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grammaire anglaise > conjonctions > sens


hypothèse, concession, constat, comparaison


hypothèse > if



hypothèse > even if    ≠    constat > even though



comparaison, hypothèse > as though










hypothèse > if



Mr Spitale argues that,

if the danger can be foreseen early enough,

all that would be necessary would be to alter

the surface of the asteroid,

changing its heat characteristics.

Scientists fear asteroid collision,
GE, p. 5, 5-4-2002.















hypothèse > even if        ≠        constat > even though




Jim Morin


November 20, 2016

















The Guardian        p. 26        24 March 2007















In Sight of Manhattan Skyline,

Living Forlorn and in the Dark


November 4, 2012

The New York Times



Watching the Manhattan skyline shimmer over Jamaica Bay had always been one of the charms of life in the Rockaways. But now, when the Empire State Building winks on each night, those lights feel almost like a punch in the gut.

It felt that way to the two women caked in the sandy silt that still blankets most streets here, as they trudged up Rockaway Beach Boulevard on Saturday, pushing shopping carts they had dug out of wreckage piled beside the boarded-up C-Town Supermarket.

The women, Monique Arkward and her neighbor Eyvette Martin, pushed the carts more than 40 blocks from their battered bungalows to St. Francis de Sales Church, where they had heard — by word of mouth, since phones hardly work here — that they might find bottled water, batteries and some measure of warmth.

“We’re living like cavemen,” Ms. Arkward said. “It’s like we’re forgotten. It’s like they say, ‘O.K., when we get to them, we’ll get to them.’ ”

The Rockaways, a narrow peninsula of working-class communities in Queens, have become one of the epicenters for the simmering sense of abandonment felt in still-darkened areas of New York City, and out into the suburbs and beyond, including large swaths of New Jersey and Long Island, where the lack of power was made more problematic by persistent gas shortages.

Around the city, particularly in places already sensitive to the afterthought status conveyed in the Manhattan-centric characterization “outer boroughs,” the accusations of neglect seemed colored by a growing belief that the recovery from Hurricane Sandy has cleaved along predictable class lines. That sentiment was captured in a much-publicized street-corner confrontation over the weekend when residents shrieked their frustrations at Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg as he visited the Rockaways on Saturday.

“It’s all about Manhattan,” said Nora McDermott, who lives in the Rockaways, as she stood in a relief center on Saturday. “It was unbelievable, to see Manhattan get power,” she said. “Was I surprised they got it quicker? Not really. But I was like, ‘Damn.’ ”

Echoes of that thought abounded in places like Red Hook in Brooklyn, Gerritsen Beach in Brooklyn, and New Dorp Beach on Staten Island, where thousands are struggling to rebuild their lives without electricity — and, residents insisted with growing vehemence, sufficient help from leaders — even as the rest of the city powers up and moves on.

At the Red Hook Houses, a public housing complex of nearly 3,000 apartments, power was still out on Sunday.

For almost a week now, Mario Davila, 64, who is in a wheelchair and lives on the third floor of one building, has eased his way downstairs for cigarettes and food from Meals on Wheels, a step at a time, one hand on the railing and one on his chair, and then waited for his brother to help him crawl back up. Across the East River, he knew, the elevators were once again ferrying passengers.

Mr. Davila said he wished they were as lucky as those residents.

As the storm sent the waters of Shell Bank Creek on the westernmost edge of Jamaica Bay overflowing into Gerritsen Beach last Monday night, Jennifer Avena, 35, and her three children and Labrador mix swam nearly 10 blocks through chest-deep water to refuge at Resurrection Church.

A week later, she still felt on her own, as she photographed the contents of her house on Sunday, throwing out each destroyed item.

Her own neighbors, Ms. Avena said, were the few who were helping.

Tensions also remained high across Staten Island, where the storm’s impact was particularly deadly and where criticism of the official response has been vocal. Though electricity had been restored to 160,000 customers, according to Consolidated Edison, another 19,000 remained without power.

“We’ve made good progress,” said John Miksad, Con Ed’s senior vice president for electric operations. “But I know for those 19,000 customers that are still out, it’s misery.”

