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grammaire anglaise > groupe nominal > formes -ing


séquence nominale-ing



séquence de mots autonome,

auto-déterminée, auto-sémantique,

immédiatement compréhensible,

sans fonction grammaticale.



Une séquence nominale-ing autonome

n'est ni sujet, ni objet.



Les séquences nominale-ing autonomes

sont fréquentes dans les slogans

et les titres de journaux :


Protecting America


Beating cancer


Cloning humans


Helping women get to the top






Dans la plupart des cas,

la séquence nominale-ing autonome

est autonome / auto-déterminée,

elle fait sens toute seule,

elle est immédiatement

compréhensible :


Remembering A Veteran

Who Put Aside His Struggles For Others


May 29, 2021    NPR













Dans certains cas,

la séquence nominale-ing autonome

n'est pas autonome / auto-déterminée.


L'un de ses éléments

- ci-dessous Bayard Rustin,

militant oublié -

 a besoin, pour faire sens

et être bien compris,

d'un apport d'information /

d'une détermination,

- ici sous forme de groupe nominal :


Remembering Bayard Rustin:

The Man Behind the March on Washington


February 25, 2021    NPR













Autre exemple


la séquence nominale-ing autonome

a ici besoin d'un développement

- sous forme de proposition -

pour être bien comprise :


Taking On Climate Change At Home:

How You Can Cut Carbon Emissions


April 20, 2021    NPR


















Dans l'énoncé suivant,

la séquence nominale-ing autonome

a besoin d'un apport d'information

- sous forme de complément -

pour être bien comprise :


In David Yoon's New Novel,

Resetting The Internet To 'Version Zero'


May 22, 2021    NPR



















séquence nominale-ing autonom > valeurs :


mot d'ordre, slogan, devise



connu, consensuel, collectif / commun










sous-entendu fréquent :


comment faire pour..,

comment réussir à...




séquence nominale-ing autonom


Protecting America


Beating cancer


Cloning humans


Helping women get to the top







séquence nominale / nom en -ing (N-ing)

en fonction

sujet, objet ou complément



Buying a car

[ N-ing sujet de can be ]

can be a daunting undertaking





Mutu denies using cocaine

[ N-ing objet de denies ]





A gadget which combines

two of Britain's greatest preoccupations,

watching television

and looking in the mirror,

[ N-ing complément / développement

de two of Britain's greatest preoccupations ]

has triumphed

in an annual innovation contest.







Beating cance

16 October 2004
















séquence nominale-ing autonome > temporalité > passé ou futur



n'est pas un marqueur temporel.



Une séquence nominale-ing autonome

peut renvoyer

au passé, au présent ou au futur.



Par exemple, dans l'énoncé

Unblocking the Suez Canal,

titre d'un article du Guardian

publié le 31 mars 2021,

la séquence nominale-ing autonome

fait référence au passé :

le Canal de Suez a été débloqué

la veille.


dans cet énoncé,


a ici une valeur explicative :



on a débloqué le canal de Suez /

on a réussi à déboquer le canal.



















séquence nominale-ing autonome > autres énoncés




Protecting America


President Bush signs

the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004

during a ceremony in Washington, December 17, 2004.


Standing with Bush are

(from left) Senate majority leader Bill Frist,

Lee Hamilton, vice chairman of the 9/11 Commission,

Senator Joe Lieberman (D-CT),

Thomas Kean, chairman of the 9/11 Commission,

Senator Susan Collins (R-ME), Rep. Jane Harman (D-CA),

and Rep. Pete Hoekstra (R-MI).


Photo by Kevin Lamarque/Reuters.


Bush Signs Intelligence Overhaul Legislation


Fri Dec 17, 2004    01:19 PM ET

- broken link

















Commemorating Rosa Parks


President Bush signs a bill during a ceremony held

in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building

at the White House, December 1, 2005.


