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grammaire anglaise > prépositions > in + N > différents sens

 

temporalisation,

localisation,

contextualisation,

mise en perspective,

focalisation,

moyen, document,

objectif bien connu,

processus,

état,

domaine / secteur,

statistique

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2007/jun/27/
guardianextra3.guardianspecial6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Backpacker stabbing:

father 'immensely proud'

of critically injured Tom Jackson

Les Jackson says his ‘sole focus’ is his son,
left fighting for his life
after attack at Queensland hostel
in which fellow Briton Mia Ayliffe-Chung was killed

 

The father of a British knife attack victim

who is on life support in a far north Queensland hospital,

has spoken of his immense pride in his son.

 

Tom Jackson, 30, suffered multiple wounds

on Tuesday at a hostel at Home Hills,

about 100km south of Townsville,

while trying to protect fellow Briton Mia Ayliffe-Chung,

who was stabbed to death.

 

“There are many and varied reasons why we are,

and always will be, immensely proud of Tom.

His actions in response to this horrific attack

only add to that sense of pride,”

Les Jackson said in a statement released on Sunday

by Townsville hospital.

 

Les Jackson, who travelled from Britain last week

to be at his son’s bedside,

said he’d received many offers of support and friendship

from the Townsville community.

 

“Please don’t think I am unappreciative of these kind offers

if they appear to be silently ignored,” he said.

“They have not been but I think you will understand

that our sole focus at the moment is entirely on Tom’s condition.”

 

“We are in awe of the medical and support staff

at the Townsville hospital who are providing

the greatest care Tom could hope to receive

and keeping me informed of his ongoing treatment

every step of the way.

 

“Finally, and most importantly, our hearts go out to Mia

and her family and friends at this dreadful time.”

 

Tom Jackson remains in a critical condition,

a hospital spokesman said on Sunday.

 

Frenchman Smail Ayad, who was staying at the hostel,

is accused of murdering Ayliffe-Chung and stabbing Jackson

as well as killing a dog and injuring a dozen police after his arrest.

 

Police deemed him too aggressive to appear

in Townsville magistrates court on Friday

where his case was adjourned until 28 October.

Backpacker stabbing:
father 'immensely proud' of critically injured Tom Jackson,
G,
28 August 2016,
https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/aug/28/
father-of-british-sta-attack-victim-tom-jackson-says-he-is-immensely-proud

 

 

 

 

 

Becoming Disabled

Roughly one in five Americans lives with a disability.
So where is our pride movement?

 

AUG. 19, 2016

NPR

Rosemarie Garland-Thomson

 

Becoming Disabled,
NPR,
Aug. 19, 2016,
http://www.npr.org/sections/news/

 

 

 

 

 

7 Chicago Officers Could Be Fired

In Laquan McDonald's Death

 

August 18, 2016

9:25 PM ET

NPR

Jason Slotkin

 

Chicago Police Superintendent Eddie Johnson

has recommended that seven officers

be fired for providing false information

in the shooting death of 17-year-old Laquan McDonald.

Chicago's police superintendent

is recommending seven officers be fired

after finding that they gave false statements in the 2014

shooting death of 17-year-old African-American Laquan McDonald

by a white officer.

Superintendent Eddie Johnson

announced the recommendations in a statement Thursday.

"The Department and its outside counsel

have carefully reviewed the reports and supporting documents,

videos, and other evidence," the statement reads,

"and will accept the [city's inspector general's] recommendation

to submit seven of the officers to the Police Board for separation."

7 Chicago Officers Could Be Fired In Laquan McDonald's Death,
NPR,
August 18, 2016,
http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/18/
490542361/seven-chicago-officers-could-be-fired-in-laquan-mcdonalds-death

 

 

 

 

 

In Ill Doctor,

a Surprise Reflection

of Who Picks Assisted Suicide

 

August 11, 2012

The New York Times

By KATIE HAFNER

 

SEATTLE — Dr. Richard Wesley has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the incurable disease that lays waste to muscles while leaving the mind intact. He lives with the knowledge that an untimely death is chasing him down, but takes solace in knowing that he can decide exactly when, where and how he will die.

Under Washington State’s Death With Dignity Act, his physician has given him a prescription for a lethal dose of barbiturates. He would prefer to die naturally, but if dying becomes protracted and difficult, he plans to take the drugs and die peacefully within minutes.

“It’s like the definition of pornography,” Dr. Wesley, 67, said at his home here in Seattle, with Mount Rainier in the distance. “I’ll know it’s time to go when I see it.”

Washington followed Oregon in allowing terminally ill patients to get a prescription for drugs that will hasten death. Critics of such laws feared that poor people would be pressured to kill themselves because they or their families could not afford end-of-life care. But the demographics of patients who have gotten the prescriptions are surprisingly different than expected, according to data collected by Oregon and Washington through 2011.

