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grammaire anglaise > GV > auxiliaires > modaux

 

sens et valeurs > hypothèse > degrés hypothétiques

 

 

 

Larry Wright

Comment cartoon

Cagle

19.11.2004

http://cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/wright.asp

http://info.detnews.com/wrightoon/index.cfm

 

 

 

 

would

 

 

could

 

 

should

 

 

may

 

 

might

 

 

mustépistémique / hypothétique

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

reprise de could / may par might

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

should + Nsujet + Base Verbale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hadauxiliaire + Nsujet + beenauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé (passif)

 

Had she been put to death,

 

+

 

Nsujet + would + haveauxiliaire + beenauxiliaire

 

Newton would have been

the first black woman to be

executed in Texas

and the fourth woman

to be executed

in the state since 1863.

Governor Stays Texas Woman's Wednesday Execution

R, Wed Dec 1, 2004 06:35 PM ET

http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
L0RJGJTLY4NXKCRBAEKSFFA?type=domesticNews&storyID=6971566

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

may > sens / valeurs

 

hypothèse, incertitude, stase, éventuel, virtuel, "peut-être"

 

 

 

The Guardian        Money        p. 9        19 November 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        Sport        p. 5        18 December 2008

http://digital.guardian.co.uk/guardian/2008/12/18/pdfs/gdn_081218_spr_5_21488249.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What Do You Expect for $99.23 a Night?

 

November 20, 2005

The New York Times

By MANNY FERNANDEZ

 

It was about 4 p.m. when something crawled on the carpet. A large insect of unidentified species made its way across the hotel lobby, and a group of European tourists tracked it with a cheerful curiosity until a gray-haired man in a baseball cap waiting to check in stomped on it.

No one else noticed the dead bug. The lobby - a sensory overload of neon, mirrors, bright lights, televisions, yard-sale furniture and pay phones - was too distracting. Guests streamed in and out with befuddled stares, mild complaints and curious requests. A woman asked a worker for bug killer after finding a roach in her bathroom. She was handed a spray bottle of kitchen cleaner and sent on her way.

In the rooms upstairs, tales of lodging woe unfolded. One guest said his television played the sound from one channel but showed the picture from another. A couple in Room 500 said they were surprised to discover that they did not have a closet. And a businesswoman from Ukraine on the 23rd floor found that she liked her room better in the dark. "If the curtains close, light is off, it's not that bad," she said.

People have been saying for years that the old Times Square - the seedy, lowbrow ancestor of what is now a largely sanitized, Disneyfied tourist haven - is dead. But those people have never spent a night at the Hotel Carter. The 615-room hotel at 250 West 43rd Street offers travelers a cheap room in an expensive city, and something more: an adventure. In the middle of Manhattan and at the neon-bright Crossroads of the World, the hotel has been a little-known source of grimy hospitality, low-budget accommodations and equal numbers of satisfied and dissatisfied customers from around the world.

As a guest of the Hotel Carter, you may or may not have your room cleaned. You may or may not find the multicolored, multipatterned carpet on the floor and the walls agreeable. You may or may not have a working television and telephone. You may or may not have a smooth check-in, since the front desk keeps track of reservations without the benefit of a computer system.

In short, you may or may not have an enjoyable stay. The answer depends on which room you get - the top floors have numerous large recently renovated rooms with splendid views - and on your answer to this question: What do you expect for $99.23 a night?

The Carter, a tan-brick 24-story hotel on a busy stretch of West 43rd Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues, is popular with foreign travelers, students and tourists on a tight budget, and recent guests either loved it or hated it.

What Do You Expect for $99.23 a Night?,
NYT,
20.11.2005,
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/20/nyregion/20carter.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mustépistémique / hypothétique

 

 

 

For Better or For Worse

By Lynn Johnston

Washington Post

April 4, 2011

http://wpcomics.washingtonpost.com/client/wpc/fb/

 

 

 

 

 

Valeur épistémique de must :

 

l'énonciateur estime que ce qu'il dit

va / doit très certainement arriver,

est vrai / sera vrai.

 

 

 

 

 

Enoncé ci-dessous :

la révolution des LED doit avoir lieu,

ne peut qu'arriver.

 

Moi qui parle, je fais un constat,

j'estime que la révolution des LED

est nécessaire, inévitable, inéluctable :

 

1 -    The LED revolution must happen.

These little devices already provide the gleam

behind some computer and phone screens,

as well as traffic lights and giant display screens

in public places.

They throw a brilliant light but almost no heat,

so they last for 10 years rather than 10 weeks or 10 months.

A 10-watt LED will have the shine of a 50-watt incandescent bulb.

LED at the end of the tunnel:
The days of the incandescent light bulb may be numbered
but its demise is far from imminent,
writes Tim Radford,
G,
10.12.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2003/dec/10/1

 

 

 

Derrière cette inéluctabilité de façade,

une part d'incertitude subsiste :

mustépistémique est la marque d'un pari.

 

Pari raisonné, mais pari tout de même :

moi qui parle, je pense qu'il y a toutes les chances que...

 

A l'inverse, will indiquerait ici une très forte probabilité,

une prévision dénuée de toute subjectivité.

 

Le même énoncé, modalisé en will, serait plus objectif :

affirmation scientifique, énonciateur en retrait ->

 A 10-watt LED will have the shine of a 50-watt incandescent bulb.

 

 

 

 

Ne pas confondre mustépistémique et mustradical,

même si leurs valeurs se "recouvrent"' souvent,

à des degrés divers : voir rubrique sur must.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

déduction / prévision / présupposition

 

d'hypothèse en hypothèse :

 

may, should, must, could ?

 

 

 

 

   

2.45pm

Bird flu pandemic 'could kill 150m'

 

Friday September 30, 2005

Guardian Unlimited

James Sturcke

 

A global influenza pandemic is imminent

and will kill up to 150 million people,

the UN official in charge of coordinating

the worldwide response to an outbreak has warned.

David Nabarro,

one of the most senior public health experts

at the World Health Organisation,

said outbreaks of bird flu,

which have killed at least 65 people in Asia,

could mutate into a form transmittable between people.

"The consequences in terms of human life

when the pandemic does start

are going to be extraordinary and very damaging," he said.

He told the BBC that the "range of deaths could be

anything between five and 150 million".

