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grammaire anglaise > prépositions >  topréposition + N > sens et valeurs


topréposition (déjà dit, reprise, reférenciation) + N



toviseur, inédit -> Base Verbale









Alabama Lawmakers Move Toviseur, inédit Outlaw Abortion

In Challenge Topréposition (déjà dit, reprise, reférenciation) Roe V. Wade



Ce podcast est publié

le 1er mai 2019 par NPR :


à cette date,

aux USA,

tout le monde sait

que les Républicains

sont engagés

depuis plusieurs années

dans une lutte

contre le droit des femmes

à l'avortement.


Challenge To Roe V. Wade :

ce nom complexe

n'apporte rien de nouveau

aux auditeurs de NPR.


Par contre,


des législateurs de l'Alabama

est une information,

d'où l'utilisation de

toviseur :


Alabama Lawmakers Move Toviseur Outlaw Abortion















quelle que soit sa traduction,

topréposition (déjà dit, reprise, reférenciation) + N

a pour valeurs :


reprise d'un segment discursif

supposé / présupposé déjà dit,

déjà connu / archi-connu,

prévisible, non surprenant


cliché, lieu commun, repère,

information connue, attendue,

fait de société




I thought

you were committed

topréposition conserving natural resources.




U.S. Surgeon General Says

Working Together Is

Key Topréposition Combating Opioid Crisis
















toviseur, inédit -> Base Verbale



information inédite,



fiction / mise en scène

du jamais-dit,

de l'énonciation première,

de l'inédit,

de l'instant discursif zéro,

de l'information



Microsoft President To Trump:

Toviseur Deport A DREAMer,

You'll Have To Go Through Us











autres énoncés

































































I need toviseur wander,

toviseur get wild once in a while.






I need to wander, to get wild once in a while.



I thought

you were committed

topréposition conserving natural resources.



Freshly Squeezed

 by Ed Stein

June 19/20, 2014















toviseur, inédit -> Base Verbale



topréposition (déjà dit, reprise, reférenciation) + N





à ne pas confondre

ces 2 structures :


Man [ is ] To
viseur Plead

Guilty Topréposition Buying Weapons Used

In San Bernardino Attack

NPR, February 15, 2017






















For Parents Who Have Lost A Baby,

Some Aid In Their Grapple With Grief

NPR    August 20, 2016    5:24 PM ET


Parents who lose a baby

to [ sens causal ] miscarriage or stillbirth

often feel like they're going through it alone,

but the experience is actually common.


About 1 in 5 pregnancies ends in a miscarriage,

and every year tens of thousands of babies

are stillborn.





















#NeverTrump Candidate McMullin

Envisions A Country Of Understanding And Respect

NPR    August 20, 2016    5:00 AM ET


We have a presidential candidate in our studios.

Evan McMullin is 40 years old. He's from Provo, Utah.


He's worked

for the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees,

the CIA, Goldman Sachs and as chief policy director

of the House Republican Conference.


He's an independent candidate for president,

considered by many

to be an alternative to [ traduction :à ] Donald Trump

for conservative voters.




We need to get serious about defeating ISIS,

we just aren't serious about it yet,

I would be very serious about getting it done,

I know how to do it.


We need to take the fight to them

on the battlefield in a more serious way.


We also need to be more seriously

committed [ ADJ ] to fighting the ideological battle,

this is a battle of ideas just as much

as it is a traditional battle on the field.














































To Trump,

[ pour ]

Even Losing Is Winning


AUG. 19, 2016





People run for the presidency for all sorts of reasons.

But Donald J. Trump may be the first to run

because he sees a presidential campaign

as the best way to attract attention to himself.

There seems to be no other driving passion in him,

certainly not the passion to govern.


He isn’t an ideologue like Ted Cruz,

an opportunist like Marco Rubio,

a movement builder like Bernie Sanders,

a political legatee like Jeb Bush

or a policy wonk like Hillary Clinton.

For all of them — for any serious candidate —

attention is a byproduct of a campaign, not its engine.

For Mr. Trump, attention is the whole shebang.


That may be the lesson of his campaign

“shake up” earlier this week.

The shift is from politics to grabbing attention,

and, quite possibly,

from winning the election to winning the defeat,

which is how he has spent practically his entire career.


Mr. Trump, the real estate magnate, is, after all,

the master of taking a property, squeezing out the profit

and leaving it for dead,

then miraculously turning the loss to his advantage.

A failing building or a failing Republican Party:

To Mr. Trump, it may be the same thing.


Attention has always been the foundation

of Mr. Trump’s modus operandi.

Basically, he sells his name: Trump steaks,

Trump water, Trump University.

You have to hand it to him, though.

He discovered that, in a celebrity society like ours,

where so many people are competing for attention,

running for president puts you a leg up

even on the Kardashians.


The demotion of Mr. Trump’s first campaign manager,

Corey Lewandowski, and the elevation of his second,

Paul Manafort, was supposed to be a political decision.

Mr. Manafort was acclaimed as a veteran strategist, a pro,

who could facilitate Mr. Trump’s so-called pivot

from primary firebrand to general election Solon

and make him palatable [ adjectif ] to mainstream America.

Not incidentally, Mr. Manafort would also professionalize

the campaign, coordinate with the Republican National Committee,

set up a field operation and devise a ground game.

To Trump, Even Losing Is Winning,
Aug. 19, 2016,
















The Guardian        p. 28        26 January 2009


















The Guardian        p. 16        2 July 2007

















The Guardian        p. 7        5 April 2006

















The Guardian        Money        p. 14        25.3.2006












































The Guardian        p. 22        17 January 2007















Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


prépositions + N



adjectif / adverbe + topréposition + N



from, from ... to



back to




ajout, destination, destinataire, cible, objectif




danger, menace, crise








comparaison, opposition




différenciation, contraste



topréposition > focalisation

when it comes topréposition (reprise) + N



adjectif / adverbe + topréposition (reprise) + N



close to



next to



traduction > toviseur > pour / de / à




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