Dr. Wesley is emblematic of those who have taken advantage of the law. They are overwhelmingly white, well educated and financially comfortable. And they are making the choice not because they are in pain but because they want to have the same control over their deaths that they have had over their lives.

While preparing advance medical directives and choosing hospice and palliative care over aggressive treatment have become mainstream options, physician-assisted dying remains taboo for many people. Voters in Massachusetts will consider a ballot initiative in November on a law nearly identical to those in the Pacific Northwest, but high-profile legalization efforts have failed in California, Hawaii and Maine.

Oregon put its Death With Dignity Act in place in 1997, and Washington’s law went into effect in 2009. Some officials worried that thousands of people would migrate to both states for the drugs.

“There was a lot of fear that the elderly would be lined up in their R.V.’s at the Oregon border,” said Barbara Glidewell, an assistant professor at Oregon Health and Science University.

That has not happened, although the number of people who have taken advantage of the law has risen over time. In the first years, Oregon residents who died using drugs they received under the law accounted for one in 1,000 deaths. The number is now roughly one in 500 deaths. At least 596 Oregonians have died that way since 1997. In Washington, 157 such deaths have been reported, roughly one in 1,000.

In Oregon, the number of men and women who have died that way is roughly equal, and their median age is 71. Eighty-one percent have had cancer, and 7 percent A.L.S., which is also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. The rest have had a variety of illnesses, including lung and heart disease. The statistics are similar in Washington.

There were fears of a “slippery slope” — that the law would gradually expand to include those with nonterminal illnesses or that it would permit physicians to take a more active role in the dying process itself. But those worries have not been borne out, experts say.

Dr. Wesley, a pulmonologist and critical care physician, voted for the initiative when it was on the ballot in 2008, two years after he retired. “All my career, I believed that whatever makes people comfortable at the end of their lives is their own choice to make,” he said.

But Dr. Wesley had no idea that his vote would soon become intensely personal.

In the months before the vote, he started having trouble lifting weights in the gym. He also noticed a hollow between his left thumb and index finger where muscle should be. A month after casting his vote, he received a diagnosis of A.L.S. Patients with the disease typically live no more than four years after the onset of symptoms, but the amount of time left to them can vary widely.

In the summer of 2010, after a bout of pneumonia and with doctors agreeing that he most likely had only six months to live, Dr. Wesley got his prescription for barbiturates. But he has not used them, and the progression of his disease has slowed, although he now sits in a wheelchair that he cannot operate. He has lost the use of his limbs and, as the muscles around his lungs weaken, he relies increasingly on a respirator. His speech is clear, but finding the air with which to talk is a struggle. Yet he has seized life. He takes classes in international politics at the University of Washington and savors time with his wife and four grown children.

In both Oregon and Washington, the law is rigorous in determining who is eligible to receive the drugs. Two physicians must confirm that a patient has six months or less to live. And the request for the drugs must be made twice, 15 days apart, before they are handed out. They must be self-administered, which creates a special challenge for people with A.L.S.

Dr. Wesley said he would find a way to meet that requirement, perhaps by tipping a cup into his feeding tube.

The reasons people have given for requesting physician-assisted dying have also defied expectations.

Dr. Linda Ganzini, a professor of psychiatry at Oregon Health and Science University, published a study in 2009 of 56 Oregonians who were in the process of requesting physician-aided dying.

“Everybody thought this was going to be about pain,” Dr. Ganzini said. “It turns out pain is kind of irrelevant.”

At the time of each of the 56 patients’ requests, almost none of them rated pain as a primary motivation. By far the most common reasons, Dr. Ganzini’s study found, were the desire to be in control, to remain autonomous and to die at home. “It turns out that for this group of people, dying is less about physical symptoms than personal values,” she said.

The proposed law in Massachusetts mirrors those in Oregon and Washington. According to a telephone survey conducted in May by the Polling Institute at Western New England University, 60 percent of the surveyed voters supported “allowing people who are dying to legally obtain medication that they could use to end their lives.”

“Support isn’t just from progressive Democrats, but conservatives, too,” said Stephen Crawford, a spokesman for the Dignity 2012 campaign in Massachusetts, which supports the initiative. “It’s even a libertarian issue. The thinking is the government or my doctor won’t control my final days.”

Such laws have influential opponents, including the Roman Catholic Church, which considers suicide a sin but was an early leader in encouraging terminal patients to consider hospice care. Dr. Christine K. Cassel, a bioethicist who is president of the American Board of Internal Medicine, credits the church with that effort. “But you can see why they can go right up to that line and not cross over it,” she said.

The American Medical Association also opposes physician-assisted dying. Writing prescriptions for the drugs is antithetical to doctors’ role as healers, the group says. Many individual physicians share that concern.