Bird flu pandemic 'could kill 150m',
G,
30.9.2005,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/sep/30/
birdflu.jamessturcke 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A la différence de may,

avec lequel l'énonciateur / l'énonciatrice pose (ou prétend poser)

une hypothèse pour la première fois

- un "premier dit" ou un "pré-dit" -

could permet de re-formuler cette hypothèse

à partir d'un déjà-dit réel (information déjà énoncée)

ou fictif (l'énonciateur manipule son co-énonciateur

en faisant comme si l'information avait déjà été donnée).

 

 

Le titre de l'article ci-dessus

- Bird flu pandemic 'could kill 150m' -

est modalisé en could

car il reprend l'hypothèse,

souvent émise depuis au moins un an,

d'une pandémie causée par la grippe aviaire.

 

 

Le choix entre may et could

dépend donc non seulement du sens

(pure hypothèse avec may,

hypothèse probable avec could),

mais aussi du point de l'énoncé

dans un continuum discursif

(reprise, répétition, reformulation).

 

 

Sur le plan sémantique (sémantisme = sens),

le titre est ici sans équivoque :

 

 

une pandémie n'est plus un risque inédit, théorique,

que l'on commence à envisager / formuler (fonction de may),

mais bel et bien la conclusion logique

d'un raisonnement maintes fois formulé / repris (could) :

 

 

 

 

si il y a pandémie

- et les risques de pandémie

sont loins d'être négligeables -,

alors il pourrait bien

il y avoir 150 millions de morts.

 

 

 

 

 

On reste certes dans l'hypothétique avec could,

mais il s'agit ici d'une hypothèse récurrente,

construite, scientifique, fondée, à prendre au sérieux.

 

 

L'actualisation / la réalisation de l'hypothèse

est très possible, presque probable.

 

 

Could réduit le champ du virtuel :

 

à noter d'ailleurs la reprise de could kill (titre)

par will kill (première phrase).

 

En savoir plus sur la valeur de prévision de will

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Could > valeur de prévision-modélisation scientifiques :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nation's Weather

 

March 24, 2007

Filed at 5:21 a.m. ET

The New York Times

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

 

Heavy showers and thunderstorms are likely

in the Southern and Central Plains on Saturday,

and temperatures could drop

as a cold front moves into the region.

Meanwhile, severe weather that brought tornadoes

to parts of New Mexico on Friday could affect areas

spanning from northern Texas through Nebraska.

Rain is expected in the Rockies,

and several inches of snow are likely

in higher elevations of New Mexico and Colorado.

A slow-moving front is expected

to move through the upper Mississippi Valley,

Ohio Valley and Mid-Atlantic regions.

New England could get rain and snow.

Temperatures ranging from the 40s to 60s are expected

in the Northwest, and rain is likely in Washington state.

In the Northeast, temperatures ranging from the 30s to 50s

is expected, while the Southeast could see temperatures

in the 80s.

Temperatures in the lower 48 states Friday ranged

from a low of 17 degrees at Farson, Wyo.,

to a high of 89 degrees at Naples, Fla.

------

On the Net:

Weather Underground: http://www.wunderground.com

National Weather Service: http://iwin.nws.noaa.gov

Intellicast: http://www.intellicast.com

The Nation's Weather,
NYT,
24.3.2007,
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/
AP-Weatherpage-Weather.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A l'inverse de could,

may place le co-énonciateur / la co-énonciatrice

dans le spéculatif, l'aléatoire, le virtuel, l'éventualité.

 

 

Dans l'article ci-dessous,

publié le même jour (30 septembre 2005)

que le texte sur la grippe aviaire,

le titre est modalisé en may

car il s'agit d'une hypothèse qui,

si elle n'est pas complètement nouvelle,

n'a pas le même degré de récurrence dans les média.

 

 

Pour le lecteur / la lectrice

peu informé (-e) sur l'hépatite C,

ce titre en may surprend, attire l'attention.

 

 

Qui plus est, l'emploi de ce modal permet au journaliste

- dans le titre, pas dans le premier paragraphe -

de rester prudent sur ce qu'il avance.

 

 

Hepatitis C timebomb may kill 150,000

 

By Jeremy Laurance, Health Editor

Published: 30 September 2005

The Independent

 

Up to 150,000 people in Britain are expected to die

over the next 20 years from a treatable disease

that most do not know they have.

A silent epidemic of hepatitis C, a blood-borne virus,

has infected an estimated 500,000 people in the UK

and new cases are rising faster here

than in other European countries, specialists said yesterday.

Typical victims of the illness

are middle-class professional men and women

who dabbled in drugs in their youth

and contracted the infection through sharing needles.

Other people became infected

through contaminated blood transfusions

before testing for hepatitis C was introduced in 1991.

The disease is already the main reason for liver transplants,

and it will kill more people than Aids by 2020.

The scale of the problem

has been recognised by the Government,

which published an action plan to tackle it last year.

But in a report published yesterday,

the Hepatitis C Trust, a charity for sufferers,

said that Britain was at the bottom

of the European league on treatment,

with fewer than 2 per cent of cases receiving drugs,

compared with 15 per cent in France.

Drug treatment costs £6,000 to £12,000 per case,

and cures more than half of sufferers.

It has been approved for use on the NHS

by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (Nice),

but the disease has no symptoms in its early stages

and only one in 10 sufferers knows they are infected.

Hepatitis C timebomb may kill 150,000,
I,
30.9.2005,
http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/health_medical/article316089.ece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dans l'article ci-dessous,

qui traite de la présence de méthane sur Mars,

deux voix énonciatives se répondent,

celles du journaliste

et de l'astronome Andrew Coates.

 

 

§2 - Première hypothèse du scientifique :

d'après ce que l'on sait aujourd'hui de l'atmosphère de Mars,

moi, astronome, je suis en mesure d'avancer que

la présence de méthane doit être de courte durée,

elle doit durer tout au plus quelques centaines d'années.

 

"Methane should be short-lived in that atmosphere.

It should last for less than a few hundred years,"

 

 

L'énonciateur n'est pas complètement certain de ce qu'il dit,

il ne dit pas is, il modalise :

should indique ici qu'il reste une marge d'erreur.

 

La validité de l'énoncé reste relative.

 

 

 

 

 

§3 - Constructions hypothétique et linguistique.

 

A partir de cette première hypothèse,

l'astronome en déduit une seconde :

puisque il y a du méthane sur Mars,

et que ce gaz disparaît rapidement

(en temps astronomique) dans l'atmosphère martienne,

c'est qu'il a dû être émis récemment :

 

donc / par conséquent (so),

il doit nécessairement / certainement (must)

il y avoir une source récente, peut-être même actuelle :

So there must be a very recent source,

perhaps even a current source.

