracell batteries.

    P&G to Buy Gillette for $55.8 Billion, R, Fri Jan 28, 2005 07:41 PM ET,






Connecticut Killer to Die Early Saturday


Fri Jan 28, 2005
11:03 PM ET
By Gail Appleson


NEW YORK (Reuters) -

The U.S. Supreme court denied late on Friday

a stay of execution requested by the father of Michael Ross,

a serial killer due to die in Connecticut early on Saturday.

The Second Circuit Court of Appeals vacated

a temporary restraining order put into place

by a federal judge in Hartford, Connecticut.

It stayed its order until Sunday at 12:01 a.m.

to allow Daniel Ross to appeal to the Supreme Court,

which lifted that stay, allowing his execution by lethal injection

to go ahead as planned 2:01 a.m. EST Saturday.

    Connecticut Killer to Die Early Saturday, R, Fri Jan 28, 2005 11:03 PM ET,






Israel shocked by image

of soldiers forcing violinist to play

at roadblock


Of all the revelations that have rocked the Israeli army over the past week, perhaps none disturbed the public so much as the video footage of soldiers forcing a Palestinian man to play his violin.

The incident was not as shocking as the recording of an Israeli officer pumping the body of a 13-year-old girl full of bullets and then saying he would have shot her even if she had been three years old.

Nor was it as nauseating as the pictures in an Israeli newspaper of ultra-orthodox soldiers mocking Palestinian corpses by impaling a man's head on a pole and sticking a cigarette in his mouth.

But the matter of the violin touched on something deeper about the way Israelis see themselves, and their conflict with the Palestinians.

The violinist, Wissam Tayem, was on
his way to a music lesson near Nablus when he said an Israeli officer ordered him to "play something sad" while soldiers made fun of him. After several minutes, he was told he could pass.

It may be that the soldiers wanted Mr Tayem to
prove he was indeed a musician walking to a lesson because, as a man under 30, he would not normally have been permitted through the checkpoint.

But after the incident was videotaped by Jewish women peace activists, it prompted revulsion among Israelis not normally perturbed about the treatment of Arabs.

The rightwing Army Radio commentator Uri Orbach found the incident disturbingly reminiscent of Jewish musicians
forced to provide background music to mass murder.

"What about Majdanek?" he asked, referring to the Nazi extermination camp.

    Headline and first §§, 8.12.2004,






Neighbours to decide punishments


Local people are to be given the power to decide what work community punishment offenders should do in their neighbourhood, under plans to be announced tomorrow by David Blunkett, the home secretary.

The scheme will feature in a campaign across England in February and March in which convicted offenders on community punishment orders will be ordered to clear rubbish off derelict sites, clean off graffiti and carry out other unpaid community work.

It is part of Mr Blunkett's wider "civil renewal" agenda which will see an action plan next year detailing how local people are to be given a say over wider aspects of the criminal justice system, and on how to regenerate their neighbourhoods, and to make the best use of local schools.

Headline and first §§, G, 8.12.2004,

















15 December 2004


















The Guardian        p. 1

26 November 2004

















The Guardian        28 September 2005














US military policemen moved unregistered Iraqi prisoners,

known as "ghost detainees", around an army-run jail

at Abu Ghraib, in order to hide them from the Red Cross,

according to a confidential military report.

The report on abuses at Abu Ghraib prison

- a copy of which was obtained by the Guardian -

described the practice of hiding prisoners as "deceptive,

contrary to army doctrine, and in violation of international


The revelations surfaced at a time when the prison abuse

scandal threatened to engulf the Pentagon

and the military occupation of Iraq.

The US army yesterday admitted to the Senate

there was evidence of widespread abuse of prisoners

in military-run jails in both Iraq and Afghanistan.

There have been a total of 25 recorded deaths

in US military custody in both countries.

The army also said yesterday

that one soldier had been court martialed

for using excessive force in shooting to death

an Iraqi prisoner last September.

The soldier was reduced in rank and dismissed

from the army.

Jailed Iraqis hidden from Red Cross, says US army, G, 5.5.2004,















Mark Trail        Jack Elrod        Created by Ed Dodd in 1946        23.11.2004















There is only one way to deal with this. Make it simple and effective. Abolish all agricultural subsidies so that every proposed reform doesn't generate new escape routes that negate its primary purpose. To this end, the Guardian is starting a new website today, aimed at kicking into oblivion all agricultural subsidies (http://kickaas.typepad.com). This is one of those rare topics that unites right and left. It is also one of the few remaining free lunches in economics from which practically everyone gains. It would galvanise developing countries' agriculture while freeing more than $300bn currently being spent by governments - over $200 per capita - every year on subsidies for other purposes. There will inevitably be transitional problems for some western farmers but nothing like the structural change other industries have experienced. And in the long run it will be of benefit to them, too. They will be able to grow crops they are good at rather than those attracting subsidies. All that the developing countries are seeking is a level playing field on which to compete. Is that too much to ask?

Kicking the subsidies:
Third world farmers need a fair deal,

















Mike Roper        Fran Matera        30.11.2004 / 1.12.2004















Gentle folks at the Guardian,

In your plea to get your non-American readers

to write to voters in Clark County, Iowa,

you are correct that events in the US have had,

and will have, effects on world events.

For example, we have pulled your chestnuts out of the fire

in two world wars that were occasioned

by European diplomacy.

Maybe you'd like a vote in which American president

will oversee the next rescue.