Photograph: REUTERS/Mannie Garcia


Rosa Parks to be honored with statue


















séquence nominale-ing autonome


autres énoncés



















Responding to Katrina


Matt Wuerker


Washington, DC


13 October 2005




Karl Rove,

President George W. Bush's top political adviser.











































































A l'inverse de

toviseur -> Base Verbale,

qui permet

à l'énonciatrice / l'énonciateur :



1 - de faire comme si

la / le destinataire

ignorait tout de ce qui va lui être dit,

et donc de créer un suspense,

un effet d'anticipation / d'annonce

et de transmettre une information

présentée comme inédite :





To Isolate Iran,

U.S. Presses Inspectors on Nuclear Data


October 15, 2011

The New York Times





President Obama is pressing United Nations nuclear inspectors

to release classified intelligence information showing

that Iran is designing and experimenting

with nuclear weapons technology.

The president’s push is part of a larger American effort

to further isolate and increase pressure on Iran

after accusing it of a plot to assassinate

Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to the United States.

To Isolate Iran, U.S. Presses Inspectors on Nuclear Data,






To understand the national lottery's impact

on British society over the past decade,

you need to see beyond a morass of noughts.

You need to see beyond the £16 billion the draw has raised

for more than 180,000 good causes.

You need to see beyond the 1,600 millionaires created

since the game began;

the two million people who win a prize every week,

even if it is only a tenner for getting three numbers right;

the 20,000 blue plaques being screwed onto walls

to commemorate a local project

that has received lottery funding.

So how was it for you?: Ten years ago the national lottery was launched
amid get-rich-quick mania and dire misgivings over its impact on our way of life.
The changes wrought by our multi-billion windfall are profound,
and go deeper than the headlines,






Doctors Wage a Frantic Fight

to Save a Wounded Officer


November 29, 2005

The New York Times



The guarded entrance to Building C of the Kings County Hospital Center in Brooklyn is designed for ambulance traffic, but the green Impala that stopped at its painted curb around 3 a.m. yesterday counted as an emergency vehicle.

There were bullet holes in the doors, and the front-seat passenger, Officer Dillon Stewart, was bleeding from a massive heart injury.

His wound was severe, but there was cause for hope. Just a few hours earlier, surgeons at the hospital had opened the chest of a 17-year-old gunshot victim, saving his life, and now Officer Stewart, 35, was delivering a robust, thick-walled heart into their care. "The heart has a mind of its own," said Dr. Robert S. Kurtz, one of his surgeons, "and his was the heart of a fighter."

The fight to keep Officer Stewart alive, which played out over roughly five hours, was recounted in interviews with Dr. Kurtz and Dr. Patricia O'Neill, the co-directors of trauma surgery and surgical critical care at Kings County.


Doctors Wage a Frantic Fight to Save a Wounded Officer,










2 - de présenter

un objectif nouveau,

difficile à atteindre,

et supposé non encore

compris, admis, assimilé

par la / le destinataire :




To Fight Rising Costs,

Hospitals Seek Allies

in the Operating Room


November 18, 2005

The New York Times



It is a war on rising hospital costs, being fought one tiny balloon at a time. And as with most wars, some of the tactics are controversial.

Until recently, some cardiologists at the PinnacleHealth System hospital group in Pennsylvania would inflate a new artery-opening balloon each time they inserted a stent into a patient's clogged arteries. Now, if they can, these doctors will use a single balloon throughout a patient's procedure.

That simple step, which the doctors say poses no additional risk to patients, saves at least a couple of hundred dollars a procedure. And - here lies the controversy - the doctors share in any money they save the hospital. While the new approach gives them a financial incentive to be more cost- conscious, it also fundamentally recasts the traditional arm's-length relationship between a hospital and the doctors who practice there.

To Fight Rising Costs, Hospitals Seek Allies in the Operating Room,










... la séquence nominale-ing autonome

(Base Verbale + -ing seul


avec complément)

part souvent

d'un autre présupposé :




le connu / reconnu,

le récurrent,

le rassurant, le non-surprenant,

le cliché, le slogan, le mot d'ordre,


le mode d'emploi / le comment faire / réussir,

(notamment dans les titres de rubrique),

le mode de vie, l'art de vivre,

la loi, les règles du jeu,

le consensuel, l'enjeu collectif, le projet commun bien défini,

l'objectif présenté comme possible / déjà atteint,

le déjà-dit / compris, le on-dit, la mémoire collective,

un état jugé important, la phase décisive,

l'information essentielle, fiable,

sur laquelle on ne peut revenir,

que l'on ne peut contester.