 

 

Must,

ici utilisé dans sa valeur épistémique (j'estime que...),

marque aussi le passage logique

de la première à la seconde hypothèse :

si 1, alors 2.

 

 

Le scientifique poursuit sa déduction.

 

 

Si il existe une source d'émission,

il n'y a que deux possibilités connues :

activité volcanique ou forme de vie.

 

 

Le champ du possible est ici délimité par could :

 

The two possible sources could be volcanism

- very recent or current volcanism - or life.

 

 

Traduction :

Les deux sources possibles pourraient être

le volcanisme ou une forme de vie.

 

 

A l'inverse, l'astronome ne modalise pas

lorsqu'il affirme - c'est une donnée scientifique -

que toute forme de vie sur Terre produit du méthane

(présent simple : produce + s) :

 

"All life as we know it on Earth,

even down to the tiniest microbe,

produces methane as a byproduct."

 

 

 

 

 

§5. Autre voix énonciative :

le journaliste utilise can pour présenter ce qui est,

selon lui, une caractéristique inhérente de Mars.

 

 

Quelle que soit la réponse au problème - volcanisme ou vie -,

moi, journaliste, je peux désormais vous affirmer

que la planète rouge

ne peut plus être considérée comme une planète morte. :

 

Either way,

the red planet can no longer be considered a dead planet.

 

 

Le journaliste, ou le sub-editor, reste prudent dans le titre :

un gaz pourrait fournir un indice...

 

may indique ici un degré hypothétique élevé :

 

Gas may yield clue to life on Mars

 

 

 

 

 

§7. Dernière phase de la déduction :

étant donné qu'il y aurait (conditionnel)

des signes d'une activité volcanique relativement récente

- tentative evidence of relatively recent, small-scale volcanism -,

il y a de fortes chances pour que le méthane

soit d'origine volcanique.

 

Traduction explicative :

le méthane pourrait bien être d'origine volcanique :

 

"So there is certainly a good chance

that it could be volcanism," Dr Coates said.

 

 

 

 

 

Gas may yield clue to life on Mars

 

1.    Scientists yesterday confirmed

the presence of methane on Mars,

raising two possibilities - volcanos,

or life on the red planet.

 

2.    "Methane should be short-lived in that atmosphere.

It should last for less than a few hundred years,"

Andrew Coates, of the Mullard space science laboratory

at University College London, told the British Association

science festival in Exeter.

 

 

3. "So there must be a very recent source,

perhaps even a current source.

The two possible sources could be volcanism

- very recent or current volcanism - or life.

All life as we know it on Earth,

even down to the tiniest microbe,

produces methane as a byproduct."

 

 

4.    Mars was once an active planet:

Mons Olympus on Mars

is the biggest volcano in the solar system.

But the planet has not been volcanic

on any large scale for at least 3.8bn years.

 

 

5.    So even if the source of the methane

is geological rather than biological,

the discovery is enough to set pulses racing

in planetary science laboratories.

Either way, the red planet can no longer be considered

a dead planet.

 

 

6.    There is tentative evidence of relatively recent,

small-scale volcanism.

 

 

7.    "So there is certainly a good chance

that it could be volcanism,"

Dr Coates said.

Headline and first §§, G, 10.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/sep/10/
starsgalaxiesandplanets.spaceexploration 

 

 

 

 

 

Pluto may have three moons,

instead of one

 

Mon Oct 31, 2005

10:59 PM ET

Reuters

By Deborah Zabarenko

 

WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

Pluto, that cosmic oddball at the far reaches of our solar system,

may have three moons instead of one,

scientists announced on Monday.

Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope

glimpsed the two new satellites back in May, and were intrigued

when the pair of possible moons appeared to move around Pluto

over three days in what looked like a nearly circular orbit.

If confirmed by the International Astronomical Union,

they will get official names based on classical mythology,

joining Pluto's moon Charon,

which is named for the ferryman of the dead.

Pluto is named for the lord of the underworld.

For now, the new satellites are called simply P1 and P2.

One of the scientists who discovered the satellites

couldn't resist making some spooky allusions

with the announcement.

"It's ... strictly coincidental that Pluto of course

was named for the god of the underworld

and we're describing these Halloween moons,"

said Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute

in a telephone news conference.

Pluto's first known moon, Charon,

was discovered in 1978.

Charon is about half Pluto's size,

making it less like a satellite and more like a sibling,

and many scientists consider

Pluto and Charon to be a binary system,

with the moon orbiting about 12,000 miles from the planet.

The newfound putative satellites are likely much smaller

than Charon, ranging in size

from perhaps 30 miles to 100 miles in diameter.

Scientists are still trying to figure this out.

(...)

 

More information and images are available online

at http://hubblesite.org/news/2005/19/ ,

Pluto may have three moons, instead of one, R, 31.10.2005,
http://today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=
2005-11-01T035901Z_01_FOR175292_RTRUKOC_0_US-SPACE-PLUTO.xml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

would

 

valeurs > forte probabilité

 

 

l'hypothèse que je fais,

ce que je dis / prédique (prédicat)

du sujet

est fort probable :

 

Why Making A 'Designer Baby'

Would Be Easier Said Than Done

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        Weekend        p. 70        5 November 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

structure modale

 

should + Nsujet + Base Verbale

 

Should locals have concerns,

we encourage them to come forward,”

she wrote.

 

 

 

 

 

structure verbale

 

hadauxiliaire + Nsujet + verbeau participe passé

 

Had she been put to death,

Newton would have been the first black woman

to be executed in Texas

and the fourth woman to be executed

in the state since 1863.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Afghan South,

U.S. Faces Frustrated Residents

 

October 16, 2010

The New York Times

By CARLOTTA GALL

 

KANDAHAR, Afghanistan — As American troops mount a critical operation this weekend in the campaign to regain control in Kandahar, they face not only the Taliban but also a frustrated and disillusioned population whose land has been devastated by five years of fighting.

While most villagers have fled the area, those who remain complain that they are trapped between insurgents and the foreign forces, often suffering damages for which they remain uncompensated.

One of those who left is Abdul Hamid, once a prosperous grape farmer and the owner of two houses, a raisin barn and 900 vines. He lived in a hamlet called Lora in Panjwai, a fertile farming district southwest of Kandahar where others who recently left say there has been heavy shooting and bombardment.


