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grammaire anglaise > groupe nominal avec topréposition


N + topréposition + Nau référent connu, admis, validé, non surprenant, déjà signalé, récurrent



Un nom / un groupe nominal (GN)

peut être

une forme nominale sans -ing

(smartphone, junk food, climate change...)


une forme  nominale en -ing

(smoking, making your bed...)










N + topréposition + Nau référent connu, admis, validé, non surprenant, déjà signalé, récurrent



N + toviseur -> Base Verbale (BV)










Responses To Coronavirus Outbreak

Vary Greatly In The American South





Trump Administration Proposes

Major Changes To Bedrock Environmental Law





CRISPR Approach To Fighting Cancer

Called 'Promising' In 1st Safety Test





the solution to the global warming crisis





A Traveler’s Guide to Taking a Smartphone Abroad





'Dirt Is Good':

Why Kids Need Exposure To Germs








N + toviseur -> Base Verbale


Here’s a Way to Control Guns



sens / valeur :

fcition de l'énonciation première,

de l'inédit



sort un"lapin" linguistique

de son chapeau















topréposition > variations sémantiques


objectif bien connu,

collectif / commun,

mais non réalisé


N + topréposition + Nobjectif non réalisé


Three Paths to Containing Trump

















The Nervous Person’s Guide to Re-entering Society

















topréposition > variations sémantiques > objectif réalisé, réussite


N + topréposition + Nobjectif réalisé


Obama’s Secret topréposition Surviving the White House Years: Books


















topréposition > variations sémantiques > destination / destinataire


N + topréposition + Ndestination bien connue / destinataire bien connu


a ticket to hell

















N + topréposition + N




une destination non géographique,

abstraite, morale,

un état ultime,

la fin d'un parcours personnel :



School Shooters: What's Their Path To Violence?


February 10, 2019    NPR



















topréposition > variations sémantiques > tâche répétitive, routinière, quotidienne


N + topréposition + Ntâche répétitive, routinière, quotidienne





April 27, 2021
















topréposition > variations sémantiques




N + topréposition + Ndébat


Are there

limits topréposition using celebrities toviseur discuss race and mental health?





















N + topréposition + N > autres énoncés


































































The Guardian        p. 11        6 December 2008

















c. 2005















N + topréposition + N


autres énoncés


variations sémantiques


à, au, pour, vers, de / des, du, avant


solution, réponse




objectif consensuel, récurrent, bien connu


lien indissociable























The Guardian        Technology        p. 6        4 December 2008

















The Guardian        p. 35        25.8.2006
















The Guardian        p. 1        16.2.2007

















The Guardian        G2        p. 1        28 November 2005















Falconer plans end to long trials


Payments to barristers to stop

when criminal cases over-run,

with more funding going to civil legal aid

    Headline and sub, G, 11.5.2005
















The Guardian        p. 29        30 January 2007
















The Guardian        p. 31        17 January 2007

































The Guardian        p. 36        19.7.2006















The Guardian        Six Nations 2007        p. 8        2.2.2007































The Guardian        Work        p. 1        1.4.2006
















The Guardian        p. 10        9 March 2006
















The Guardian        p. 10        29.3.2006






























The Guardian        G2        p. 8        9.11.2006

















August 1, 2005        Vol. 166 No. 5


























































































































A Danger to Our Grizzlies


FEB. 24, 2016

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages

Contributing Op-Ed Writer

Lydia Millet




The grizzly bears that live in and around Yellowstone

make up almost half the population in the lower 48 states,

and now those bears are at risk.

In 2015 their numbers in the Yellowstone area declined

by 40, to an estimated 717 from 757 — a 6 percent drop

that represents the highest one-year mortality

since grizzlies were given federal protection in 1975.

Despite this decline, the United States Fish and Wildlife

Service is currently preparing to strip the animals

of their Endangered Species Act protection.