La valeur majeure de la séquence nominale-ing autonome

est la validation / acceptation

- réelle ou présupposée, voire fictive -

de ce qui est dit par l'ensemble

des énonciateurs / énonciatrices.



-ing joue ici le rôle d'un sceau énonciatif ( //  Will ).



"Celui-qui-parle" se présente en maître du discours :


un titre / un slogan / un mot d'ordre

en séquence nominale-ing autonome

introduit souvent un texte argumenté,

qui prétend faire autorité / référence,

et auquel l'autre ne peut se dérober.







Protecting America's borders


President Bush

talked about illegal immigration

during a speech on Monday in Tuscon, Ariz.



Evan Vucci/Associated Press


President Renews His Campaign

to Overhaul Immigration Policies


29 November 2005







Dans les titres en séquence nominale-ing autonome ,

la présence de l'énonciateur / énonciatrice

s'estompe :


on est dans le commun,

n'importe qui peut reprendre

n'importe quelle séquence nominale-ing autonome,

il n'y a pas de "je"

qui en assemblerait pour la première fois les éléments

(absence de sujet grammatical).






A l'inverse de l'impératif (Base Verbale),

où celle / celui qui parle isole l'autre,

lui enjoint de faire seul ce qui lui est demandé,

sans nécessairement l'aider

et surtout sans l'aiguiller dans un discours

(voir la publicité, en pages 11 et 13 du Guardian,

de British Petroleum),

la séquence nominale-ing autonome relie

énonciateur et co-énonciateur

dans un système discursif déjà défini

(cliché, discours commun, consensuel, prévisible).






Il peut y avoir effet d'annonce,

mais dans ce cas

la équence nominale-ing autonome  implique souvent

que ce qui est prévu risque fort de se réaliser,

qui plus est avec une certaine facilité

(// avec l'énoncé en will de la une du Socialist Worker ).



Nombre de titres en -ing

jouent d'ailleurs sur l'inéluctable, l'inévitable.


Sous-entendu :

vous ne pouvez pas y échapper,

on ne peut pas faire autrement,




Voir aussi > Will






Une séquence nominale-ing autonome

vise souvent à rassurer, à conforter le co-énonciateur /

la co-énonciatrice.



Même lorsque l'information est inquiétante,

le sous-entendu se veut rassurant :

maintenant au moins, on sait, on comprend,

c'est clair, on est fixé.



L'énonciateur / l'énonciatrice joue sur les deux tableaux :

moi qui vous parle, je m'amuse à vous faire peur,

je vous fais prendre conscience d'un problème,

mais en même temps, je vous donne le mode d'emploi,

le schéma, la recette, pour ne plus avoir peur,

comprendre, réagir

(une du Socialist Worker).






Addressing the Justice Gap

[ sens > objectif + mode d'emploi ]


August 23, 2011

The New York Times

Most low-income Americans cannot afford

a lawyer to defend their legal interests,

no matter how urgent the issue.

Unless they are in a criminal case,

most have no access to help

from government-financed lawyers either.

Addressing the Justice Gap,






Going for gold

[ sens > objectif + explication : comment faire ]


China's sports schools take thousands

of very young children and groom them for glory.

In four years' time,

it should be the most successful Olympic nation on earth.

Sam Wollaston reports

Headline and sub,






Smoking, drinking, eating, gambling and hunting.


The government seems to want

to be involved with every aspect of our lives.

But should it?

Small ideas, big issues, O, 21.11.2004,

















The Guardian        Technology        p. 3        3.11.2005

Game of the week

Playing God

Mike Anderiesz        The Guardian        Thursday November 3, 2005

















Socialist Worker        p. 1        26.11.2005

















The Guardian        Extending Boundaries        p. 1        2.12.2005


Has the fight been won?

The government wants disabled people

to have full equality by 2025.

Years of struggle by disability campaigners means

we now have extensive laws

prohibiting discrimination and promoting access,

with more to come next year

















The Guardian        p. 11        14.11.2005




The Guardian        p. 13        14.11.2005
















The Guardian        p. 11        23 November 2005

















The Guardian        p. 27        7 December 2005
















The Guardian        Public Services Awards        p. 5        30 November 2005

















The Guardian        Technology        p. 1        24 November 2005


Seeing the big picture

Cheap and simple digital cameras

are turning the world of photography on its head.