(...)


He put in a general claim with other villagers for compensation through the district and provincial government offices to the Canadian military, but he said he never received anything.

“I tried so much,” he said. “I tried writing many letters, but I received nothing and I became disappointed, and then I threw out the letters.”

Part of the problem is that in areas where the Taliban presence is strong, villagers cannot take compensation openly. “When the Taliban know you went to the district, or to the city, they come and see you and say, ‘What is this?’ Then they take the money and beat you,” said one farmer, asking not to be named.

Yet fighting through the bureaucracy seems just as hard for the Afghans. Lt. Kelly Rozenberg-Payne, a public affairs officer with the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command in Ottawa, wrote by e-mail that she had no information to support the allegations that Lora was bulldozed.

But she acknowledged the existence of an “austere platoon house” in the area, which Canadian forces upgraded to a substation for the Afghan police in the spring of 2008. It was dismantled in the fall of 2008 “because of changing operational priorities,” she wrote.

Should locals have concerns, we encourage them to come forward,” she wrote.


Muhib Habibi contributed reporting from Kandahar,

and Ruhullah Khapalwak from Kabul.

In Afghan South, U.S. Faces Frustrated Residents,
NYT,
16.10.2010,
https://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/17/
world/asia/17afghan.html

 

 

 

 

 

HOUSTON, Texas (Reuters) -

Texas Gov. Rick Perry granted a rare stay

of execution to a Houston woman

just hours before she was scheduled

to die on Wednesday night by lethal injection

for the 1987 murder of her husband and two children.

Frances Newton, 39, has protested her innocence

since she was charged in the shooting deaths

of her husband Adrian, 23, son Alton, 7,

and daughter Farrah, 21 months,

in what prosecutors said was an attempt

to collect $100,000 from life insurance policies on her family.

Had she been put to death,

Newton would have been the first black woman

to be executed in Texas

and the fourth woman to be executed in the state since 1863.

Governor Stays Texas Woman's Wednesday Execution,
R,
Wed Dec 1, 2004,
06:35 PM ET,

http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
L0RJGJTLY4NXKCRBAEKSFFA?type=domesticNews&storyID=6971566

 

 

 

 

 

Accidents will happen and illness can strike,

but many of us seem to assume

that our charmed lives will last for ever.

According to research from the Alliance & Leicester bank,

almost a third of Britons haven't got life assurance.

Of course, no one wants to dwell on thoughts

of what might happen should they die,

but the beginning of National Breast Cancer Awareness month

ought to remind us that it's vital we do think the unthinkable

if we don't want our loved ones to struggle financially.

So you think disaster will never strike?: A third of us have no life cover.
Yet if we die, our families could lose their homes and be wrecked financially.
Melanie Bien reports,
IoS,
3.10.2004,
http://money.independent.co.uk/
personal_finance/insurance/story.jsp?story=568286

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

may

 

extralinguistique > éventualité,

hypothèse pure,

hypothèse première

(ce qu'on a tout d'abord envisagé)

 

 

linguistique > forme première

 

 

Active Shooter Drills May Not Stop A School Shooting

— But This Method Could

November 27, 2019    NPR

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/27/
782902802/active-shooter-drills-may-not-stop-a-school-shooting-but-this-method-could

 

 

 

vs.

 

 

 

could

 

 

extralinguistique :

 

 

potentialité du référent du sujet,

forte possibilité, probabilité

 

 

linguistique :

 

forme seconde / anaphorique,

référenciation, comparaison

 

Active Shooter Drills May Not Stop A School Shooting

— But This Method Could

November 27, 2019    NPR

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/27/
782902802/active-shooter-drills-may-not-stop-a-school-shooting-but-this-method-could

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 1        11 January 2007

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2007/jan/11/
cancer.infectiousdiseases 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 3        7 December 2005

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2005/dec/07/
spaceexploration.research 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What Trump's Increasing Isolation

Could Mean For His Presidency

 

August 19, 2017

7:00 AM ET

NPR

http://www.npr.org/2017/08/19/
544580016/what-trumps-increasing-isolation-could-mean-for-his-presidency

 

 

 

 

 

Scientists link plastic food containers

with breast cancer

 

A chemical widely used in food packaging may be

a contributing factor to women developing breast cancer,

scientists have suggested.

Headline and §1, G, 30.5.2005,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/may/30/
food.foodanddrink 

 

 

 

 

 

Decoded at last:

the 'classical holy grail'

that may rewrite

the history of the world

 

Scientists begin to unlock the secrets
of papyrus scraps bearing long-lost words
by the literary giants of Greece and Rome

 

For more than a century, it has caused excitement and frustration in equal measure - a collection of Greek and Roman writings so vast it could redraw the map of classical civilisation. If only it was legible.

Now, in a breakthrough described as the classical equivalent of finding the holy grail, Oxford University scientists have employed infra-red technology to open up the hoard, known as the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, and with it the prospect that hundreds of lost Greek comedies, tragedies and epic poems will soon be revealed.

In the past four days alone, Oxford's classicists have used it to make a series of astonishing discoveries, including writing by Sophocles, Euripides, Hesiod and other literary giants of the ancient world, lost for millennia. They even believe they are likely to find lost Christian gospels, the originals of which were written around the time of the earliest books of the New Testament.

Headline, sub and first §§, IoS, 17.4.2005,
http://news.independent.co.uk/world/science_technology/story.jsp?story=630165
- broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

The true horror emerges

· Number killed tops 60,000

· Children may make up a third of dead, says UN

· Disease could double toll

 

The death toll in the Asian tsunami disaster topped 60,000 last night, with world health chiefs warning that disease could kill as many people again if fresh water and medicine do not reach stricken areas soon.

Across the Indian Ocean rim, stories of incredible devastation emerged as one of the largest and most complex relief efforts ever undertaken swung into action.

The worst-hit area appeared to be the Aceh province of Sumatra, where one town alone, Meulaboh, reported 10,000 dead. The Indonesian government put the death toll in the country at more than 27,000, with another 1,000 missing. Some towns still have not been heard from, and many bodies remain buried under rubble and mud.

The UN said that at least a third of the victims across the region could be children. Carol Bellamy, executive director of Unicef, said: "We're concerned about providing safe water and preventing the spread of disease. For children, the next few days will be the most critical."

