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grammaire anglaise > syntaxe et sens


-ing > participe-ing > portée


N + participe-ing  =  GN complexe




being born with three biological parents


children being born with three biological parents




are seeking permission to carry out experiments

that would result in children being born

with three biological parents.

UK medical authorities say

they will almost certainly approve

the application in the next few weeks.






-ing > participe-ing > portée >sens


catégorisation, détermination,

description, information supplémentaire...




Lorsqu'il vise N ,

la séquence-ing

a une fonction qualificative / descriptive

ou déterminante.



Cette qualification  peut être d'ordre :


- permanent :



- contingent (circonstanciel, provisoire, éphémère) :

3-4-5-6, Une, photo d'actualité et publicité



1 -    For many,

it is a region set apart from the rest of the north,

let alone the rest of England;

fiercely proud, often parodied,

sometimes insular and over-romanticised

- and suspicious of a capital 300 miles away

where many still trek for work.


Stretching across mountain, moor, national park

and spectacular countryside from the Tweed to the Tees,

with a dialect in its heartland that many cannot fathom

- it has a distinctive heritage and culture

going back to St Cuthbert,

an emerging patron saint who underpinned

the identity of the old Northumbrian kingdom.

Northern exposure:
On the eve of the referendum for self-rule in England's north-east,
Peter Hetherington asks what constitutes regional identity -
and those born in the area give their verdict,






2 -     A life-size nude by Lucian Freud of one of the world's

most admired and photographed women will go on sale next year.


Lucian Freud's Naked Portrait 2002 shows

a pregnant Kate Moss draped over a bed,

her head resting lightly on her left arm.


With rounded belly

and a discreet little fold of skin beneath her right breast,

this is a magnificent, voluptuous, flesh-and-blood Moss,

hardly the wispy, ethereal creature

she often appears in photographs.


Her face recedes into the background

and her calves are prominently displayed;

this is Moss as few have ever seen her.

£3m estimate on Freud portrait of Kate Moss,






3 -    Four days before the US presidential election,

a new videotape of Osama bin Laden surfaced yesterday,

with the al-Qaida leader admitting responsibility

for the first time for the September 11, 2001 attacks,

and threatening new strikes against America.

Bin Laden warning to America,






4 -    Excluding the costs of the legal settlement,

third-quarter earnings exceeded analysts' estimates.



"Si l'on voit les choses de telle manière",

les revenus se définissent ainsi :

third-quarter earnings exclude

the costs of the legal settlement

(énoncé théorique / non formulé).






5 -    Arafat Opens Eyes, Communicating

- Israeli Report


Sat Nov 6, 2004

03:18 AM ET


JERUSALEM (Reuters) -

Palestinian President Yasser Arafat

has partially emerged from his coma in a French hospital,

opening his eyes


communicating with his doctors


[ ces participes -ing qualifiants visent Nsujet ] ,


an Israeli newspaper Web site said Saturday

citing Palestinian sources


[ participe-ing, relatif à la proposition GNsujet + V

n Israeli newspaper Web site said,

ce participe apporte apporte une information

supplémentaire d'ordre circonstanciel ].


YNET, the Web site of the leading Israeli daily Yediot Ahronoth,

quoted a senior Palestinian official who visited Arafat overnight

as saying the president had regained some control

of his limbs and was seen moving in bed


[ 1 - se rapporte à

a senior Palestinian official who visited Arafat overnight .


2 - le participe ing qualifiant moving in bed

qualifie  the president ] .



Palestinian envoy Leila Shahid said

Arafat was in a "reversible coma,"

countering earlier reports

that he had been declared brain-dead by doctors

at the French hospital to which he was admitted

with a stomach illness last week


[ le participe-ing met en contexte

l'information contenue dans la proposition subordonnée complétive

Arafat was in a "reversible coma,"


Traduction explicative : , démentant ainsi... ] .

Arafat Opens Eyes, Communicating - Israeli Report,
R, Sat Nov 6, 2004 03:18 AM ET,






6 -  WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

With the U.S. economy picking up steam,


[ moi-journaliste,

je vous donne l'état de l'économie américaine,

sa principale caractéristique.


picking up steam

est un participe-ing non déterminant / non catégorisant :

the U.S. economy est auto-déterminé,

il fait sens tout seul. ]


the year's fourth straight interest-rate hike looked like a certainty

at Wednesday's meeting of the Federal Reserve's

Open Market Committee, economists said.