Will this revolution be the profession's biggest challenge, asks Tom Ang

The Guardian        Technology        p. 1        Thursday November 24, 2005


















The Guardian        Society        p. 6        16 November 2005

















British Prime Minister Tony Blair as a ghost.


Martin Rowson

political cartoon

The Guardian        p. 33

15 November 2005



Blair and Kelly try to defuse rebellion over schools

· PM admits reforms are unpopular with MPs

· Cabinet colleague stresses roles for local authorities


Tuesday November 15, 2005


















The Guardian        Film & Music        p. 17

9 December 2005


















The Economist        23 July 2005


















November 8, 1993        Vol. 142 No. 19


















The Guardian        p. 24        14.3.2005
















The Guardian        Society        p. 16        23.11.2005
















The Guardian        Society        p. 11        9.11.2005

















The Guardian        Society        p. 22        19.10.2005
















The Guardian        Society        p. 16        19.10.2005

















The Guardian        p. 7        15.12.2004

















The Guardian        p. 3        8.2.2005










































George W. Bush site        27.10.2004




The Democratic Party site        16.11.2004










Avec une séquence nominale-ing autonome

on postule que ce qui est dit

est bien connu, répété, établi,

accepté par tout-un-chacun

- on ne va pas revenir là-dessus -,

même si l'information vient de tomber (1),

même si ce dont on parle

est relativement nouveau (2) :



1 - Hunting with Firefox


Today marks a milestone in the history

of the "open source" movement,

the extraordinary unpaid community of volunteers all over the world

who work together to produce software

which is placed in the public domain without commercial gain.

Today sees the official launch of Firefox (www.getfirefox.com),

a free internet browser that is daring

to take on Internet Explorer, owned by Microsoft,

which until recently had a market share of over 95%.

It roundly beat Netscape (originally known as Mosaic)

during the late 1990s in what became known as the browser war.

Headline and §1, G, 9.11.2004,







2 - Buying a car online

[ valeur > objectif, conseils, mode d'emploi ]


Buying a car

[ N-ing sujet de can be ]

can be a daunting undertaking,


but knowing where to look on the internet

[ N-ing sujet de can make ]

can make it a whole lot easier,


writes Jane Perrone

Headline and sub, G, 13.11.2004,






Dans la dépêche de Reuters ci-dessous, le N-ing

abusing Iraqi prisoners relève de la mémoire collective :


depuis que les photographies des sévices

ont été diffusées sur internet dans les premiers mois de 2004,

et reconnues comme authentiques par les autorités américaines,

en octobre (date de l'article) personne n'est censé ignorer

que des soldats américains ont torturé des prisonniers irakiens

dans la prison d'Abu Ghraib.



On ne débat plus de la validité de ces photos,

abusing Iraqi prisoners

fait déjà partie du discours ambiant,

du bruit de fond énonciatif.



BAGHDAD (Reuters) -

A military judge jailed a U.S. army sergeant,

described in court as a typical all-American boy,

for eight years on Thursday

forpréposition sexually and physically abusing Iraqi prisoners.


[ abusing Iraqi prisoners

ne détermine aucun nom, c'est un N-ing.


Il ne s'agit pas d'un segment déterminant en -ing,

mais d'un N-ing complément de cause

- via la préposition for -

de la proposition A military judge jailed a U.S. army sergeant ]


The sentence for Staff Sergeant Ivan "Chip" Frederick, 38,

is by far the toughest of those handed down to three soldiers

now convicted over abuses at Baghdad's Abu Ghraib prison.

Photos of naked prisoners being taunted and humiliated at the jail

outraged the world when they were published in April.

Frederick, who sat impassively

through the two-day court martial at a U.S. base in Baghdad,

appeared shaken and looked at the floor

after judge Colonel James Pohl announced his verdict,

which included a dishonorable discharge and a demotion.

Defense counsel Gary Myers said

the sentence was excessive and he would appeal.



the most senior soldier indicted in the scandal,

pleaded guilty to five charges

that included assault, committing an indecent act

[ N-ing objet de included ]


and dereliction of duty.