India's death toll of 11,500 included at least 7,000 on the Andamans and Nicobar archipelago. On one island, the surge of water triggered by Sunday's undersea earthquake killed two-thirds of the population. In Sri Lanka, the confirmed toll was 21,000 and rising, with another 2,000 in the Tamil north.

The government of the Maldives expressed concern that it still had not heard from 19 inhabited islands and said there was a real danger some of its low-lying islands could be lost forever. British disaster assessment experts were on standby last night to fly there.

(...)

The World Health Organisation said the focus now should be on preventing the spread of disease, especially malaria and cholera. Dr David Nabarro, the WHO head of crisis operations, said: "There is certainly a chance that as many could die from communicable diseases as from the tsunami."

The true horror emerges,
G,
29.12.2004, headline, sub and first §§, 
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/dec/29/
tsunami2004.thailand 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

could

 

valeurs > possibilité soumise à condition (if...)

 

 

 

 

Is it a bird? Is it a spaceship? No, it's a secret US spy plane

· Sightings of flying object over Britain worried MoD

· Questions threatened to strain relations with US

G

Saturday June 24, 2006

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2006/jun/24/
freedomofinformation.usnews 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 1        13.8.2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 21        18.11.2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        Film & Music        p. 15        28.10.2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

may > valeurs

 

possibilité, éventualité, risque, chance

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 14        25 September 2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

may

marque souvent la première étape

d'une réflexion hypothétique :

l'éventualité, la théorie,

la possibilité, l'aléatoire.

 

 

Les énoncés en may

laissent

(ou prétendent laisser)

le co-énonciateur libre

de croire ou non

à ce qui est dit.

 

 

You may think that :

Moi qui parle

je vous donne le droit de penser ça

mais vous pouvez bien penser ça,

ça m'est bien égal,

vous avez peut-être tort.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

énoncés hypothétiques en may

 

 

 

 

Hundreds of people were killed

in the Maldives, Myanmar and Malaysia.

The arc of water struck as far away as Somalia and Kenya.

Fishing villages, ports and resorts were devastated,

power and communications cut and homes destroyed.

The tremor, the biggest in 40 years,

may have caused the Earth to wobble on its axis,

permanently accelerating its rotation

and shortening days by a fraction of a second,

U.S. scientists said.

Race to Bury Asia's Dead as Toll Hits 68,000,
R,
Tue Dec 28, 2004 11:06 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=
topNews&storyID=7196017&pageNumber=2

 

 

 

 

 

Human brain result

of 'extraordinarily fast' evolution

 

Emergence of society may have spurred growth

Headline and sub,
G, 29.12.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/dec/29/
evolution.science 

 

 

 

 

 

Smoke and fire

Addiction to nicotine may be in the genes

 

MARK TWAIN once observed that giving up smoking is easy. He knew, because he'd done it hundreds of times himself. Giving up for ever is a trifle more difficult, apparently, and it is well known that it is much more difficult for some people than for others. Why is this so?

Few doctors believe any longer that it is simply a question of will power. And for those people that continue to view addicts as merely “weak”, recent genetic research may force a rethink. A study conducted by Jacqueline Vink, of the Free University of Amsterdam, used a database called the Netherlands Twin Register to analyse the smoking habits of twins. Her results, published in the Pharmacogenomics Journal, suggest that an individual's degree of nicotine dependence, and even the number of cigarettes he smokes per day, are strongly genetically influenced.

(...)

The human genome is huge. It consists of billions of DNA “letters”, some of which can be strung together to make sense (the genes) but many of which have either no function, or an unknown function. To follow what is going on, geneticists rely on markers they have identified within the genome. These are places where the genetic letters may vary between individuals. If a particular variant is routinely associated with a particular physical feature or a behaviour pattern, it suggests that a particular version of a nearby gene is influencing that feature or behaviour.

(...)

Results such as Dr Vink's must be interpreted with care. Association studies, as such projects are known, have a disturbing habit of disappearing, as it were, in a puff of smoke when someone tries to replicate them. But if Dr Vink really has exposed a genetic link with addiction, then Mark Twain's problem may eventually become a thing of the past.

Headline and first §§, E, 25.11.2004,
https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2004/11/25/
smoke-and-fire 

 

 

 

 

 

Thousands warned of possible vCJD infection

 

Thousands of patients were today sent letters warning them

that they may have been exposed

to the degenerative brain condition Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

through transfusions of blood plasma products

such as clotting agents.

Headline and §1,
G,
21.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/sep/21/
bse.health  

 

 

 

 

 

The report, Smoking and Reproductive Life,

says studies show that smoking may cause impotence

through damage to the blood circulatory system

caused by exposure to the many toxins in cigarettes,

including carbon monoxide.

It estimates that 120,000 men aged

between 30 and 50 in the UK

are impotent because of the effects of smoking.

There is a small amount of evidence suggesting

that passive smoking might also have an effect.

Smoking linked to impotence in young men:
BMA report says cigarettes damage nearly all aspects of sexual health,
G,
12.2.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/feb/12/
medicineandhealth.sciencenews 

 

 

 

 

 

British officials are circulating a story that

Saddam Hussein may have been hoodwinked

into believing that Iraq really did possess

weapons of mass destruction.

The theory, which is doing the rounds

in the upper reaches of Whitehall,

is the result of an attempt to find what one official source

called a "logical reason" why no chemical and biological weapons

had been found in Iraq.

(...)

The hypothesis, which is being spread privately by officials,

is open to the interpretation that the government is searching

for an excuse, however implausible, for failure to discover

any WMD in Iraq.

New theory for Iraq's missing WMD:
Saddam was fooled into thinking he had them,
G,
24.12.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/dec/24/
uk.iraq

 

 

 

 

 

Officials fear

al-Qaida may hijack planes

again to target US interests

 

The US has deployed anti-aircraft missiles

around Washington and other possible terrorist targets

in fear of another attack using a commercial plane,

but there is disagreement among intelligence officials

about how direct the threat is to America.

America deploys missiles around airports, sub,
G,
24.12.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/dec/24/
usa.alqaida

 

 

 

 

 

Iran death toll may reach 50,000

 

The death toll from Friday's devastating earthquake in Iran

could reach 50,000, government officials said today.

Headline and §1,
G,
30.12.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2003/dec/30/
iran.naturaldisasters1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

might

 

hypothèse très probable

(présupposition / anaphore)

 

 

 

 

reprise de may par might

 

 

 

 

might > différence avec may

 

 

 

 

Comics ci-dessous,

première case (référence à l'épisode antérieur) :

 

Mark suspects that Birdie's husband

might be shipping drugs inside mounted animal trophies

 

Le modal might

est ici présupposant

et anaphorique (renvoi à un déjà dit) :

... pourrait bien ...

