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grammaire anglaise > groupe verbal

 

prétérit temporel actif ou passif

+

marqueur de temps passé

(yesterday, once, ago, at the time...)

 

 

 

 

Generations ago,

a train like this brought enemies to Ivory Lana...

 

The Phantom        George Olesen and Graham Nolan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Si les verbes réguliers

prennent régulièrement -ed au prétérit

( -ed est leur signe / marqueur commun, distinctif) :

loved, killed, played, danced, tried

 

 

il n'en va pas de même

pour la quasi-totalité des irréguliers,

qui ont chacun leur propre forme prétérit :

fought, saw, sang, went, cut,

said, met, taken, wrote, ate, brought

 

 

Prétérit passif :

 

auxiliaire be conjugué au prétérit + participe passé

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

la mise en passé

 

 

 

 

L'énonciateur utilise souvent le prétérit temporel pour relater,

raconter des événements, réels ou imaginaires,

qu'il présente comme révolus, historiques.

 

 

Les faits sont ponctualisés (points sur une ligne temporelle),

et souvent historicisés, mis à distance, en perspective.

 

 

Il s'agit parfois d'exorciser "les démons du passé".

Ce qui est mis au passé ne reviendra plus :

 

Good afternoon.

Yesterday, December 13, at around 8:30pm Baghdad time,

United States military forces captured [ prétérit actif ]

Saddam Hussein alive.

 

He was found [ prétérit passif ] near a farmhouse

outside the city of Tikrit, in a swift raid conducted without casualties.

And now the former dictator of Iraq will face the justice

he denied to millions.

[ prétérit actif ]

A dark and painful era is over:
President George Bush's statement
at the White House on the capture of Saddam Hussein,
G,
14.12.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/dec/14/iraq.usa1

 

 

 

 

 

Ces événements sont souvent inscrits dans une chronologie

(concordance des temps grammaticaux = tous les verbes sont au prétérit),

avec parfois un marquage temporel précis

(adverbes / marqueurs de temps passé).

 

 

 

 

 

Ce qui est présenté comme passé

n'est pas nécessairement éloigné

dans le temps chronologique :

 

- l'énonciateur rapporte des faits qui, pour lui,

ne relèvent plus de l'information "qui tombe",

même s'ils sont très récents.

 

- l'événement vient de se produire,

mais l'énonciateur le date précisément

(today, this morning, a few minutes ago).

 

Les circonstances comptent tout autant que l'événement lui-même >

voir notamment les dépêches de Reuters, toutes rédigées au prétérit.

 

 

 

 

 

Exemple :

même s'ils ont été sans doute imprimés le jour même (22.11.1963),

les premiers articles sur l'assassinat du 35ème président des Etats-Unis,

John F. Kennedy, n'informent probablement

qu'un faible nombre de lecteurs

(les autres ont déjà appris la nouvelle par la radio et la télévision).

 

 

En écrivant le début de l'article ci-dessous,

rédigé le jour de l'assassinat et publié le lendemain

(et sans doute aussi le jour-même),

le journaliste du quotidien new-yorkais Daily News

sait qu'une partie de son lectorat est déjà au courant.

 

 

Dès les premières lignes,

le prétérit temporel rappelle les faits,

les inscrit dans l'espace et le temps,

leur donner une dimension / valeur historique, dramatique.

 

 

L'article publié le lendemain - 23 novembre -

prend place dans un numéro spécial,

qui a déjà valeur de commémoration :

 

 

Dallas, Tex., Nov 22

- President Kennedy was mortally wounded [ prétérit passif ]

by a rifle bullet at 12:31 P. M. (1:31 P.M. New York time) today

as he rode in an open convertible limousine leading a motorcade

 [ prétérit actif ]

through the streets of Dallas;

 

He died in Parkland Hospital 29 minutes later.

 [ prétérit actif ]

 

Gov. John Connally of Texas was gravely wounded

[ prétérit passif ]

by the same assassin while seated directly in front of the President.

The President Is Assassinated As Dallas Multitude Hails Him,
Daily News, Saturday, November 23 (date du n° spécial), 1963, p. 3.

 

 

A l'inverse, sur le moment,

les témoins de l'assassinat n'avaient d'autre choix

que d'utiliser le present perfect :

 

Kennedy / The President has been shot!

[ present perfect passif ]

 

 

Equivalent dans un film de Samuel Fuller,

Pickup on South Street (1953) :

Un policier découvre un cadavre, décroche le téléphone :

 

A woman has been shot!