The church-going father of two,

who was a prison guard in civilian life,


helping tie wires to the fingers and penis of one prisoner

[ N-ing objet de admitted ]


and telling him he could be electrocuted,

[ N-ing objet de admitted ]


and forcing three hooded detainees to masturbate.

[ N -ing objet de admitted ]

U.S. Soldier Gets 8 Years for Iraq Jail Abuse,
Thu Oct 21, 2004 01:16 PM ET,






A gadget which combines two of Britain's greatest preoccupations,

watching television and looking in the mirror,

[ N-ing complément

de two of Britain's greatest preoccupations ]


has triumphed in an annual innovation contest.

Gadget awards celebrate great British obsessions,
G, 29.10.2004,






Delivering the goods

[ sens > objectif + mode d'emploi ]


There's no doubting Google's power and popularity.

Yet few of us use the search engine effectively.

Jack Schofield offers some tips

Headline and sub,
G, 21.10.2004,






Mutu denies using cocaine

[ N-ing objet de denies ]


"Scared" striker back in London for talks with Mourinho

Headline and sub,
G, 18.10.2004,






'It is aboutpréposition being accepted in society'

[ N en -ing complément de is ]


G, 13.10.2004,






Getting deeper into debt

[ séquence nominale-ing autonome > sens > constat ]


Once Britain was a nation of shopkeepers

- now it appears we are a nation of debtors.

Jill Phillip on the high street lenders

who help us further into the red

Headline and sub,
G, 4.10.2004,






Britain is to become a lead player

in an ambitious European space programme

which includes landing astronauts on Mars by 2033.

[ N-ing objet de includes ]

The science minister, Lord Sainsbury,

announced today that the UK is contributing £5m

to help pave the way for the Aurora programme

to explore the solar system,

including manned missions

to Earth's nearest planetary neighbour.

The pledge effectively gives Britain a guaranteed place

among the front-rank European Space Agency participants.

The money, from the Particle Physics

and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC),

will go towardspréposition defining a road map for Aurora

and starting work on the programme's first robotic missions.


[ defining a road map for Aurora


starting work on the programme's first robotic missions

ne déterminent aucun nom,

il ne s'agit pas d'un segment déterminant -ing,

mais d'un N-ing objet  de go ]

Britain joins mission to Mars,
G, 1.10.2004,


















Study claims

watching TV can shorten a child's attention span...

[ N-ing sujet de can shorten ]



Larry Wright


The Detroit News


7 April 2004

















Résumé :


séquence nominale-ing autonome

participe / séquence nominale-ing



Une équence nominale-ing autonome

est une forme nominale

auto-déterminée, auto-sémantique,

donc autonome.



On la rencontre souvent

dans les slogans

ou dans les titres d'article.



Syntaxe :

à l'inverse d'un segment déterminant -ing,

segment qui s'accroche à un nom / GN

ou à une proposition (SVO)

pour le / la compléter,

une séquence nominale-ing autonome est auto-sémantique :


elle fait sens toute seule.





Une séquence nominale-ing autonome

est d'ailleurs souvent utilisée seule

dans les titres de journaux

(voir aussi The Economist) :



Time        August 8, 2005        Vol. 166 No. 6
















A l'inverse,

une séquence-ing complète un GN,

en précisant le sens

du nom le plus important du GN,

en l'occurence ici policy.




L'ensemble forme un GN complexe :


The government's policy ofpréposition

handing key education services to the private sector

[ N-ing complément

du GNgénitif The government's policy ]


came under renewed attack yesterday

after ministers confirmed

that a £177m contract

has been awarded

to Britain's biggest outsourcing company,


    Capita's school deal under fire, G, 2.10.2004,











Seeking solutions


Google has set the cat among the pigeons

with the release of its Desktop Search tool,

which keeps track of the contents of your PC.

Bobbie Johnson reports

Headline and sub,
G, 21.10.20O04,
online/story/0,3605,1331537,00.html - broken URL






Syntaxe et grammaire :

à l'inverse d'une séquence nominale-ing autonome ,

 N-ing est sujet ou objet d'un verbe / GV.



