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grammaire anglaise > pronoms > pronoms relatifs

 

whopronom sujet     ≠    whompronom objet      ≠    whoseadjectif génitif relatif

 

 

 

which

 

 

 

that

 

 

 

where

 

 

 

whereby

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sémantisme (= sens)

 

proposition relative déterminante

 

 

the toy

est déterminé par

 that ate Christmas

 

 

Déterminer un nom,

c'est le faire sortir

d'une liste / du dictionnaire

pour le faire entrer

en syntaxe / contexte / discours / sens.

 

 

 

 

The toy that ate Christmas

[ Proposition relative déterminative ]

 

How did a plastic dinosaur

with a brain the size of a pocket calculator

take over the planet?

 

Oliver Burkeman and Jonathan Watts

trace the evolution of the Roboraptor

G2

p. 1

Thursday December 22, 2005

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/dec/22/
christmas.lifeandhealth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that ate Christmas

est une proposition relative

déterminative / différenciative,

qui crée ici

une sous-catégorie de jouets,

et qui donc différencie ce jouet

de tous les autres.

 

 

L'énonciateur

ne parle pas

des jouets en général,

mais d'un jouet

très particulier :

 

The toy that ate Christmas

 

 

Cette proposition relative

est donc essentielle

et ne peut être supprimée.

 

 

Sans elle,

l'énoncé serait réduit

à the toy,

et ne ferait pas sens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

proposition relative déterminative > autres exemples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

proposition relative non déterminative

 

When Simon Rattle,

whompronom relatif objet I do admire greatly,

does Rameau

he stops everything else

and immerses himself in it.

Backstage, William Christie, WSJE / Personal Journal,
p. P8., 7/9.3.2003.

 

 

, whompronom relatif objet I do admire greatly,

est une proposition relative

non déterminative,

qui ne crée pas

de sous-catégorie.

 

 

Simon Rattle

n'a pas besoin d'être

déterminé / catégorisé / différencié

car ce nom propre

a un référent bien connu :

Simon Rattle

=

chef d'orchestre célèbre

 

 

Cette proposition relative

non déterminative

n'apporte pas

d'information essentielle,

elle ne fait qu'exprimer

l'avis de l'auteur.

 

 

Elle pourrait

être supprimée

sans nuire

au sens de l'énoncé :

 

 

When Simon Rattle does Rameau

he stops everything else

and immerses himself in it.

Backstage, William Christie, WSJE / Personal Journal,
p. P8., 7/9.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

à l'inverse,

 

dans le groupe nominal

man whose family was found murdered,

 

whose family was found murdered

est une proposition relative déterminative,

qui détermine

un nom commun totalement indéterminé

 - man -

en apportant une information essentielle.

 

 

Comme toute proposition

relative déterminative,

elle ne peut être supprimée :

 

??? man is held at Heathrow

est un énoncé incompréhensible.

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 4        2.9.2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

autres énoncés

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 1        9.2.2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Film & Music

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 10        16 July 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daryl Cagle

MSNBC.com

Cagle

5 July 2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

thatpronom relatif (précédé de Nantécédent)

 

 

thatconjonction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Toy Monkeyantécédent nominal au référent non-humain

Thatpronom relatif

Escaped Nazi Germany And Reunited A Family

 

 

 

 

 

 

Différence entre pronom relatif et conjonction

 

Fonction :

La conjonction that

n'est pas un pronom :

elle n'a pas d'antécédent nominal.

 

 

A la différence du pronom

qui a une fonction - sujet ou objet - ,

la conjonction n'est ni sujet, ni objet.

 

 

La conjonction that,

comme son nom l'indique,

opère une jonction syntaxique

entre un verbe déclaratif (say, think...)

et

une proposition

(Nsubject + V / MODAL + Nobject / ADJECTIF) :

 

Someone once said to me thatconjunction

"depression is just extreme vanity",

and though obviously I don't think thatconjunction

everyone who's depressed is a wuss,

I'm starting to think there's something to it.

Some people have genuinely had

their brain chemicals go wrong,

for whatever reason;

they've got a right to be depressed.

Also, I think thatconjunction

people who were abused, sexually or otherwise, as children

must suffer despair and sorrow in their adult lives

to a degree the rest of us cannot begin to comprehend;

they've got a right to be depressed.

But I also think thatconjunction

a lot of so-called depression

comes from people having no perspective on their problems

- vanity, if you will.

Don't take my name in vain,
G,
29.3.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/mar/29/
antiwar.uk 

 

 

 

 

 

With rectangular black glasses

and a smattering of black polo necks,

they came in their hundreds

and stood in terrifyingly neat rows.