[ present perfect passif ]

 

    -> voir Present Perfect > Breaking the latest news

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prétérit temporel

+

marqueurs de temps passé

 

 

 

 

Les verbes au prétérit temporel

( ≠ prétérit modal / hypothétique)

s'emploient souvent avec des marqueurs de temps passé.

 

Ces marqueurs peuvent être des :

 

- adverbes : today, yesterday, later, once,...

 

 

- groupes nominaux : the other day,...

 

 

- groupes prépositionnels (préposition + N / GN) :

at the time,

in recent years, on that hot July afternoon,

over the last two weeks, over the past year,

Over the course of the weekend,

in the early summer of 1964

 

 

- propositions (SVO) :

Ever since Americans learned

that American soldiers and intelligence agents

were torturing prisoners, ...

 

 

 

 

 

Ces marqueurs chronologiques cadrent, encadrent,

pointent un passé plus ou moins proche, plus ou moins précis :

 

now  [ valeur > passé > à ce point / stade, alors / désormais ],

today, the other day, this morning,

one day last summer,

the last time

 a short while later,

recently, in recent months, in recent years, over the years,

yesterday, in the early hours of yesterday, the next day, at the weekend,

just over two weeks ago, one hour ago, years ago, just over a year ago,

just a few months ago,

a few years ago,

a few years back,

almost two centuries ago, less than two weeks ago, a year a half ago,

THIRTY years ago this fall,

EXACTLY four years ago this month, Not long ago, A couple of years ago,

EARLY in the morning, a year ago today,

ONE hundred years ago today,

Back in 2002,

earlier this month, earlier Friday, earlier, three years earlier

later, three days later,

late last month,

in 1959,

on March 25, 2002.

ON the morning of May 6, 1783,

in the late summer of 1985, in the winter of 1860,

In the ensuing months,

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

last year (l'année dernière)  prétérit

in the last year (= depuis janvier) +  present perfect

 

 

 

 

 

late last year, last Monday, last night, last winter,

a while back, once, once upon a time, at the time,

one day, on that hot July afternoon,

on this day in 1980, on January 23 1968,

as early as January 2006,

last September, on Friday,

on the night of July 10, 2005,

In January,

At 3:50 a.m Tuesday, At 7:28 a.m. on April 25, 2007,

afterward,

Throughout their contentious debate on Wednesday,

THROUGHOUT the 20th century,

Ever since Americans learned

that American soldiers and intelligence agents

were torturing prisoners,...

 

 

 

 

 

in the past, in the past three days, for most of the past few years,

in the last three months of 2003,

 

 

 

 

 

Over the past year  (+ present perfect )

ne doit pas être confondu avec

last year (+ prétérit).

 

 

Over the past year annonce un bilan

qui court jusqu'au moment / présent de l'énonciation.

 

 

Over the past year s'emploie donc avec le present perfect.

 

 

Over the past year se traduit par :

ces douze derniers mois (et non pas : l'an dernier).

 

 

Over the past year,

consumer confidence has deteriorated

[ present perfect actif ] significantly.

 

Worsening problems in housing, harder-to-get credit,

financial turmoil on Wall Street and lofty energy prices have put

[ present perfect actif ]

people in a much more gloomy mind-set.

 

Last April, confidence stood [ prétérit actif ]

at 85.4.

 

The index is based on results

from the international polling firm Ipsos.

Confidence Falls to New Low,
By AP, NYT, April 11, 2008, Filed at 3:20 a.m. ET,
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-Consumer-Confidence.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

De même, ne pas confondre :

 

last week [ la semaine dernière, période close, révolue ] + prétérit

et

this last week [ cette semaine ] + present perfect

 

"I haven't felt [ present perfect ] too good

this last week

[ cette semaine / ces derniers jours ] ."

Michael Barrymore interview, O, 29 [ Sunday ].12.2002.

 

 

Dans cet entretien,

réalisé en fin de semaine et publié le dimanche,

le comique britannique déchu fait le bilan de la semaine,

période non révolue à l'instant où il parle.

 

 

Le bilan est l'une des deux valeurs du present perfect,

la seconde étant l'information "qui tombe" (breaking news),

soit dans la conversation, soit aux informations.

 

 

Autres exemples :

in the last two years

[ depuis deux ans / ces vingt-quatre derniers mois ]

the past week

[ cette semaine / la semaine qui vient de s'écouler ]

+

present perfect

 

 

By his words and demeanor,

Mr. Steel could be mistaken for a midlevel policy wonk —

someone hoping to let a little sunlight

disinfect the dark corners of the financial world.

In fact, he is a former vice chairman

at Goldman Sachs, the big investment bank.