“I didn’t go into medicine to kill people,” said Dr. Kenneth R. Stevens, an emeritus professor of radiation oncology at Oregon Health and Science University and vice president of the Physicians for Compassionate Care Education Foundation.

Dr. Steven Kirtland, who has been Dr. Wesley’s pulmonologist for three years, said he had little hesitation about agreeing to Dr. Wesley’s request, the only prescription for the drugs that Dr. Kirtland has written.

“I’ve seen a lot of bad deaths,” Dr. Kirtland said. “Part of our job as physicians is to help people have a good death, and, frankly, we need to do more of that.”

Dr. Wesley’s wife, Virginia Sly, has come to accept her husband’s decision. Yet she does not want the pills in the house, and he agrees. “It just feels so negative,” she said. So the prescription remains at the pharmacy, with the drugs available within 48 hours.

There are no studies of the psychological effect of having a prescription on hand, but experts say many patients who have received one find comfort in knowing they have or can get the drugs. About a third of those who fill the prescription die without using it. “I don’t know if I’ll use the medication to end my life,” Dr. Wesley said. “But I do know that it is my life, it is my death, and it should be my choice.”

In Ill Doctor, a Surprise Reflection of Who Picks Assisted Suicide,
NYT,
11.8.2012,
https://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/12/
health/policy/in-ill-doctor-a-surprise-reflection-of-who-picks-assisted-suicide.html

 

 

 

 

 

Global Arms Sales

Dropped Sharply in 2010,

Study Finds

 

September 23, 2011

The New York Times

By THOM SHANKER

 

WASHINGTON — The global economic crisis may set off upheaval and even unrest, but the ability of the world’s governments to buy new military hardware was sharply curtailed last year by strains on their national treasuries, according to a new Congressional study.

Worldwide arms sales in 2010 totaled $40.4 billion, a drop of 38 percent from the $65.2 billion in arms deals signed in 2009 and the lowest total since 2003, the study found.

Even in this tight market, the United States maintained its dominating position in the global arms bazaar, signing $21.3 billion in worldwide arms sales, or 52.7 percent of all weapons deals, a drop from $22.6 billion in 2009.

Russia was second with $7.8 billion in arms sales in 2010, or 19.3 percent of the market, compared with $12.8 billion in 2009. Following the United States and Russia in sales were France, Britain, China, Germany and Italy.

Developing nations continued to be the primary focus of foreign arms sales, according to the report, by the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service, a division of the Library of Congress. The annual study is considered the most detailed collection of unclassified global arms sales data available to the public.

The report found that the total value of arms transfer deals with developing nations last year was $30.7 billion, or 76.2 percent of worldwide deals. That was a drop from $49.8 billion in 2009.

India, which signed $5.8 billion in weapons transfer deals, was the top purchaser in the developing world last year, followed by Taiwan with $2.7 billion in agreements and Saudi Arabia with $2.2 billion in deals. Other major purchasers were Egypt, Israel, Algeria, Syria, South Korea, Singapore and Jordan.

The United States was not only the largest weapons supplier last year, but also the main source of weapons to the developing world, accounting for about $14.9 billion of these deals — or 48.6 percent. That was a striking rise from 2009, when its sales of $15.1 billion to developing nations accounted for 30.3 percent of the market.

Russia was second in arms deals with developing nations last year, signing $7.6 billion in agreements, or about 24.7 percent.

“Worldwide weapons sales declined generally in 2010 in response to the constraints created by the tenuous state of the global economy,” wrote Richard F. Grimmett, a specialist in international security at the Congressional Research Service and author of the study.

“In view of budget difficulties faced by many purchasing nations, they chose to defer or limit the purchase of new major weapons systems,” he wrote. “Some nations chose to limit their buying to upgrades of existing systems or to training and support services.”

To compare weapons sales over various years, the study used figures in 2010 dollars, with amounts for previous years adjusted for inflation to give a constant financial measurement.

Global Arms Sales Dropped Sharply in 2010, Study Finds,
NYT,
23.9.2011,
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/24/
world/global-arms-sales-dropped-sharply-in-2010-study-finds.html

 

 

 

 

 

In Turnabout,

Infant Deaths Climb in South

 

April 22, 2007

The New York Times

By ERIK ECKHOLM

 

HOLLANDALE, Miss. — For Ø decades

[ durant / pendant plusieurs décennies ],

Mississippi and neighboring states

with large black populations and expanses of enduring poverty

made [ prétérit ] steady progress in reducing infant death.

 

But, in what health experts call an ominous portent,

progress has stalled [ present perfect ]

and in recent years

the death rate has risen [ present perfect ]

in Mississippi and several other states.

In Turnabout, Infant Deaths Climb in South,
NYT,
22.4.2007,
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/health/22infant.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise > Niveau avancé

 

prépositions + N

 

 

present perfect (have + p. passé) > marqueurs de temps