In New Dorp Beach, mounds — some as high as 10 feet — of debris, vintage dolls, mattresses, photographs, teddy bears and Christmas decorations piled outside nearly every home on Sunday, awaiting dump trucks. The roar of generators filled the air.

John Ryan, 47, had salvaged just two books from his collection. He bristled at the mayor’s assertion that the city is edging back to normalcy. “It’s completely unrealistic,” Mr. Ryan said. “I think he should go house to house and see what the war zone is like.”

But down the block, Orlando Vogler, 26, had a different sentiment. As he stood next to a bonfire fueled by pieces of his destroyed furniture, he said that the situation had improved over the weekend. “It’s finally starting to come together,” he said. “Now you see hundreds of volunteers coming down the street.”

In New Jersey, Matt Doherty, the mayor of Belmar, described the conditions as “third world.” He said the borough of roughly 6,000 year-round residents was in need of more blankets and “heavy duty” clothing.

“We’re in the Dark Ages here. It’s really back to basics,” he said Sunday. “It’s almost like camping outside in November. People are doubled up in blankets, sweaters, sweatshirts, socks. Residents are living in their living rooms, sleeping in front of their fireplaces.”

Every one of the over 115,000 residents of the Rockaways and Broad Channel is still without power, according to the Long Island Power Authority, which services those areas. And it will be several more days before the seawater-soaked substations along the Rockaway Peninsula are repaired or a workaround is in place. The substations power neighborhoods like Belle Harbor and Breezy Point, a community largely of firefighters and police officers where over 110 houses burned down on Monday night.

But even once the substations are repaired, each flooded house must be certified on a case-by-case basis by a licensed electrician before it is deemed safe to flip the switch, said Lois Bentivegna, a LIPA spokeswoman.

Even though some residents acknowledged the risks of living along the ocean, the contrast between Manhattan’s thrumming power lines and the snail’s pace of recovery was hard to bear.


In Sight of Manhattan Skyline, Living Forlorn and in the Dark,






Mr Sharp said that even though two weeks had passed

since Amanda vanished he and his officers were still confident

of finding her alive, although he conceded that as every day

passed their concern for her safety grew.







The teenager, prime witness for the prosecution,

told the court she saw one of the group

« hit him with the thing »,

but that she left Damilola lying in the street,

even though the 10-year-old was crying for help,

because she did not know he was badly injured

and was reluctant to get involved.

Damilola witness clashes with defence QC,
GE, p. 5, 5.2.2002.















comparaison, hypothèse > as though


















The drivers both said they saw Amanda,

who is known as Milly to family and friends,

looking upset and as though she had been crying.

Police seek driver as search for missing girl enters third week,
GE, p.2, 5-4-2002.















As though :

comme si …


Je reviens sur du déjà dit / pensé / perçu

pour donner mon interprétation des faits.

Supposition, interprétation.










Even if :

même si / même au cas où / dans l’hypothèse où … (condition).


Je fais une hypothèse,

je pose une relation Sujet / Prédicat (V + Nobjet) hypothétique.










Even though :

même si (constat / concession).


President Trump's travel ban, though lifted for now,

threw tens of thousands of people into limbo.

Among the groups affected are scientists.

NPR's science correspondent Joe Palca has more now

on how recent events have created uncertainty

for the American scientific community.


JOE PALCA, BYLINE: Early last month,

Hanan Isweiri left her lab at Colorado State University,

where she's pursuing a Ph.D. in plant physiology, to fly home to Libya.

Her father had just died, and she wanted to spend time with her mother.

She was scheduled to return to Colorado 10 days ago.

She caught a flight from Libya to Amman, Jordan, on her way back.

But when she reached the gate for her connecting flight,

ground agents told her that

even though she had a valid student visa to re-enter America,

she couldn't board the plane because of the new travel restrictions.

She returned to Libya and asked officials at Colorado State

to help her sort things out.

Isweiri says they told her - stay put.

Travel Ban Keeps Scientists Out of the Lab,
February 5, 2017, 7:37 AM ET