 

Cette légende

est un résumé

des épisodes précédents,

et n'apprend rien au lecteur.

 

 

A l'inverse,

He may be going to pick up drugs

(dernière case > ouverture narrative)

est une hypothèse première,

d'où l'emploi de may.

 

 

 

Mark suspects that Birdie's husband

might be shipping drugs inside mounted animal trophies

 

He may be going to pick up drugs

 

Mark Trail        Jack Elrod        Created by Ed Dodd in 1946

5 December 2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/mtrail/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elderly might not benefit from regular aspirin

 

[ reprise de may (§1) par might (titre) ]

 

Fri May 20, 2005

9:59 AM ET

Reuters

 

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A daily baby aspirin is often recommended by doctors to help prevent heart attacks or stroke, but for people over 70 years old the benefits may be offset by bleeding risks, investigators report. "The balance of harm and benefit could tip either way," they say.

Elderly individuals are at increased risk of having adverse reactions to drugs, Dr. Mark R. Nelson, from the University of Tasmania in Hobart, Australia, and colleagues note in the Online First edition of the British Medical Journal. However, most of the clinical trials looking into the prevention of cardiovascular events with aspirin have involved middle-aged subjects.

To further investigate the matter, the research team constructed a mathematical model based on clinical trial data and demographics to compare risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin in a theoretical cohort of 10,000 men and 10,000 women ages 70 to 74. The virtual participants were "followed" until they died or reached 100 years of age.

The model suggested that, for men, routine low-dose aspirin therapy would prevent 389 heart attacks and 19 strokes; for women, the numbers were 321 heart attacks and 35 strokes.

However, this benefit was offset by an extra 499 episodes of gastric bleeding in men and 572 in women. On top of that, the team calculated that 76 more men and 54 more women would suffer bleeding in the brain.

"On balance, there was no indication of a net benefit or harm in terms of deaths, years of life saved, or years of healthy life saved," the researchers report.

Their findings highlight the need for a randomized clinical trial of aspirin use in elderly patients, they add, and "underscore the importance of targeting preventive treatment to those for whom the potential balance of benefit versus harm is optimal."

SOURCE: BMJ Online First, May 19, 2005.

Full text,
R, 20.5.2005,
http://today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=healthNews&storyID=
2005-05-20T135902Z_01_B564335_RTRIDST_0_HEALTH-ELDERLY-ASPIRIN-DC.XML

 

 

 

 

 

PARIS (Reuters) -

Yasser Arafat remained in a critical condition

as uncertainty mounted over who might succeed him

and where he might be buried should he die.

One aide to the Palestinian president said

he was "between life and death" in a coma,

though one from which he could still recover.

Others, hoping to calm fears of chaos back home,

said his life was not in danger.

Arafat Stable Amid Puzzle Over Burial and Successor,
R, Fri Nov 5, 2004 06:51 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
ZCM5JYNZ5SFBQCRBAEZSFEY?type=topNews&storyID=6733214

 

 

 

 

 

All 50,000 troops who served in the first Gulf war

might have been exposed to low levels of chemical warfare agents

during the fighting and its aftermath,

a US investigation has suggested.

50,000 troops in Gulf illness scare,
G, §1, 11.6.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jun/11/
iraq.military 

 

 

 

 

 

A possible new cattle disease

which might pose a risk to human health

is being urgently investigated by government vets.

Vets investigate mystery brain disease in cattle,
G,
8.6.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/jun/08/
health.bse 

 

 

 

 

 

Rich diet 'may harm' low weight babies

 

Small dietary changes during pregnancy

might have a dramatic effect on a baby's life expectancy

- at least in mice, according to research

linked to Addenbrooke's hospital.

Headline and sub,
G,
29.1.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/jan/29/
medicineandhealth.sciencenews 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 9        28.8.2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

might

 

valeurs > présupposition

(pourrait bien / vraiment, être sans doute)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   


The Guardian        p. 19        16 July 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p. 3        14.10.2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revealed: The real cost of air travel

 

It might be cheap, but it's going to cost the earth.

 [ Traduction explicative :

c'est sans doute pas cher,

mais ça va coûter cher à notre planète ]

 

The cut-price airline ticket is fuelling a boom

that will make countering global warming impossible.

Headline and §1, I, 28.5.2005,
http://news.independent.co.uk/world/environment/story.jsp?story=642009

 

 

 

 

 

When fed to rats

it affected their kidneys and blood counts.

So what might it do to humans?

We think you should be told

 

The secret research we reveal today

raises the potential health risks of genetically modified foods.

Here, environment editor Geoffrey Lean,

who has led this paper's campaign on GM technology

for the past six years, examines the new evidence.

And he asks the questions that must concern us all:

why is Monsanto, the company trying to sell GM corn to Britain

and Europe, so reluctant to publish the full results

of its alarming tests on lab rats?

Why are our leaders so keen to buy the unproven technology

against the wishes of consumers?

And why is the man who first raised these concerns six years ago

shunned by the scientific establishment

and his former political masters?

Headline and sub, IoS, 22.5.2005,
http://news.independent.co.uk/world/science_technology/story.jsp?story=640402

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mandrake        Fred Fredericks

Created by Lee Falk        7.5.2005 > Suite : 9.5.2005

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/mandrake/about.htm

 

 

 

Comics ci-dessus > Bande dessinée 1, publiée un samedi :

 

1. indicating they might explode at any moment!

 

might > anaphore textuelle (as sparks begin to fly from...)

+

anaphore visuelle

=

présupposition

 

 

Traduction explicative :

... qu'ils pourraient bien exploser à tout moment !

 

 

 

 

Bande dessinée 2,

publiée un lundi

(pas de Mandrake le dimanche) :

 

"remise à zéro" de l'énonciation avec may,

retour à une hypothèse première fictive / théorique

+

intensification avec

un verbe à particule (blow up)

et deux points d'exclamation :

 

2. The abandoned refrigeration plant may blow up at any moment!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steve Roper and Mike Nomad        Fran Matera        6.10.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/sroper/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

would    could    should

may    might    mustépistémique / hypothétique

 

autres énoncés

 

 

 

Spiderman        Stan Lee        18.9.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/spidermn/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smoking ban 'would save 5,000 lives a year'

 

Banning smoking in public places

could save more lives more quickly

than the creation of a single new anti-cancer drug,

campaigners said today.

