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grammaire anglaise > be + -ing

 

formes simples  ≠  formes en be + -ing

 

sens et valeurs

 

mise en scène de l'information

 

inédit  ≠  déjà dit

 

 

 

 

présent simple  ≠  présent en be + -ing

 

 

 

 

present perfect actif en -ing :

 

have + been + -ing

 

 

 

I'm telling you, there's no such thing as mad-broccoli disease!

 

Traduction explicative :

 

Mais puisque je te dis et que je répète

que la maladie du brocoli fou, ça n'existe pas !

 

Larry Wright

Detroit News

Cagle

13.2.2004

http://info.detnews.com/wrightoon/index.cfm

http://cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/wright.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le père répète à son fils - en le fixant du regard -

qu'il n'y a pas de maladie du broccoli fou

(allusion à la maladie de la vache folle, mad cow disease).

 

Traduction explicative :

Mais-enfin-puisque-je-te-dis-et-que-je-te-répète-pour-la-énième-fois

que la maladie du brocoli fou, ça n'existe pas

Moi, ton père qui te parle et qui a toujours raison

et que tu dois écouter, je te dis et je te répète que...

 

 

 

 

 

be + -ing a ici plusieurs valeurs :

 

- l'anaphore / la reprise dans un continuum énonciatif :

le père répéte ce qu'il vient de dire.

 

- la validation :

ce que je dis est vrai / est bien connu / j'ai raison,

cette maladie n'existe pas.

 

- la mise en avant de l'énonciateur comme autorité :

moi qui suis ton père, je te dis que....

 

- l'emphase :

renforcée par le point d'exclamation.

 

- la persuasion > implication forcée du co-énonciateur :

tu dois m'écouter,

tu dois admettre que j'ai raison, tu dois me répondre.

 

 

 

 

 

Le fils refuse ces valeurs

via la négation et le présent simple,

temps qui donne à sa phrase

une valeur scientifique, inédite, définitive.

 

 

Sous-entendu :

je refuse de poursuivre cette conversation.

Le lien énonciatif est rompu

(l'enfant ne regarde pas son père, mais son assiette).

 

 

Traduction explicative :

Ce n'est pas l'avis des spécialistes

du traitement éthique des légumes. Point final.

On ne peut pas revenir là-dessus. Je ne dirai plus rien. Tais toi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You're being paranoid.

Là tu deviens vraiment parano.

 

Larry Wright

The Detroit News

Cagle

18.3.2004 

http://info.detnews.com/wrightoon/index.cfm

http://cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/wright.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes, it's true:

Jumbo Americans are eating more

Headline, IHT/NYT, p. 5, 7/8.2.2004.

 

 

Jumbo Americans are eating more

 

l'information n'est pas nouvelle,

elle revient de manière récurrente dans les médias

depuis plusieurs années.

 

 

L'anaphore (la référence) est ici textuelle

(le thème de l'obésité a été traité dans de nombreux articles),

mais aussi contextuelle :

le surpoids et l'alimentation sont des sujets connus,

à la mode, dans l'air du temps.

 

 

Le "Quoi de neuf",

c'est que cette information est présentée comme vraie :

Yes, it's true (valeur informative du présent simple).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Avec la forme simple du present perfect

(haveauxiliaire + participe passé),

l'énonciateur communique une information

qu'il présente comme inédite,

même si cette information n'apporte parfois rien de nouveau.

 

 

Cette forme verbale permet en effet à celui qui parle / écrit

de remettre "la pendule à zéro",

de faire comme si rien n'avait été déjà dit sur tel ou tel sujet

(voir ci-dessous la déclaration catégorique de Tony Blair).

 

 

Le present perfect simple marque une discontinuité

- parfois fictive - dans le discours.

Le postulat rhétorique est qu'il n'y a plus de référence

à du déjà dit, à du déjà perçu.

 

 

L'énonciateur fait comme si rien n'avait été encore dit à ce sujet :

moi, énonciateur-journaliste / politique, je vous apprends que ...

 

Traduction explicative : Vous ne le saviez peut-être pas, mais...

/ Vous l'aviez peut-être oublié, donc je répète / j'insiste...

 

 

Pressed about his pre-war warning that Iraqi weapons

could be fired within 45 minutes of an order,

Mr Blair appeared to contradict Mr Rumsfeld.

"I have said throughout

and I repeat I have absolutely no doubt

about the existence of weapons of mass destruction."