    Fed Seen Likely to Raise Interest Rates, R, Wed Nov 10, 2004 02:03 AM ET,
















NoW        7 November 2004


















Readying for an expected attack on Falluja, Iraq,

United States marines practiced loading ambulances

Friday near the insurgent-held city.


NYT        6 November 2004

















The Guardian        p. 29        13 October 2005













Clé de voûte discursive,

le participe-ing déterminant est indispensable

car il participe au sens de l'énoncé.


Il ne peut donc être ni déplacé, ni supprimé

(voir autres exemples).


Postposé au nom (postposé = placé après),

le segment-ing fait partie intégrante d'un N complexe.


En 2, children est déterminé par

being born with three biological parents.


L'ensemble forme le N complexe




2 -    Scientists are seeking permission to carry out experiments

that would result in children being born with three

biological parents.

UK medical authorities say they will almost certainly approve

the application in the next few weeks.

Babies with three parents ahead,






3 -    Her story is harrowing - and familiar to many in Cambodia.

HIV infection rates in the country of 12 million people

are just under 3 per cent, the highest in Asia.


Almost everyone sitting in the clinic corridor has the virus.

Aids, the new killer in the fields:
A nation still recovering from years of political bloodletting,
Cambodia is being weakened by a new scourge,
O, 17.10.2004,






4 -    WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

A pharmacology professor

testifying in the U.S. government's $280 billion suit

against the cigarette industry

said on Monday he quit working

as an expert witness for a tobacco trade group

after it pressured him to be more of an advocate.

Professor Says Pressured to Be Tobacco Advocate,
R, Mon Oct 25, 2004 07:28 PM ET,






5 -    Australian police investigating the death of a British

tourist whose body was found in the Outback today

believe she may have got lost while trying to walk 20km back

to her hotel at night.

Outback tourist 'may have got lost',
G, 27.10.2004,










Le participe-ing

a souvent une valeur adjectivale :

il qualifie un nom.


Lorsque c'est le cas,

un simple déplacement

suffit à le transformer en adjectif,

antéposé au nom qu'il contribue à déterminer (§ 1) :



Kerry leaves

Bush scowling [ participe -ing ]


John Kerry was yesterday widely declared

the winner of the first presidential debate,

after an aggressive performance left

a scowling [ adjectif -ing ] President George Bush

sometimes groping for words.

Headline and §1,






Quake Measuring 6.4 Hits Central Iran


[ participe -ing, qualifie / catégorise quake ]


TEHRAN, Iran (AP) --

A powerful earthquake shook central Iran on Tuesday,

destroying villages and killing at least 14 people,

state-run television reported.

An official in the city of Kerman said the powerful 6.4-magnitude

killed at least 14 people and scores of others were injured,

according to the broadcast.

Headline and first §§,
NYT, 22.2.2005,










Rappel :


Le participe-ing est appelé "participe"

parce qu'il participe à / dépend d'un / renvoie à N :


WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

President Bush and Democratic Sen. John Kerry

traded attacks in New Mexico on Monday,

with Bush saying Kerry fundamentally misunderstands

the war on terror

and Kerry charging the president favors the rich and powerful

over the middle class.


[ ces 2 participes-ing ne déterminent pas N :

en 2004, tous les lecteurs / lectrices savent

qui sont Bush et Kerry ]

    Kerry, Bush Trade Charges in New Mexico, R, Mon Oct 11, 2004 03:50 PM ET,















Illustration ci-dessous :


    the Smart-1 spacecraft    <-    leaving Earth for the moon




An artist's impression

of the Smart-1 spacecraft leaving Earth for the moon


[ ce participe-ing ne détermine pas N :

il apporte une information circonstancielle

relative à N ]



The Guardian        p.13        8 September 2004















VANCOUVER, Wash. (Reuters) -

Scientists tracking renewed earthquake activity

at Mount St. Helens

tracking renewed earthquake activity at Mount St. Helens

détermine / catégorise scientists ]

raised their warning level on Saturday to a Level 3-Volcano Alert,

signaling a second eruption may be brewing.