The next time you have elections in Great Britain,

I shall endeavour to send names of your citizens

to people in France, Iraq, India, the United Arab Emirates,

Botswana, Pakistan, China and Argentina

so that they may attempt to influence your election.

It's only fair that everybody in the world should have a say

in the selection of the prime minister.


Dear Limey assholes : Last week G2 launched Operation Clark County to help readers have a say in the American election by writing to undecided voters in the crucial state of Ohio. In the first three days, more than 11,000 people requested addresses. Here is some of the reaction to the project that we received from the US,
G, 18.11.2004,
















Rex Morgan        Woody Wilson and Graham Nolan

Created in 1948 by Nicholas P. Dallis        23.11.2004















His characters die quite frequently. When they do, they take time to realise what has happened. They are met by Pratchett's personified Death - a skeleton with a scythe, an hourglass and a white horse called Binkie - who has organised himself to resemble what human beings think he is, is courteously inhuman, but has increasing bouts of oddly caring behaviour, prompted by his long association with our agitated species. These matter-of-fact deaths are curiously comforting - people shake themselves and stagger or stroll off in the direction of the horizon. The device means that good characters can die without outrage, though I remember being shocked by the first death I encountered - that of an ordinary, brave dwarf in Men at Arms who, by normal fairy-story rights, should have survived to triumph over evil. Pratchett invented the City Watch of his squirming and insanitary metropolis Ankh-Morpork, he once said, so as to make heroes of the supernumerary guardsmen and extras who are present in most stories simply to be killed in droves to show how bad the bad characters are, before the hero deals out justice.

A comforting way of death:
AS Byatt takes a trip back
into the darkening past of Terry Pratchett's Night Watch,
G, 9.11.2002,

















Steve Bell


The Guardian

December 15 2004:

MPs force ministers to explicitly bar mercy killings.
















The legislature in 1881 finally adopted statutorily the standard laid down by the courts when it forbade, with exceptions, the wearing (p.1332) or carrying of "any such pistol as used in the army or navy of the United States" except uncovered and in the hand. [162] In response to an appeal by a defendant who had been convicted of carrying such a weapon openly in a holster buckled around his waist, the Arkansas Supreme Court in an 1882 case, Haile v. State, [163] declared the restriction a reasonable one, within the limits of the Arkansas constitution. The legislature, the court found, had perceived a danger that armed citizens had the means to do violence to their fellows upon any offense. The court looked to the reasons that underlay the right to bear arms to evaluate the legislature's judgment that only military weapons might be carried and only openly and in the hand.

"The constitutional provision," the court found, "sprung from the former tyrannical practice, on the part of governments, of disarming the subjects, so as to render them powerless against oppression ... [and was] not intended to afford citizens the means of prosecuting, more successfully, their private broils...."[164] Thus, the legislature, mindful of the perceived danger of increased levels of violence, reached a constitutionally acceptable balance between achieving the purposes of the constitutional provision and achieving safety, "by conceding the right to keep such arms, and to bear or use them at will, upon one's own premises, and restricting the rights to wear them elsewhere in public."[165]

Haile achieved two ends, perhaps both intended by the legislature, both an example for the future, but only one to arguably salutary effect and the other not. The first end was that Haile had achieved a clear formula, albeit one presaged by Aymette v. State [166] forty years earlier, for testing and validating firearms regulation. The restriction would be judged against the civic end to be accomplished by the constitutional provision, and the restriction would be valid if it did not deny entirely the right to use a protected weapon, perhaps even all protected weapons.(p.1333)

    "NEVER INTENDED TO BE APPLIED TO THE WHITE POPULATION": FIREARMS REGULATION AND RACIAL DISPARITY--THE REDEEMED SOUTH'S LEGACY TO A NATIONAL JURISPRUDENCE?[*], Robert J. Cottrol[**] and Raymond T. Diamond[***], Copyright © 1995 Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois Institute of Technology. Originally published as 70 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1307-1335 (1995). For educational use only. The printed edition remains canonical. For citational use please obtain a back issue from www.kentlaw.edu/cgi-bin/lawrev-order or Chicago-Kent Law Review, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois Institute of Technology, 565 West Adams Street, Chicago, Illinois 60661, 312-906-5190.], copié 4.12.2004, http://www.guncite.com/journals/cd-reg.html






King Edward VIII has renounced the Throne,

and will be succeeded by the Duke of York.

To-day the Act of Abdication will be passed

by both Houses of Parliament,

and to-night King Edward will give it the royal assent

- his last act as King.

The new King will hold the Accession Council

at St. James's Palace to-morrow morning,

and be proclaimed at noon.

He will, it is understood, take the title of George VI.

King Edward renounces the throne,
Abdication effective tonight | Duke of York succeeds | 'The King never wavered',
Friday December 11, 1936,
















The Phantom        George Olesen and Graham Nolan

Created by Lee Falk        23.11.2004
















expression du but / de l'explication


soconjonction + proposition (SV  /  SVO)




The Guardian        p. 10        7 February 2009















Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative > Niveau avancé


Adjectif / Adverbe + topréposition + N


from, from ... to



back to




ajout, destination, destinataire, cible, objectif








comparaison, opposition




différenciation, contraste



topréposition + N    ≠    toviseur -> Base Verbale



adjectif / adverbe + topréposition (reprise) + N



close to



next to



Syntaxe > toviseur / topréposition



V + toviseur -> Base Verbale


V + -ing



toviseur -> Base Verbale > fiction du jamais-dit



Glossaire > Anaphore






Traduction > pour



formes en -ing




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