A Danger to Our Grizzlies,
NYT, FEB. 24, 2016,






The Secret to School Integration


FEB. 23, 2016

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages | Op-Ed Contributors




BY most measures, America’s public schools are now more racially and socioeconomically segregated than they have been for decades.

In the Northeast, 51.4 percent of black students attend schools where 90 percent to 100 percent of their classmates are racial minorities, up from 42.7 percent in 1968. In the country’s 100 largest school districts, economic segregation rose roughly 30 percent from 1991 to 2010.

In some ways, it’s as if Brown v. Board of Education never happened. Increasing residential segregation and a string of unfavorable court cases are partly to blame. But too many local school officials are loath to admit the role that their enrollment policies play in perpetuating de facto segregation.

While Mayor Bill de Blasio has supported several recent grass-roots efforts to integrate individual schools in New York City, district officials have avoided taking a stand on school integration amid controversy. Carmen Fariña, the schools chancellor, recently declined to support parent proposals to merge attendance zones for two highly segregated schools just nine blocks apart on Manhattan’s Upper West Side. She instead placed the responsibility for integration on individual parents. “Parents make choices,” she said.

In Seattle, in 2008, the superintendent and school board also cited residential segregation as the reason for not making integration a priority. “It’s not my job to desegregate the city,” the chairwoman of the school board explained to The Seattle Times.

In Florida, the Pinellas County school board voted to tie school zones more strictly to residential patterns, moving thousands of formerly integrated black students into underperforming schools. One of the board members called the problem “a nationwide thing, not just us.”

School leaders need to stop making excuses for segregation. Diverse classrooms reduce racial bias and promote complex reasoning, problem solving and creativity for all students. Five decades of research confirm that students in socioeconomically and racially diverse schools have higher test scores, are more likely to enroll in college, and are less likely to drop out, on average, than peers in schools with concentrated poverty. Low-income students’ achievement improves in integrated schools, and contrary to many parental concerns, middle-class students’ achievement does not suffer.

The structural and political challenges to integration are substantial, but viable options are still within reach for nearly any community that makes integration a priority. Take socioeconomic integration. According to our research, more than 90 school districts and charter schools in 32 states are using socioeconomic status as a factor in student assignment.

These districts and charters enroll more than four million students. Because socioeconomic and racial segregation so often overlap — even as black and Latino families are more likely to live in persistent, unstable poverty — these strategies are a necessary step toward preventing racial marginalization from persisting in schoolhouses.

In Champaign, Ill., for example, families rank their top choices from among all schools in the district, and students are assigned based on an algorithm to ensure socioeconomic diversity. Under this system, 80 percent to 90 percent of families typically receive their first choice.

In Rhode Island, a mayor from affluent Cumberland led the passage of legislation to create regionally integrated charter schools that would draw students from rich suburbs and struggling cities together in the same classrooms.

In Louisville, Ky., where racial integration plans were struck down by the Supreme Court in 2007, school officials, parents and students rallied to create a new integration plan that includes measures like family income and educational attainment alongside neighborhood-level racial factors to ensure that their schools did not resegregate.

Political backlash is inevitable. But when interests collide, courageous leaders must recognize that integration is worth the work.

In 2010, Somali parents and the superintendent in the majority-white Minneapolis suburb of Eden Prairie led efforts to redraw elementary school boundaries to integrate the schools. Despite fierce protests by some white families, the boundaries were redrawn. Six years later, the elementary schools are not only more socioeconomically and racially integrated, but they are producing higher test scores.

School integration has found its way into the presidential campaign. In a speech this month in Harlem, Hillary Clinton lamented the “dangerous slide towards resegregation in our schools.” The push for integration is also poised to make the leap from politics into policy.

The budget request President Obama released this month includes $120 million to support integration efforts led by districts, more than double current funding. John King, the acting secretary of education, has deemed school integration a national priority, calling the opportunity to attend strong, socioeconomically diverse schools “one of the best things we can do for all children.”