Headline and §1,
G,
15.8.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/sep/15/
politics.smoking

 

 

 

 

 

BNFL to continue releasing 'killer' gas

 

Subhead : Environment Agency accepts

that Thorp reprocessing plant could be closed

before it finds a way to control release of Krypton 85

BNFL to continue releasing 'killer' gas,
G,
3.4.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/sep/03/
sciencenews.nuclearindustry 

 

 

 

 

 

Earth-like planet could harbour life

 

European scientists have found

a planet circling a distant star that could be home to life.

The planet, the first detected so far

that is enough like Earth for life to develop,

orbits a star called mu Arae in the southern constellation Altar.

The planet - astronomers call such things exoplanets -

is only 14 times the mass of Earth and, like Earth,

could be composed of rock and support an atmosphere.

Earth-like planet could harbour life,
G, 31.8.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/aug/31/
starsgalaxiesandplanets.spaceexploration

 

 

 

 

 

Paedophiles could be barred from net

Headline,
O,
7.3.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2004/mar/07/
childrensservices.childprotection

 

 

 

 

 

Prison suicide 'could have been avoided'

Headline,
O, 7.3.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/mar/07/
ukcrime.prisonsandprobation

 

 

 

 

 

Collision with comet

may have hastened first plague epidemic

 

A collision between Earth

and a passing comet in the 6th century AD

may have caused the collapse of agriculture, mass famine

and indirectly led to the bubonic plague in Europe,

a study has suggested.

Scientists have calculated that a relatively small comet,

or fragment of a comet, could have caused huge amounts

of dust and debris to be ejected into the atmosphere,

blocking the sun for months at a time.

The resulting crop failures and famine would have allowed

bubonic plague to spread easily

among a physically weakened population.

Headline and first §§, I, 4.2.2004,
http://news.independent.co.uk/world/science_medical/story.jsp?story=487550

 

 

 

 

 

Britain should escape the worst of today's

predicted gale force winds,

but forecasters have warned that a storm tonight

could be more severe than had been expected.

Storms had been expected to hit southern England today,

with forecasters originally predicting torrential rain

and winds of up to 90mph.

However, a spokesman for the Press Association said

that there was now only a 40% chance

that the UK would be affected by storms today.

"There's a chance it might spin back up

and hit the south-east of the country," he said.

The storm is now expected to pass to the south,

with the severe winds instead affecting the English Channel

and northern France.

UK set to miss worst of gales,
G, 12.1.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2004/jan/12/
weather.climatechange1

 

 

 

 

 

A knife-wielding murderer

who targets lone women joggers in public parks could strike again,

police in north London warned yesterday.

Women warned after second park stabbing, G, 8.12.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/dec/08/
ukcrime.owenbowcott

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Qa'ida may be poised to attack,

US warns

 

Concern about aterror attack occurring in Saudi Arabia,

possibly imminently, was growing yesterday

as the United States issued a warning

that it could happen as early as today.

    Headline, §1, IoS, 26.10.2003,
    http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=457303

 

 

 

 

 

Global warming could create 150 million environmental refugees

- but the countries responsible are in no hurry

to carry their share of the costs

Unnatural disasters,
G, 15.10.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2003/oct/15/
guardiananalysispage.climatechange

 

 

 

 

 

Finally, consider the economic consequences in the US.

A good war would obviously help President Bush,

but maybe not as much as he expects.

After a victory in Iraq, attention might quickly refocus

on problems in the economy and Wall Street.

Bush could still suffer the same fate as his father

unless he can rapidly trigger a convincing recovery.

A bad war would be almost as catastrophic for Bush as for Blair.

The stock market and the economy would plunge,

almost certainly triggering a double-dip recession.

Fiscal policy would be unable to compensate,

since Democrats would refuse to legislate tax cuts.

The only recourse would be massive monetary easing,

as recently suggested by the Federal reserve.

The dollar would fall sharply.

Meanwhile trade policy would lurch towards protectionism

in response to domestic recession

and Europe's perceived betrayal of the US.

Export industries would be devastated around the world.

Unemployment in continental Europe would rise

to a level last seen in the 1930's.

And who knows what "rough beast" might rise again?

War could mean the end of the economic world, T, p. 27, 2 derniers §, 18.3.2003.

 

 -> "rough beast"

fait référence au poème de Yeats 'The second coming' :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Second_Coming_(poem)

 

 

 

 

 

Had Philippoussis nailed to serve

at this juncture to take a 3-0 lead

the Australian might have gone on to win the first set.

Instead Federer forced him to volley long.

Federer finds steel to galvanise his skill,
GW, p. 36, 10/16.7.2003.
https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2003/jul/07/
wimbledon2003.tennis2

 

 

 

 

 

Heading for disaster ...

biotechnology could bring death

on a previously inconceivable scale

Caption,
Oliver Morton is enthralled by the proposition that this century will be our last:
The end of the world as we know it?,
GI / Review, p. 11, 14.6.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

Astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS)

have been supplied with DIY pregnancy tests

in case the enforced intimacy of space travel

prompts mixed crews to try for the 200-mile-high club.

The test sticks have been included

in the station's medical pack

in one of the first admissions

that its astronauts might have sex in orbit.

Sex in space: thin blue line keeps crews in check,
T, p. 13, 3.9.2001.

 

 

 

 

 

As the crackle of anti-aircraft and machine-gun fire

moved closer to the centre of Baghdad,

it was clear that the battle was drawing nearer.

It was also clear how it might go.

The signs had been there since Saturday morning:

a motorway on the southern extremities of Baghdad,

dotted with the blackened carcasses of Iraqui army vehicles,

gruesome souvenirs of the American army's

brief jaunt through the suburbs.

'They had cannon, rockets and faith.
But next time the US tanks come it won't be enough,
GE, p. 1, 7.4.2003.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/apr/07/
iraq.suzannegoldenberg

 

 

 

 

 

'Decapitating' the regime

may not end war quickly

Headline, T, p. 10, 25.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. May Face Nuclear Blackmail

Headline, NYT/Le Monde, p. 3, 16-7.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

Invasion May Be Al Qaeda's

Best Recruiting Tool

Headline, NYT/Le Monde, p. 1, 23-4.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

A meteor barrage may have led to volcanic eruptions

and the subsequent extinction of dinosaurs.