And in the last two years  [ depuis deux ans / vingt-quatre mois ],

Mr. Steel has been

[ present perfect > traduction > est

co-chairman of one commission that claimed heavy-handed regulation

was stanching financial innovation and another that argued

that hedge funds could police themselves.

Wall Streeter Converts to a Fan of Regulation,
NYT,
15.4.2008,
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/15/business/15steel.html

 

 

 

Punctured

Bubblenomics

 

 

September 21 [ Sunday ], 2008

The New York Times

By DAVID LEONHARDT

 

The past week

[ cette semaine / la semaine qui vient de s'écouler ],

by any standard, has been an extraordinary one

 [ present perfect actif ]

for America’s economy and its financial system.

Merrill Lynch, which was founded during Woodrow Wilson’s administration,

agreed to be bought for a bargain-basement price, while Lehman Brothers,

which dates back to John Tyler’s presidency, simply collapsed.

 

By the end of the week, the federal government was preparing

to buy hundreds of billions of dollars in securities that no bank wanted.

It appears to be the government’s biggest fiscal intervention

since the Great Depression,

designed to get the financial markets working again

and keep a credit freeze from sending the economy

into a deep recession.

Bubblenomics, NYT, 21.9.2008,
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/21/weekinreview/21leonhardt.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

forpendant / pour (valeur temporelle)

 

+

 

prétérit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fordepuis

 

+

 

present perfect

 

 

 

 

 

for + durée quantifiée + prétérit

 

for (pourvaleur temporelle / pendant / durant)

 

Avec for,

l'énonciateur compte, dénombre, quantifie, recense.

 

A l'inverse de during,

qui est suivi d'un nom de période

(during the war, the week...),

for

est suivi d'un quantificateur :

 

for many..., for most of..., for five...,

 

for + Ø (quantificateur indéfini et sous-entendu) > for  [ Ø ] years,

 

for [ pendant ] many years, for [ pendant ] three years,

 

for [ pendant ] most of the last five years, for much of the 1990s,

 

for [ pour ] the first time in three years this month,

 

for [ pour ] the second time in less than 12 hours,

 

for [ pour ] the first time in nearly a decade,

 

for [ pour ]  the first time since 1971,

 

 

 

 

 

for (pour valeur temporelle / pendant / durant) + prétérit

for (depuis) + present perfect

 

 

 

 

 

during + période + prétérit

during (durant / pendant / au cours)

est un marqueur souvent "historicisant".

 

 

L'énonciateur nomme / cadre / recadre / souligne / se focalise

sur une période bien définie, jugée ou supposée connue,

importante, décisive :

 

In 1993 [ cadrage temporel ],

during the last big wave of foreclosures in New York City

[ recadrage > gros plan ],

nearly 6,200 buildings (residential, commercial and mixed-use)

began the foreclosure process.

 [ prétérit actif ]

 

In 2007, the Furman Center estimated that at least 38,000 people

facing a foreclosure in New York City were renters.

Even Renters Aren’t Safe, NYT, 13.4.2008,
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/13/realestate/13cover.html

 

 

 

During the presidency of Bill Clinton,

 

During the three weeks prior to his assassination on February 21,

 

during the war, during World War II, during the press conference,

 

during an interview Monday

 

during October,

during the 1990s,

during the 1940s and ’50s,

during the 1970s,

 

during the same period,

 

during midday Mass last week, during a midnight raid

 

during a class discussion

about the outrage prompted by the pope’s remark

 

DURING Wednesday night’s Democratic presidential debate

in Philadelphia,

 

during Passover

 

During a six-day visit to Washington and New York,

 

during the eighth round

 

 

 

during + quantificateur ( during 12 days at the station )

est considéré comme incorrect.

 

 

 

Pour en savoir plus :

Prépositions > during  ≠ for

Prépositions > since ≠ for

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Si certains marqueurs de temps

délimitent un segment

plus ou moins précis

dans le passé ...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

yesterday

 

fifty years ago

 

About two years ago,

 

At 3:58 a.m. on Christmas Day,

 

on Saturday, February 28, 1953

 

on Tuesday, December 2 2002,

 

at five minutes before 10 on Saturday night

 

at the weekend

 

at the time

 

In the late 1960s and early 1970s,

 

In the summer of 1996,

 

In the summer of 2005,

 

in the last week (USA)

 

in 1959,

 

 

 

 

 

Today in History - May 30

 

May 30, 2007

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Filed at 12:02 a.m. ET

The New York Times

 

Today is Wednesday, May 30, the 150th day of 2007.