With this work underway, at least partly, in 32 states, there may well be hope for a new wave of school integration.


Halley Potter is a fellow and Kimberly Quick is a policy associate at the Century Foundation.

Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook and Twitter, and sign up for the Opinion Today newsletter.

A version of this op-ed appears in print on February 23, 2016, on page A27 of the New York edition with the headline: The Secret to School Integration.

The Secret to School Integration,
FEB. 23, 2016,






The Door to Iran Opens


JULY 16, 2015

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages

Op-Ed Columnist

Roher Cohen


Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel calls it

a “historic mistake” that permits Iran

a sure path to nuclear weapons.”

A minister in his government,

unable to resist outrageous hyperbole,

calls it “one of the darkest days in world history.”

Jeb Bush, doing the tired Chamberlain-Obama number,

dismisses it as “appeasement.”

The Door to Iran Opens,
NYT, July 16, 2015,






Frustration in Ferguson


AUG. 17, 2014

The New York Times

The Opinion Pages

Op-Ed Columnist

Charles M. Blow


The response to the killing of the unarmed teenager

Michael Brown

— whom his family called the “gentle giant” —

by the Ferguson, Mo., police officer Darren Wilson

— who was described by his police chief as “a gentle,

quiet man” and “a gentleman” — has been anything

but genteel.

Frustration in Ferguson, NYT, 17.8.2014,






A Jane Doe Gets a Back Story


November 12, 2012

The New York Times



As cold cases go, this one was frozen.

Forty-one years ago a young woman’s

badly decomposed body

was found floating under a highway overpass

at the southern end of Lake Panasoffkee, in central Florida,

about an hour and a half northeast of Tampa.

There was no clue to her identity,

but one clear sign of her fate.

“A man’s belt was wrapped around her neck,”

said Darren Norris, an investigator

with the Sumter County Sheriff’s office

who is now in charge of the case.

(The original lead investigator was William O. Farmer,

who is now sheriff.)

A Jane Doe Gets a Back Story,
NYT, 12.11.2012,






The Sprint to Election Day


October 25, 2012

The New York Times


The final weeks of a presidential race

are supposed to give the candidates

a chance to choose their biggest ideas

and strongest pitches to win wavering voters

and drive supporters to the polls.

So how does Mitt Romney choose to address

one of the biggest challenges facing the nation

— its faltering education system?

The Sprint to Election Day,
NYT, 25.10.2012,






Hank Jones obituary


Prolific jazz pianist and composer,

he was a sensitive accompanist

to Ella Fitzgerald


Tuesday 18 May 2010

18.28 BST


John Fordham

Prolific jazz pianist and composer,
he was a sensitive accompanist to Ella Fitzgerald,
G, 18.5.2010,






British ducks and geese

could be bird flu carriers


A UN expert has issued a fresh warning

after the death of a swan

but the danger to humans is low


Sunday April 9, 2006

The Observer

John Aglionby in Hanoi,

Jo Revill and Lorna Martin


The death of a Scottish swan from bird flu suggests

that other infected birds are flying around Britain,

but the chances of any human contracting the virus

are still extraordinary low, the head of the United

British ducks and geese could be bird flu carriers, O, 9.4.2006,






After Reports to the Contrary,

Only One Miner Survives


January 4, 2006

The New York Times



SAGO, W. Va., Jan. 4 - The news that arrived just before midnight could not have been better: all but one of the 12 men still trapped in a West Virginia coal mine had been saved. But the news that arrived more than two hours later was tragedy compounded: all but one had in fact died.

A grim-faced mining company official made the announcement of the deaths to a crowd of several hundred friends and relatives in a small nearby Baptist church about 2:30 this morning.

"There was silence," John Cato, a friend of the miners, told CNN in an interview. "People didn't understand what he was saying."

What followed was pandemonium. "People who had been praising God a minute before were cursing him" Mr. Cato said.