Ellipse (Ø) de préposition (from) :


Protesting 'stops Batman Ø seeing baby daughter'


He risked his life, his liberty and his reputation

to perch for five hours on a ledge

at Buckingham Palace dressed as Batman.

It was all, he said, to highlight

the injustice ofpréposition not being allowed proper contact

with his two young children from a previous marriage.

[ N-ing complément du N the injustice ]


As Jason Hatch walked out of a police cell yesterday

it was surprising, then, to find his current girlfriend complaining

that his commitment topréposition protesting for fathers' rights

[ N-ing complément du N his commitment ]

meant he had little time for their seven-month-old daughter

- the youngest of his four children by three different women.

Headline and first §§,
G, 15.9.2004,




Dans le titre-ci-dessus,


seeing baby daughter

ne porte pas sur / ne détermine pas / ne qualifie pas Batman.


seeing baby daughter

est un N-ing objet du verbe prépositionnel stop from.


Enoncé reconstitué / théorique

avec verbe prépositionnel stop from :

Protesting 'stops Batman from seeing baby daughter'.



- > Voir Groupe nominal

GN avec segment (s) déterminant (s) en -ing


















Larry Wright


The Detroit News










Dans le dessin ci-dessus (anglais américain),

sending him to his room three years ago

qualifie mistake.



Enoncé recomposé / théorique :

Did we make a mistake

bypréposition sending him to his room three years ago?


Traductions explicatives :

Aurions-nous fait l'erreur de l'envoyer

dans sa chambre il y a trois ans ?

C'était peut-être une erreur de l'envoyer

dans sa chambre il y a trois ans ?



sending him to his room three years ago

qualifie / catégorise / complète / précise

le sens de mistake.



Avec ce complément d'information,

le lecteur / la lectrice comprend

de quelle erreur il s'agit.










Retour à l'article sur Jason Hatch / Batman,

mais avec N-ing mis en évidence,

qui apporte un complément d'information

à his current girlfriend.




'stops Batman seeing baby daughter'


He risked his life, his liberty and his reputation

to perch for five hours on a ledge

at Buckingham Palace dressed as Batman.

It was all, he said, to highlight

the injustice of not being allowed proper contact

with his two young children from a previous marriage.

As Jason Hatch walked out of a police cell yesterday

it was surprising, then, to find his current girlfriend

complaining that his commitment

to protesting for fathers' rights

meant he had little time

for their seven-month-old daughter


[ ce participe-ing

apporte une information circonstancielle

relative à l'état de his current girlfriend,

mais cette information n'est pas catégorisante :

elle ne catégorise pas girlfriend ].


- the youngest of his four children

by three different women.

Headline and first §§,
G, 15.9.2004,






The government's policy ofpréposition

handing key education services to the private sector

[  N-ing  complément / développement

de The government's policy ]


came under renewed attack yesterday

after ministers confirmed

that a £177m contract has been awarded

to Britain's biggest outsourcing company,


Capita's school deal under fire,
G, 2.10.2004,






Barclays denies 'fleecing' clients

[ N-ing objet de denies ],


Barclays Bank is likely

to be accused ofpréposition making profits

of at least $300m (£166m),

[ N-ing objet de be accused ofpréposition ]


bypréposition short-selling complex bond instruments,

[ N-ing complément de moyen

de making profits of at least $300m (£166m) ]


known as CDOs,

where clients who had bought the products

suffered huge losses.


Last week HSH Nordbank, the German bank,

filed a case in London's high court

to recover $150m (£85m) of losses

it said it suffered

bypréposition investing in collateralised debt obligations (CDOs)

issued by Barclays

[ N-ing complément de cause ].


It claims it was mis-sold the products.

Barclays yesterday strongly denied

taking out short positions in the bonds

[ N-ing objet de denied ],


but the scale and bitterness of the legal battle

is already causing deep alarm

among other investment banks operating in the lightly

regulated $500bn market

for credit derivatives such as CDOs

[ N-ing déterminant / catégorisant other investment banks ].

Headline and first §§,






Making pension contributions compulsory

[ N-ing sujet de would distract ],


would "distract

frompréposition the problems of the UK pensions system",

according to an influential Labour-affiliated thinktank.