Nearly 1,000 angry architects

did not grace the Senate House lawn in Cambridge

to admire the building's Palladian style

but to condemn the university authorities

that want to close its department of architecture.

Architects attack 'philistine' move by Cambride,
G, 30.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/nov/30/
highereducation.artsandhumanities 

 

 

 

 

 

THE world reacted with revulsion last night

at the killing of hostage Ken Bigley.

A shaken Tony Blair appeared on TV

to condemn the beheading

of the 62-year-old engineer

three weeks after he was kidnapped in Iraq.

The PM said:

"I feel desperately sorry for Kenneth Bigley and his family.

I feel utter revulsion at the people that did this."

WORLD IN SHOCK AS IRAQI TERRORISTS BEHEAD KEN,
Daily Mirror, 9.10.2004,
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/tm_objectid=14735987%26method=full%26siteid=50143%26headline=
world%2din%2dshock%2das%2diraqi%2dterrorists%2dbehead%2dken-name_page.html

 

 

 

 

 

A shopkeeper running a small souvenir business in Nazareth

has made a sensational discovery

that could dramatically rewrite

the history of Christianity.

Jonathan Cook reports

 

Elias Shama's small souvenir shop in Nazareth,

the town of Jesus's childhood,

barely catches the eye.

Tourists usually pass by it on their way

to the neighbouring Mary's Well church,

claimed by the Greek Orthodox church

as the site where the Archangel Gabriel revealed to Mary

thatconjunction she was carrying the son of God.

Is this where Jesus bathed?:
A shopkeeper running a small souvenir business in Nazareth
has made a sensational discovery
that could dramatically rewrite the history of Christianity
Jonathan Cook reports, G, 22.10.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/oct/22/
research.artsandhumanities 

 

 

 

 

 

The pioneering musician

who eased the pain of depression

at the piano

Headline, I, 11.6.2004,
http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=530315

 

 

 

 

 

Firm that cloned Dolly the sheep

faces bankruptcy

Headline, G, 9.3.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/mar/09/
science.businessofresearch

 

 

 

 

 

From 3-4 to 4-3:

the day that Tottenham evened the score

Headline, IoS, 8.1.2004,
http://sport.independent.co.uk/football/tottenham/story.jsp?story=489068

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The people Ø I admire musically

are people who content themselves with one period.   

Backstage, William Christie,
WSJE / Personal Journal, p. P8., 7/9.3.2003.

 

 

Il y a 2 propositions relatives déterminatives

dans cet énoncé.

 

 

On remarque tout d'abord l'ellipse ( Ø  )

du pronom relatif objet that entre people et I

(sur le schéma de l'énoncé bien connu

The man Ø I love...).

 

 

La proposition (that) I admire

est une relative déterminative :

elle détermine The people.

 

L'énonciateur

(ici le chef d'orchestre William Christie)

ne parle pas de toutes les personnes

ou des gens en général (people),

mais seulement des musiciens qu'il admire :

 

The people I admire musically  (GN complexe).

 

 

Sans cette relative,

people resterait indéterminé,

indifférencié, hors-catégorie

(people = les gens en général, notion illimitée, infinie).

 

 

people fait l'objet d'une seconde détermination,

introduite par le pronom relatif sujet who :

 

people who content themselves with one period.

(GN complexe).

 

 

 

 

 

When Simon Rattle, whom I do admire greatly,

does Rameau he stops everything else

and immerses himself in it.

Backstage, William Christie, WSJE / Personal Journal,
p. P8., 7/9.3.2003.

 

 

La proposition relative ci-dessus,

introduite par le pronom relatif objet whom,

est non déterminative,

encadrée par des virgules

qui jouent le rôle de mise entre parenthèses.

 

 

L'information

whom I do admire greatly

n'est pas nécessaire pour comprendre

qui est le référent de l'antécédent

(Simon Rattle = célèbre chef d'orchestre britannique).

 

Simon Rattle est un nom propre, auto-déterminé,

à l'inverse du nom indéterminé people

(voir énoncé précédent).

 

Le GN Simon Rattle se suffit ici à lui-même;

il n'a besoin d'aucune détermination / définition.

 

Traduction explicative :

Quand Simon Rattle,

qu'entre parenthèses j'admire beaucoup,

dirige Rameau...

 

La relative non déterminative peut être supprimée

sans nuire au sens premier de l'énoncé :

 

When Simon Rattle does Rameau he stops everything else...