But more fury was aimed at the mining executives. The company's chief executive said people directing the effort misunderstood a phone call in which rescuers reported finding the men. Residents were also angry that the company delayed correcting the error for almost three hours, although they learned the true nature of the situation after 20 minutes. And criticism was directed as well at West Virginia's governor, Joe Manchin III, who had joined in the initial jubilation at the church.

One miner had been found dead earlier in the evening.

But the word that the 12 others had been rescued and the somber correction brought a shocking end to a rescue effort that had dominated the airwaves ever since an explosion trapped the miners 260 feet below the surface after an explosion occurred early Monday morning.

After Reports to the Contrary, Only One Miner Survives,
NYT, 4.1.2006,






California Demands

Repairs topréposition Software

for Voting Machines


December 25, 2005

The New York Times



SACRAMENTO, Dec. 24 (AP) - California election officials have told one of the country's largest makers of voting machines toviseur repair its software after problems with vote counts and verification surfaced in the state's special election in November.

In a letter obtained by The Associated Press, Bradley J. Clark, the assistant secretary of state for elections, threatened to start the process of decertifying machines made by the maker, Election Systems and Software, if senior officials did not address the concerns immediately.

"The California secretary of state is deeply concerned about problems experienced by counties utilizing ES&S voting equipment and software," Mr. Clark wrote in a letter addressed to the company president, Aldo Tesi, nine days after the Nov. 8 election.

Software problems included incorrect counting of turnout figures, a malfunction that prevented voters from verifying that their choices were registered accurately and one machine recording the wrong vote in a test, according to the letter.

Eleven California counties used the company's voting machines in the special election. Election Systems and Software equipment also is used in 45 other states.

The problems in California are similar to ones the company has experienced elsewhere. In a 2004 primary election in Hawaii, glitches with the company's optical scanners led to a miscount of about 6,000 votes.

California Demands Repairs to Software for Voting Machines,






Mr Bolton makes a bad start to his new job


26 August 2005


Any hopes that John Bolton, the new US ambassador to the United Nations, would have been chastened by the way he was elevated to his position have been dashed by the emergence of a leaked document detailing his negotiating demands for next month's UN summit. So contested was Mr Bolton's nomination - even in the Republican Party - that President Bush was forced to bypass the Senate and name his new UN ambassador in a recess appointment. But documents that have fallen into the hands of The Washington Post reveal that Mr Bolton's all too brief experience of democratic accountability before Congress have not taught him the virtues of moderation.

all the amendments to next month's draft agreement proposed by Mr Bolton are unreasonable. Few would argue, for example, that in the wake of the Iraq oil-for-food scandal and the revelations of sexual abuses by UN peacekeepers that the bureaucratic structures of the UN are not sorely in need of radical reform. And it is true the UN Human Rights Commission has lost all credibility by including nations such as Sudan and Libya and ought to be dissolved and replaced. The US is also justified in calling for a stronger stance against terrorism and the proliferation of biological and chemical weapons.

Mr Bolton makes a bad start to his new job, I, 26.8.2005,
http://comment.independent.co.uk/leading_articles/article308186.ece - broken URL






Pipeline opens new oil route to west


Central Asian project

fuels environmental fears


A £2.2bn pipeline that will deliver

a million barrels of crude oil a day

 to the Mediterranean Sea,

and is set to become a vital gateway

for central Asian energy resources

to the west, opened yesterday.

Headline, sub and §1,






Appeal to parents on teenage births


We need help to contain problem says minister

Headline and sub,







A one-way ticket to nowhere

with holiday clubs


Emma Lunn reports on the bogus schemes

that talk people into stumping up thousands for a holdiay,

and then leave them grounded with no refund

Headline and sub, IoS, 15.5.2005,
- - broken link






Power to the people

in the fight against corporations


Fed up with a product, service or company?

Then share it with millions online

Headline and sub, I, 7.5.2005,
invest_save/story.jsp?story=636141 - broken link






Scientists say they have found

the solution to the global warming crisis.

They want to bury it.