There are 215 days left in the year.



Today's Highlight in History:

On May 30, 1431, Joan of Arc, condemned as a heretic, 

was burned [ prétérit passif ] at the stake in Rouen, France.



On this date:

 

In 1854, the territories of Nebraska and Kansas were established.

[ prétérit passif ]



In 1883, 12 people were trampled [ prétérit passif ] to death

when a rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge was

in imminent danger of collapsing triggered [ prétérit ] a stampede.



In 1911, Indianapolis saw [ prétérit ] its first long-distance auto race;

Ray Harroun was [ prétérit ] the winner.



In 1922, the Lincoln Memorial was dedicated [ prétérit passif ]

by President Harding, Chief Justice William Howard Taft

and Robert Todd Lincoln.
 


In 1937, 10 people were killed [ prétérit passif ]

when police fired [ prétérit]

on steelworkers demonstrating near the Republic Steel plant in Chicago.



In 1943, American forces secured [ prétérit ] the Aleutian island of Attu

from the Japanese during World War II.



In 1958, unidentified American soldiers killed in World War II

and the Korean conflict were buried [ prétérit passif ]

at Arlington National Cemetery.



In 1971, the American space probe Mariner 9 blasted off [ prétérit passif ]

from Cape Kennedy, Fla., on a journey to Mars.



In 1981,

Bangladesh President Ziaur Rahman was assassinated [ prétérit passif ]

in a failed military coup.



In 1986,

21 elderly passengers were killed when a tour bus went [ prétérit ]

out of control on a mountain road and plunged [ prétérit ]

into the Walker River near the California-Nevada border.



Ten years ago: Child molester Jesse K. Timmendequas was convicted [ prétérit passif ] in Trenton, N.J., of raping and strangling a 7-year-old neighbor, Megan Kanka, whose 1994 murder inspired '[ prétérit passif ] 'Megan's Law,'' requiring that communities be notified when sex offenders move in. (Timmendequas was later sentenced [ prétérit passif ] to death; he remains on death row.)



Five years ago: A solemn, wordless ceremony marked [ prétérit ] the end of the agonizing cleanup at ground zero in New York, 8 1/2 months after Sept. 11. Attorney General John Ashcroft issued [ prétérit ]new terror-fighting guidelines allowing FBI agents to visit Internet sites, libraries, churches and political organizations as part of an effort to pre-empt terrorist strikes. Nine climbers fell [ prétérit ] into a crevasse near the summit of Oregon's Mount Hood; three died [ prétérit ].



One year ago: U.S. Air Force Gen. Michael Hayden was sworn in [ prétérit passif ] as CIA director. President Bush tapped [ prétérit ] Goldman Sachs chief Henry Paulson to be Treasury secretary. A jury in Rockville, Md., convicted [ prétérit ] John Allen Muhammad of six of the Washington-area sniper killings. The FBI said [ prétérit ] it had found [ past perfect ] no trace of Jimmy Hoffa after digging up a suburban Detroit horse farm. Actor Robert Sterling, who appeared [ prétérit ] in the ghostly 1950s comedy series ''Topper,'' died [ prétérit ] in Los Angeles at age 88.
 

 

Today's Birthdays: Country musician Johnny Gimble is 81. Actor Clint Walker is 80. Actor Keir Dullea is 71. Actress Ruta Lee is 71. Actor Michael J. Pollard is 68. Actor Stephen Tobolowsky is 56. Actor Colm Meaney is 54. Actor Ted McGinley is 49. Actor Ralph Carter is 46. Actress Tonya Pinkins is 45. Country singer Wynonna Judd is 43. Rock musician Tom Morello (Audioslave; Rage Against The Machine) is 43. Movie director Antoine Fuqua is 42. Rock musician Patrick Dahlheimer (Live) is 36. Actress Idina Menzel is 36. Actor Trey Parker is 35. Rapper Cee-Lo is 33. Actor Blake Bashoff is 26.

 

Thought for Today: ''To write or to speak is almost inevitably to lie a little. It is an attempt to clothe an intangible in a tangible form; to compress an immeasurable into a mold. And in the act of compression, how Truth is mangled and torn!'' -- Anne Morrow Lindbergh, American writer (1906-2001).