The Fabian Society said

any plans to force workers and employers

to make pension contributions

could also prove to be a vote loser

if employers push through cuts in wages

to pay for the scheme.


Fabian research director Richard Brooks said

compelling companies to make pensions contributions

[ N-ing sujet de will lead ]


will lead to lower wages because

"compulsion does not produce free money".

Compulsory pensions 'could be a vote loser', says thinktank,






Computerising the body:

[  valeur > processus, objectif  ]

Microsoft wins patent

to exploit network potential of skin


Fact or fiction - carrying a keyboard on your arm


Call it the ultimate wireless network.

From the ends of your fingers to the tips of your toes,

the human body is a moving,

throbbing collection of tubes and tunnels,

filled with salty water and all capable ofpréposition

transmitting the lifeblood of the 21st century: information.

[ N-ing complément ].



In what may seem a move too far to some,

the computer software giant Microsoft

has been granted exclusive rights

to this ability of the body to act as a computer network.

Two weeks ago the company was awarded

US Patent 6,754,472, which bears the title:

Method and apparatus

forpréposition transmitting power and data

using the human body


[ Préposition for

suivie de la séquence-ing

transmitting power and data

qui complète / détermine / définit / précise

le GN

Method and apparatus :

la méthode et le système

qui permettent de / consistent à

transmettre l'électricité et les données ]


[ using the human body

est un N-ing complément de moyen ]



Microsoft envisages using the human skin's

conductive properties

to link a host of electronic devices around the body,

from pagers and personal data assistants (PDA)

to mobile phones and microphones

[ N-ing objet de envisages ],


although the company is uncharacteristically coy

about exactly what it may have in mind.

Headline, sub and first §§, 6.7.2004,
online/news/0,12597,1254911,00.html - broken URL






Getting on the wrong bus usually spells

[ N-ing sujet de spells ]



but for one second world war veteran on Sunday

it led to the ride of a lifetime.

How D-day veteran hitched a lift with a president,















ne pas confondre

séquence nominale-ing autonome ,

forme autonome et auto-déterminée,




des séquences nominales -ing

qui dépendent d'autres éléments :





NOdéterminant HUNTING





Chasseur, passe ton chemin!

Chai Soua Vang

n'a apparemment pas tenu compte

de l'avertissement écrit sur cette pancarte.


Et six personnes,

venues lui rappeler leur droit à la propriété privée

dans ce coin du Wisconsin, l'ont payé de leur vie.



deux traqueurs de chevreuil surprennent Chai Soua Vang

sur leur plate-forme d'observation installée dans un arbre.


Le ton monte, un coup de feu part.


L'un des hommes demande alors de l'aide par radio.


Venus à la rescousse,

quatre autres chasseurs sont la cible d'un feu nourri.


Selon l'adjoint du shérif,

les corps étaient «très éloignés les uns des autres»,

ce qui laisse supposer que l'auteur de la fusillade

a pourchassé ses victimes.


Chai Soua Vang, 36 ans, de Saint-Paul (Minnesota)

a été interpellé sans incident dimanche après-midi.


Il a été identifié par l'un des chasseurs blessés

qui avait relevé le numéro d'identification inscrit sur sa veste.


Mortelle partie de chasse,

mercredi 24 novembre 2004 - 19:32, Libération / Reuters

http://www.liberation.com/page.php?Article=195004&Template=GALERIE&Objet=25417 - broken link

















Come and talk to us

aboutpréposition making your money work harder.


comme toutes les prépositions,


annonce une forme nominale simple ou en -ing.


The Guardian        p. 17        8 September 2004











Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


N-ing autonome

valeurs > probléme



N-ing autonome

autres valeurs



N-ing autonome  ≠  be + -ing



N-ing autonome    Impératif



formes nominales



formes nominales > pronoms








séquence nominale-ing autonome



Ne pas confondre

séquence nominale-ing autonome

et participe / segment en -ing


GN + topréposition + séquence nominale-ing



GV + séquence nominale-ing



prépositions + N



toviseur -> Base Verbale > valeurs > fiction du jamais-dit



toviseur -> Base Verbale > fonction > entrée en syntaxe










déterminant, catégorisant




non déterminant, non catégorisant




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