Blair faces revolt as US admits doubts:
'It is possible that Iraqi leaders had decided
to destroy the weapons of mass destruction prior to conflict' ...
Donald Rumsfeld, on Tuesday night, G, 29.5.2003,
http://politics.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4678953-110481,00.html - borken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A l'inverse du present perfect simple,

le present perfect en -ing

(haveauxiliaire + been + -ing )

donne l'impression de continuité discursive,

d'enchaînement, de reprise.

 

 

Cette forme renvoie

à du déjà énoncé (dit ou pensé - dessin 1)

ou

à une information supposée connue,

avec éventuellement une anaphore (= indice)

dans l'extralinguistique / la réalité (dessin 2) :

 

 

 

 

 

Dan, there's something I've been meaning to tell you...

 

Bruce Plante

Tulsa World, Tulsa, OK

Cagle

21 December 2010

 

Related

Don't ask don't tell repeal - December 2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How do you know I haven't been taking my anti-depressants?

 

Mike Lester

The Rome News Tribune

Cagle

27.9.2004

http://cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/lester.asp

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autres exemples > Enoncés 1 et 2 ci-dessous :

 

1 -    L'hypothèse que Saddam Hussein ait pu mettre au point

        des armes de destruction massive n'est une information pour personne.

 

 

2 -    Le journaliste suppose connu du lecteur

        le fait que le Royaume Uni est "inondé" de cocaïne depuis des années

        (ce n'est d'ailleurs pas l'information principale de l'article).

 

 

Le present perfect en -ing

installe ici le lecteur / l'auditeur

dans un continuum discursif, le déjà-dit,

un "train-train" / "ronron" / bruit de fond énonciatif.

 

Sous entendu :

comme vous le sav(i)ez déjà / bien, ...

 

 

1 -    The test tube of botulinum

presented by Washington and London

as evidence that Saddam Hussein had been

developing and concealing weapons of mass destruction,

was found in an Iraqi scientist's home refrigerator,

where it had been sitting for 10 years, it emerged yesterday. 

Revelation casts doubt on Iraq find,
G,
7.10.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/oct/07/uk.iraq

 

 

2 -    Police smash massive cocaine cartel

 

Scotland Yard has smashed a drug gang

believed to be the biggest ever to target Britain

The Colombian-based cartel,

which has been flooding the UK with cocaine for years,

was taken out in a series of dawn raids in both countries.

A total of 23 raids were launched in London on Wednesday morning

and up to another 25 in Colombia.

Headline / sunhadline and paragraph, PA / Latest News, 24.03.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beetle! You drive me crazy!

[ présent simple ]

 

You're always lying down!

[ présent en be + -ing ]

 

Beetle Bailey        Greg + Mort Walker        1.7.2004

http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/fun/beetlebailey.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The other kids are always makin' fun of me 'cause I'm fit!

 

Jeff Parker

Cagle

14.10.2004

http://cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/parker.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

présent simple

 

présent en be + -ing

 

have been + -ing

 

 

autres énoncés

 

 

 

 

 

We pray for all those who, as we meet here,

are working to renew a ravaged country

- our own servicemen and women,

all those who are labouring to bring together the Iraqi people

in new political projects for restoring common life.

    Archbishop's address in full:
    The full text of Dr Rowan Williams' address
    at the St Paul's Cathedral service of remembrance
    for those who died in the Iraq war,
    BBC new / UK edition, 10.10.2003,
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3181220.stm

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION (NBC):

Although the final communiqué, the G8 accept that the peace process could fail in case the Israelis and the Palestinians don't negotiate and don't resume talks again, but the communiqué in my view fell short in condemning the unwillingness of the Israeli leadership to the promises that they made to you personally and to the United States and all the current talks between the Prime Minister and Albright. Why haven't you condemned the unwillingness of the Israeli leadership? And finally may I ask you how do you feel about the Newcastle defeat yesterday?

 

PRIME MINISTER:

Sad is the answer to the second question. On the first, I think it is just worthwhile emphasising to you what we did say, We strongly supported the package of ideas that have been put forward by the United States and we welcomed the acceptance in principle of the Palestinian side to that package of proposals. I think the reason why we tried to be positive in our language is that we are still hopeful that this process can be taken forward, that the remaining gaps between the sides can be bridged, and therefore I think that we felt it incumbent upon us to try and deal with this in as positive and as constructive a way as possible. But you will see set out very clearly in the statement we made in the Middle East peace process the two points that I have made, plus the expression of our deep concern at the continuing stalemate. So I hope very much, as I have been saying for these past few weeks when I have been engaged in some of these discussions myself, that we can find a way forward to get the Middle East peace process moving along satisfactorily because it is of such vital importance for the entirety of the region and the world.