    Eruption Warning at Mount St. Helens -- Scientists, R, Sat Oct 2, 2004 07:42 PM ET,









participe-ing  ≠  séquence nominale-ing autonome


équivalences théoriques




Un participe-ing peut déterminer N.




dealing with abuse

vise et détermine medics.



L'ensemble forme le GN complexe catégorisant




Equivalence théorique de Protecting children :

The fact of protecting.



Protecting children puts doctors at risk


Threats and violence face medics dealing with abuse


Threats, violence and unjustified complaints

against doctors and other health professionals

are driving them out of the area of child abuse,


[ séquence Nsujet + be + -ing ]


leaving vulnerable children potentially unprotected,



[ participe-ing leaving vulnerable children potentially unprotected :

information supplémentaire,

effet, conséquence de l'information

contenue dans la proposition principale

Threats, violence and unjustified complaints

against doctors and other health professionals

are driving them out of the area of child abuse, ]


surveys showed yesterday.

Headline, and sub,















séquence -ing > ing -> N


sémantisme        détermination        syntaxe        style


séquence difficilement / non déplaçable





Woman Ironing    1955

Fermin Rocker

30cm x 43cm ( approx 12" x 17" )

Watercolour / Gouache













1 - Déplacer entering Israel,

qui vise et détermine 4 militants,

créerait un contre-sens :


???    Entering Israel Israeli Soldiers kill 4 militants.


Un participe -ing déterminant n'est pas mobile,

puisqu'il fait partie intégrante d'un N complexe :

4 militants entering Israel.



1 - Israeli Soldiers Kill 4 Militants Entering Israel


Sat Oct 2, 2004

01:33 AM ET

GAZA (Reuters) -

Israeli troops shot dead four Palestinian gunmen

who were infiltrating Israel's border with northern Gaza,

witnesses said, as the army continued a wide-scale offensive

in the area to weed out rocket launchers.

A military source said soldiers had received earlier information

about militants who planned to infiltrate into southern Israel

and carry out an attack in a town in the area.

Troops spotted four gunmen wearing explosives belts

cutting through the border fence,

and killed them, the source said.

    Headline and first §§, R, 2.10.2004,






Polls show the race is extraordinarily close,

with a flurry of surveys showing a dead heat nationally

and contradictory polls indicating most of the 10 hardest

fought battleground states could tip either way.

    Bush and Kerry Face Verdict of Voters, R, Tue Nov 2, 2004 01:31 AM ET,






Last week's seizure

of material belonging to anti-globalisation websites

could have serious consequences for citizen publishers.

Bobbie Johnson reports

Heavy hand of the law,






Occupants of car seen near shooting

are urged to 'look in mirror',

amid call to protect bystanders giving evidence

School leads mourning for gun victim,



















Along with a Wisconsin 'cheesehead' cowboy hat,

a young woman wears

a shirt showing her support for the Republican Party

during a rally for President George W. Bush

in Milwaukee, November 1, 2004.

Bush and Democratic nominee John Kerry

are making a final push

through a handful of crucial swing states today

in a last-ditch hunt for the votes

that could break open

a deadlocked White House race.


Photo by Kevin Lamarque/Reuters.


Kerry, Bush Make Final Bid in Key States,


Mon Nov 1, 2004 11:30 AM ET

newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=0QE4GYPN5YIIQCRBAEKSFEY?type=topNews&storyID=6677840  - broken link

















An Iraqi man is brought to the hospital

after a car bomb exploded

in Mosul October 5, 2004.


British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw

made a surprise visit to Iraq on Tuesday,

with violence and kidnapping

overshadowing plans for elections in January.

[ conséquence, effet ]


Photo by Ceerwan Aziz/Reuters


Tue Oct 5, 2004    10:09 AM ET




















carrying electricity from BE-owned Sizewell B power station,



The Guardian        p. 21        22 September 2004














Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


formes -ing



séquence -ing -> portée > proposition (SVO) >

sens : conséquence, résultat



-ing > valeur adjectivale d'un segment -ing



-ing > question > valeur > présupposition




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