Seabed supplies a cure for global warming crisis,






Barbara McMahon rounds up

Italian media reaction to the election

of Cardinal Ratzinger as the new Pope

New shepherd splits press flock, sub,
G, 20.4.2005,






Children's lifestyle

key to health,

says Blair


Tony Blair today announced plans for the NHS

to tackle "lifestyle" health problems,

putting children's health particularly high up the agenda.

Headline and §1,






VATICAN CITY (Reuters) -

Cardinals head into their first full day of voting

for a new pope on Tuesday

after an inaugural ballot failed to find

a successor to John Paul.

Cardinals to Resume Voting After First Black Smoke,
Mon Apr 18, 2005 06:33 PM ET,






5,000 people take part

in a funeral march to the music of Wagner

to mourn civilians killed by the allied bombing raids

Neo-Nazis upstage Dresden memorial, sub,






Triumphant climax to 20-year project

as European probe breaks through

to Saturn's moon Titan,

revealing rocks, rivers and perhaps a sea

From 750m miles away, a glimpse of a frozen, ancient Earth, sub,






Unlocking the human genome

opened a door to ending disease,

scientists claimed four years ago.

David Adam asks what, if any,

progress has been made so far

Light at the end of the tunnel ...,
§1, 18.11.2004,






Ahead of tomorrow's American poll,

Stephen Armstrong meets a Sky News team

who are struggling with 8,000 other international journalists

to gain access to candidates who see them

as a waste of time

 'Foreign media are about as useful as lice' - Kerry aide,






Bin Laden warning to America


- Al-Qaida leader admits 9/11 attacks for first time

- Video speaks of new threat in run-up to US poll

- We will continue war on terror, vow Bush and Kerry

Headline and sub,
G, 30.10.2004,






Some of the country's most successful rock musicians

yesterday paid tribute to John Peel, the veteran Radio 1 DJ,

whom they credited with having played a crucial part

in their rise to fame.

Peel, champion of budding rock stars, dies,






The Guardian has learned

that Britain's most senior team of censors

viewed the film 9 Songs,

by British director Michael Winterbottom,

before it was passed for distribution

without cuts to scenes showing authentic acts of penetration,

masturbation and oral sex.

Key three unfazed by real sex in 9 Songs,






British veterans of the first Gulf war

and their supporters yesterday demanded

that the Ministry of Defence accept that many were ill

because of their service 13 years ago,

following further evidence that US medical advisers

were prepared to do so.

A panel commissioned by the US government

has concluded there is a "probable link"

between exposure to toxic chemicals

and illnesses in many troops

who served in the Gulf in 1991.

UK Gulf war veterans call for action,






Leading figures on Merseyside offer advice to Tory MP

before his 'mea culpa' visit, and we look at places

he should add to his itinerary

Liverpudlians urged: 'Don't sink to Johnson's level',






Radical proposals out today that would trigger

the biggest shake-up topréposition the secondary school

examination system for 60 years are likely to feature

in Labour's manifesto for the general election.

Ministers are toviseur delay a substantive response

topréposition a blueprint toviseur replace GCSEs

and A-levels

with a new "diploma" - toviseur be published

in full this morning

by a government-appointed working party -

although they will back the overall concept of the reforms,

which are likely to feature in Labour's election

manifesto and will be fleshed out in a white paper.

Labour to adopt exam plan in manifesto,












The Guardian        p. 22        16.4.2005















New Archer link to coup plot alleged

Headline, G, 13.10.2004,






Bolts, old screwdrivers, plastic bags,

paint, broken pens, bent CDs

- they are the kind of objects you would expect

to find in a list of rubbish.

Except that this collection of litter is not to be found

in the bin at the end of the front garden,

but whizzing about in space,

threatening to collide with astronauts.

Astronomers working for the European Space Agency (ESA)

warned yesterday that space is so full of rubbish

that it has become a danger to the people and satellites in it.