    TRANSCRIPT "A" OF THE PRESS CONFERENCE
    GIVEN BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR TONY BLAIR, IN BIRMINGHAM ON SUNDAY, 17 MAY 1998,
    http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/summit/1998birmingham/blaira.html 

 

 

 

 

 

PRIME MINISTER

First of all, Mr President, thank you very much indeed

for inviting me here to be with you.

You said I was a true friend of the Palestinian people,

and I am very pleased to be that.

I also believe,

as I have been saying in different parts of this region

in the last two days, that it is of vital importance

that we move the Middle East Peace Process forward.

And as I said to King Abdullah of Jordan earlier today

and I said with Prime Minister Sharon,

and I say with you here and now,

I think there are three things that are vital.

    Transcript of press conference
    between the Prime Minister Tony Blair and President Arafat in Gaza
     - 2 November 2001, Downing Street site,
    http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page1640.asp

 

 

 

 

 

Mr Livingstone said he was "delighted"

by the decision to allow him to stand.

 

He said: "I have been saying for a year

that Tony Blair made it quite clear that they were not going to rig the election."

    Livingstone scrapes through, BBC, 18.11.1999,
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/526324.stm

 

 

 

 

 

Mr Norris said the party research and another private poll

commissioned by Lord Archer merely confirmed

what he had been saying throughout his campaign.

UK Politics : Tories deny Archer sleaze connection, BBC, 28.9.1999,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/459587.stm

 

 

 

 

 

50,000 children taking antidepressants

 

· Drug withdrawn
  over fears it made youngsters want to kill themselves


· New questions for pharmaceutical firms

 

An antidepressant which GPs have been prescribing to thousands of children,

in spite of the fact that it is not recommended for their use,

can cause youngsters to want to kill themselves,

the government's regulatory agency warned yesterday.

Efexor, made by the drug company Wyeth,

is being taken by at least 3,000 children in the UK,

it was revealed yesterday,

even though guidance to doctors

states that it should not be given to under 18s.

It is the second antidepressant to be specifically

banned from use in children in four months.

Headline and first/second paragraphs, G, 20.9.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2003/sep/20/
medicineandhealth.lifeandhealth

 

 

 

 

 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams,

has been told by the Pope's aides

not to expect a substantive discussion

with the ailing pontiff when he meets him at the Vatican today,

according to two sources privy to preparations for the visit.

The warning is the first known admission

from within the Pope's circle of advisers

that his health problems have begun to limit his ability

to carry out the essential functions of his office.

Until now, aides had insisted that despite his evident frailty

the Pope's mind was as sharp as ever,

and he remained firmly in command of the Catholic church,

taking all the important decisions and monitoring the crucial debates.

That is evidently no longer the case.

It was not clear whether the latest, confidential advice from the Vatican

meant the Pope was physically unable to sustain a prolonged conversation,

or had undergone an erosion of his intellectual powers.

Rumours have been circulating in Rome for months

that the 83-year-old Pope alternates between periods of lucidity and confusion.

But last Sunday there was a first public indication

that he could be losing his grip on events,

when he announced the creation of a new batch of cardinals

and got wrong the most crucial piece of information.

He told the crowd in St Peter's Square

that the ceremony was set for September, not October.

But last night Cardinal Karl Lehmann,

head of Germany's Catholic Bishops Conference, said:

"The Pope is weak and ill but he is still alive spiritually and mentally.

He still has his responsibilities fully in hand."

This will be Dr Williams's first visit to Rome

since he became primate of the Anglican church.

He is being accompanied by the Catholic Archbishop of Westminster,

Cormac Murphy-O'Connor.

It is an indication of the warm relations between the two men

at a time when their churches are as far as ever from unity.

    Pope's aides admit he is unable to work normally, G, 4.10.2003,
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/pope/story/0,12272,1055609,00.htm

 

 

 

 

 

'Intelligent' gun developed

 

A gun which "knows" who is carrying it and where it is pointing

could provide vital evidence in police shooting investigations,

a firearms expert has said.

The "intelligent" weapon system has been

attracting interest from British police forces and military services

after research by a Royal Navy officer and Durham Police.

The firearm "datalogger", brainchild of Jon Sutcliff,

uses sensors to detect where it is

and who has signed it out of the armoury.

Headline and §1, PA, 7.10.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise > Niveau avancé

 

be + -ing