Today in History - May 30,
NYT,
30.5.2007,
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-History.html


 

 

 

 

 

 

... d'autres marqueurs de temps

renvoient à une période imprécise

ou à un passé mythique :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

once

 

once upon a time

 

one time

 

two years after her divorce

 

a while back

 

a few years back

 

for [ pour ] the second time

 

in the beginning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le prétérit peut également s'employer sans marqueur de temps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

énoncés au prétérit actif / passif

+

marqueurs de temps passé

 

 

 

 

Prince Charles last night became the first member of the royal family

to set foot on Iranian soil since the Islamic revolution 25 years ago,

as he embarked on a surprise tour of the region which will culminate

with a walk around the earthquake-stricken town of Bam.

Prince Charles seeks to boost troop morale in Basra, G, 9.2.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/feb/09/
iraq.world

 

 

 

 

 

On this day in 1980

John Lennon was murdered

[ Prétérit passif : beauxiliaire conjugué au prétérit + participe passé ].

Past notes, web frontpage, G, 8.12.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth.

And the earth was without form, and void;

and darkness was upon the face of the deep.

And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

The first book of Moses called GENESIS, Old Testament, Holy Bible, I:1-3.

 

 

 

 

 

Lewis and Clark were sent

by President Thomas Jefferson 200 years ago

to navigate and map the newly purchased Louisiana Territory,

the lands west of the Mississippi River

that doubled the size of the United States

when Napoleon sold them for about 3 cents an acre.

Two Centuries Later, Indians Retell the Past:
Tribes Scarred by a Hidden History, NYT/Le Monde, p. 1, 29/30.6.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

An American soldier was killed,

and two others were injured, in Baghdad yesterday

when a rocket-propelled grenade was fired at a military ambulance.

The soldier was the third member of the US military to die

in the Iraqi capital in the past three days.

He was the latest in a list of casualties since Saddam Hussein's fall.

Another US soldier is killed by Iraq grenade attack, GI, p. 11, 20.6.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

Three weeks before the Conservative Party Conference

in October 1984, Patrick Magee checked into Room 629

of the Grand Hotel in Brighton,

five floors above Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's bedroom.

He hid 30lb of gelignite attached to a timer from a video recorder

behind the panel of the bathtub. The bomb exploded at 3am,

killing five people and severely injuring 30 others.

Secret History, Channel 4, 9pm, T/T2, p. 28, 15.5.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

Fifty years ago, on Saturday, February 28, 1953,

two young scientists walked into the Eagle,

a dingy pub in Cambridge, England,

and announced to the lunchtime crowd

that they had discovered the secret of life.

Double Helix Leaps Fom Lab to Real Life, NYT/Le Monde, 9/10.3.2003.

 

 

 

 

 

Once upon a time, on the edge of the big wood,

there lived a little girl called Little Red Riding Hood.

Her real name was Brenda but she was always known

[ prétérit passif : BEauxiliaire + participe passé ]

as Little Red Riding Hood because this was

what her mother called her when she was a baby.

Brenda used to wear a red bonnet

when she went out for a ride in her pram, and she still wears it now.

Little Red Riding Hood, retold by Jonathan Langley, London, PictureLions, HarperCollins, 1993.

 

 

 

 

 

Two years after her divorce, Karen (…)

decided she was ready to meet someone new.

 

 

 

 

 

Once upon a time (only a century ago),

a few billion stars and gas clouds smeared

along the Milky Way were thought

[ prétérit passif : BEauxiliaire + participe passé ]

to encompass all of existence, and the notion of understanding it

was daunting - and hubristic - enough.

New View of the Universe: Only One Among Many,
NYT/Le Monde, p. 6, 10/11.11.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

On the night of january 31, 1953,

a deep low pressure over the North Sea

combined with high tides

to devastate much of Eastern England

and Holland's coastlands.

High anxiety, GE2, p. 12, 9.10.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

A while back, I was invited

[ Prétérit passif : BEauxiliaire + participe passé ]

to a fashion show in Paris.

What is it with US girls moaning about British men?, GE2, p. 7., 23.8.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

Last month I discovered the truth about being a black woman

in post-apartheid South Africa.

A woman’s world, GE, pp. 8-9, 7-3-2002.

 

 

 

 

 

Ten years ago today Britain was ejected

[ Prétérit passif : BEauxiliaire + participe passé ]

from Europe’s exchange-rate mechanism.

The silver lining on Black Wednesday, T, p. 5, Business pullout, 16.9.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

In 1774,

a British journalist wrote a sketch about American tourists

in London 200 years in the future.

What Britannia taught Bush, GE2, p. 4, 20.9.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

Large areas of central and northern England and Wales

trembled just before 1am yesterday

as an earthquake rumbled more than five miles

below the neat lawns and flower beds of a street

in Dudley, West Midlands.

Tremors shake awake middle England, GE, p. 5, 24.9.2002.