If the Meteors Didn't Get Dinosaurs, the Lava Did,
NYT/Le Monde, caption, p. 6, 23-4.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

War could mean the end

of the economic world

Headline, T, p. 27, 18.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

As a social fund officer

he had seen claimants by the thousand. (...)

I had arranged a hypothetical interview with him

to find out what the social fund would give me

if I was down on my luck

arriving in an empty council flat with few possessions

 I might be a woman fleeing a violent husband.

I might be a refugee family.

I might have had my home repossessed

after losing my job and defaulting on my mortage.

"How much can you give me to furnish my empty flat?" I begin.

"Nothing at all".

The other side of the tracks,
GE/GE2, p. 2, 13.1.2003.
https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/jan/13/
socialexclusion.society

 

Contexte :

 

la journaliste se fait passer

pour une personne sans-abri,

qui pourrait être une femme battue,

réfugiée ou expulsée de sa maison.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

reprise de could par might

 

suite hypothétique,

déduction,

inférence, conséquence,

degré hypothétique supérieur

 

 

 

 

If it is done properly,

the privatisation of Japan Post

could boost competition in the country's financial markets.

Trouble is, it might not be

Ready, steady, go, E, 2.9.2004,
https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/2004/09/02/
ready-steady-go 

 

 

 

 

 

The west prides itself on its open democratic society,

but if openness and democracy are what we value,

then we need to export those values

to countries that desperately need them.

We will supply arms to anybody.

Where is our support for those men and women

who are trying to modernise their countries

- to bring books and education and emancipation

to people who live in fear of being flogged or killed?

The truth is that we would rather sell arms

and trade oil and cheap goods with the bosses

than help the ordinary people who need us.

I'm not talking charity.

I mean a whole new approach to how we deal with the third world.

We could start by not exploiting them.

We could give up the myth that the west is the good guy.

We could refuse foreign policy deliberately aimed

at manipulating other countries for our own ends.

We could learn to forgive.

That might mean learning to say our prayers...

You need not believe in God to believe in prayer.

Which of us should not ask for forgiveness?

Which of us should not ask for the strength to forgive others?

Forgive but don't forget:
There are only three possible endings to any story:
revenge, tragedy, forgiveness. We need to forgive,
G,
18.9.2001,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/sep/18/
september11.politicsphilosophyandsociety2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hypothèse relative au passé

 

would / mustépistémique / may / might

 

+

 

actif : haveauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé

 

 

ou

 

 

passif : haveauxiliaire + beenauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé

 

 

 

 

 

When the shoebill was created,

the mold must have been broken,

but the big beak serves the bird very efficiently

 

Mark Trail        Jack Elrod        Created by Ed Dodd in 1946        5.12.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/mtrail/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abigail Witchalls,

the 26-year-old mother who was left paralysed

after being stabbed in the neck,

has failed to pick out one of the main suspects

in the investigation during a photo identity parade,

police said last night.

Richard Cazaly, a 23-year-old gardener

who lived near the scene of the attack,

has been a suspect since he killed himself in Scotland

a few days after the assault.

In one suicide note he wrote:

"I'm terribly sorry. I must be two people.

I can't remember. But I must have done it."

Mrs Witchalls was shown the photograph in hospital

yesterday afternoon.

A police spokesman said:

"Surrey police officers investigating the attempted murder

of Abigail Witchalls on 20 April 2005

have now conducted a formal identity parade

in which Abigail was shown a photograph

of Richard Cazaly along with eight others.

"Abigail did not pick out Richard Cazaly

as the man who attacked her.

Witchalls ID parade fails, first §§,
G,
10.6.2005,

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/jun/10/
ukcrime.samjones1 

 

 

 

 

 

Day from Hell May Have Killed Off Dinosaurs

 

Wed Oct 27, 2004

09:32 AM ET

Reuters

 

One minute you're a big T-Rex, the next you're toast.

Challenging conventional theory,

new scientific research suggests

the dinosaurs may have been scorched into extinction

by an asteroid collision 65 million years ago

that unleashed 10 billion times more power

than the Hiroshima nuclear bomb.

Earth's temperatures soared,

the sky turned red

and trees all over the planet burst into flames,

said atmospheric physicist Brian Toon

of the University of Colorado.

Among the few survivors would have been animals living in water

or burrowed in the ground like turtles, small mammals and

crocodiles.

(...)

Creatures living near ground zero would have been vaporized

immediately while those in the Caribbean area and southern United

States would have drowned

in 330-feet-high (100-meter) tsunamis

when the asteroid impacted

near today's Gulf of Mexico shoreline

at a speed of 33,750 mph (54,000 kph).

Then, a column of red-hot steam and dust

soared thousands of miles into space

and most of it fell back toward Earth within a few hours,

turning the heavens into hell.

 

GIANT FIRE

"The entire sky would be radiating at you.

It would be like standing next to a giant fire;

you'd be burned very severely," Toon said,

whose research is based on mathematical

and computer models.

Headline and first §§, R, 27.10.2004,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=scienceNews&storyID=6628797

 

 

 

 

 

SEOUL (Reuters) - A huge explosion rocked North Korea

near the border with China three days ago,

producing a mushroom cloud that sparked speculation

Pyongyang might have tested an atomic weapon,

Yonhap news agency reported on Sunday.

Big Blast, Mushroom Cloud Reported in N.Korea, R, 12.9.2004,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
VFOHTDTUBTYJWCRBAE0CFFA?type=topNews&storyID=6211175

 

 

 

 

 

Had Guy Fawkes succeeded in blowing up

the Palace of Westminster 398 years ago today,

large parts of Central London would have been flattened,

new calculations show.

Westminster Hall, the Abbey and surrounding streets

would have been destroyed,

with damage spreading into Whitehall,

according to experts at the Centre for Explosion Studies

at the University of Wales in Aberystwyth.

There would have been complete destruction

of all buildings within 135ft,

and partial collapses of walls and roofs of houses out to 354ft.

Ceilings would have fallen in

and glass been damaged up to 1,600ft away.

What if Guy Fawkes had got away with it?,
T, p. 1, 5.11.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative > Niveau avancé

 

formes hypothétiques

 

 

be : conjugaison présent,

passé temporel, "passé" hypothétique

 

 

may > valeurs > hypothèse première

 

 

Reprise de may par might / could

 

 

can / could questions

 

 

Traduire le verbe "devoir" en anglais

 

 

 

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