 

 

 

 

 

Autre non déterminative :

 

If memory serves,

the angry green Marvel Comics

who is the subject of Ang Lee's new movie

used to be known as the Incredible Hulk.

Tall and Green, but Not Really Incredible,
Le Monde/NYT, p. 8, 29/30.6.2003.

 

La proposition relative

who is the subject of Ang Lee's new movie

ne détermine pas

the angry green Marvel Comics (= Hulk),

personnage de bande dessinée

bien connu des Américains

(Groupe nominal auto-déterminé).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

proposition relative déterminative

 

 

 

Mortgage Secrets That Will Save You Money

 

La proposition subordonnée

That Will Save You Money

détermine le groupe nominal

Mortgage Secrets.

 

Détermination : ajout d'une information essentielle,

on passe du général au particulier.

 

On ne parle pas ici

de la catégorie des mortgage secrets.

 

La séquence

Mortgage Secrets That Will Save You Money

réfère à une sous-catégorie,

celle des prêts immobiliers qui vous font gagner /

économiser de l'argent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autre exemple de proposition relative déterminative :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

autres énoncés

 

 

 

The Equal Opportunities Commission has been asked

to investigate the research assessment exercise,

after it was discovered that men were

twice as likely as women to be rated "research active".

The Association of University Teachers

said it had the first conclusive proof that the system,

whereby institutions submit research

from their top academics for rating,

which then determines their funding,

flies in the face of equal opportunities policies.

Women suffer in research ratings,
G, 15.7.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/education/2004/jul/15/
researchassessmentexercise.highereducation

 

 

 

 

 

Akins was ambassador to Saudi Arabia

before he was fired after a series of conflicts

with then Secretary of State Henry Kissinger,

ather of the vision to pipe oil west from Iraq.

In 1975, Kissinger signed

what forms the basis for the Haifa project:

a Memorandum of Understanding

whereby the US would guarantee

Israel's oil reserves and energy supply in times of crisis.

(...)

The memorandum has been quietly renewed every five years,

with special legislation attached

whereby the US stocks a strategic oil reserve for Israel

even if it entailed domestic shortages

- at a cost of $3 billion (£1.9bn) in 2002 to US taxpayers.

Israel seeks pipeline for Iraqi oil:
US discusses plan to pump fuel to its regional ally
and solve energy headache at a stroke,
O,
20.4.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/apr/20/
israelandthepalestinians.oil 

 

 

 

 

 

A unique headless statuette of Queen Nefertiti's daughter,

which has never been seen in public,

has been saved for the nation by a lottery grant,

it emerged yesterday.

Lottery cash saves statue of Queen Nefertiti's daughter,
G,
30.9.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/sep/30/
education.lottery 

 

 

 

 

 

In "Beauty and His Love",

the singer Kazem al-Sahir confesses to his girlfriend

that (CONJONCTION) there is someone he loves more than her,

someone whom [ pronom relatif objet ]

he sleeps with every night,

someone whom [ pronom relatif objet ]

he dreams of daily.

His distraught girlfriend begs him

to reveal the name of this lover.

Her name, he finally tells her, is Baghdad.

An Iraqui Star Tours And Sings of His Baghdad,
NYT/Le Monde, p. 8, 9/10.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

In New York, the home of hip-hop,

rap is a serious business.

This is the city that is home to the place (Sugar Hill, Harlem)

that produced the group (the Sugar Hill Gang)

that produced the record (Rapper's Delight)

that made rap so mainstream that,

more than 20 years later,

the track would provide the inspiration

for The Ketchup Song.

Cops and rappers, GE/GE2, p. V, 10.1.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

A former high-flying Army officer

was jailed for seven years yesterday

for his part in a bungled post office robbery

during which he attacked a pregnant woman.

Soldier who made Lt Col at 38 tried to hold up a post office for £200,000,
DM, p. 37, 15.1.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

Hurley last night refused to accept a £1.8m deal

that would see her former boyfriend Steve Bing

paying £100,000 a year

for the upbringing of their son Damian.

Liz Hurley rejects £1.8m child support offer, GE, p.3, 18.12.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

The Democratic Republic of Congo

signed a peace deal with rebels yesterday,

ending a four-year civil war which has left

two million dead and destabilised central Africa.

Warring Congo factions sign peace deal,
GE, p. 3, 18.12.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé

 

formes nominales > pronoms

 

 

who

pronom relatif sujet

whom

pronom relatif objet

whose

adjectif génitif relatif

 

 

ellipse du pronom relatif

 

 

 

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