A team from the Canary Islands Institute of Astrophysics

predicted that it will have detected

around 100,000 fragments of space rubbish

by the time it has finished a definitive catalogue.

Lost in space: the killer screwdriver,
G, 11.10.2004,







Film-maker lends support to campaign

for improving lot of back-up workers at Canary Wharf,

but injunction scotches protest march

Loach pitches in for low-paid cleaners,
G, 9.10.2004






Guantánamo Bay prisoner's letter

claims he was witness to murders


A British man held at Guantánamo Bay

has alleged that he saw US soldiers

kill two men in Afghanistan.

Headline and sub,
G, 2.11.2004,






A senior adviser to the Liberal Democrats

who quit his role as chairman of its working group

on employment claims the party has been "hijacked

by a coterie of laissez-faire economists"

determined to reject

EU minimum standards in the workplace.

Ex-policy chief says party hijacked,
G, §1, 23.9.2004,






The government's commitment

to creating a more patient-friendly NHS

was discredited today by evidence

of its sluggish response to the grievances

of thousands of vulnerable people

who were wrongly charged for their care.

Ombudsman hits at NHS mischarging,
G, 15.7.2004,






Melting ice:

the threat to London's future


There is more carbon dioxide

in the atmosphere than for 55m years,

enough to melt all the ice on the planet and submerge

cities like London, New York and New Orleans,

Sir David King, the government's chief scientific adviser

has warned.

Headline and sub,
G, 14.7.2004,






The US administration is negotiating

with Poland and the Czech Republic

over its controversial missile defence programme,

with a view to positioning the biggest missile defence site

outside the US in central Europe.

US in talks over biggest missile defence site in Europe,
G, 13.7.2004,






WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

The Bush administration is expressing

steadfast opposition to reviving the military draft

despite the stress placed on America's all-volunteer force

by large-scale operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Rumsfeld 'Can't Imagine' Revived Military Draft,
R, 4.7.2004,






The Pet Shop Boys have written

a soundtrack to Sergei Eisenstein's film Battleship Potemkin,

which they will perform live in Trafalgar Square

on September 12.

Here Pet Shop Boy Neil Tennant explains why

Roll up for the revolution, G, 30.6.2004,






The transit of Venus is

a key to the understanding of the solar system.

The first observers used their measurements

to calculate the basic measuring stick of the solar system:

the astronomical unit, or distance from the Earth to the sun.

It is 6.19am,
a black spot transits the sun ... and Venus lovers are in heaven,






He represents Nigella Lawson,

Frederick Forsyth and Jack Higgins,

is invited to all the best parties and has name-dropping

down to a fine art.

So what is

the secret to literary agent Ed Victor's charmed life?

Special agent,
G, 1.3.2004,






Brighter children will be stretched

by more challenging courses and teaching

under a shake-up to the national curriculum to be backed

by the Education Secretary, Charles Clarke

Curriculum changes to bring on bright pupils,
Time web frontpage, 16.2.2004.






The great achievement of her emotional life,

as narrated by Conradi,

was to ensure that no one knew

about her affair with Elias Canetti.

From her marriage to John Bayley in 1956

until her death in 1999,

even her closest friends thought

Canetti had been merely her guru,

not her sadistic sexual tormenter.

In Bayley's own memoir of Iris,

he denied she had ever got intimately entangled

with any of the lesbians she befriended.

Conradi, however, has discovered

that she resigned her fellowship at St Anne's in 1962

because the college principal warned her about

'a mutually obsessional attachment to a woman colleague'.

Who really knew Iris?:
Obsessive, merciless, an intellectual in love with erotic danger,
Iris Murdoch remains mysterious in a tactful new biography by Peter J Conradi,










Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


formes nominales



formes nominales > pronoms



Syntaxe > toviseur + Base Verbale  /  topréposition



expression du but




ajout, destination, destinataire, cible, objectif




comparaison, opposition




différenciation, contraste



formes -ing / séquences -ing




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