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grammaire anglaise > syntaxe et sens > -ing

 

participe-ing

 

Sur le plan sémantique,

un participe-ing

peut ressembler à N-ing,

mais sur le plan grammatical,

il ne joue pas

le même rôle que N-ing :

 

un participe-ing

n'est ni sujet, ni objet.

 

 

 

-ing sujet ou objet

 

 

 

 

 

rappel :

 

N

symbolise toutes les

formes nominales :

 

nom, groupe nominal,

nom-ing, groupe nominal-ing,

pronom.

 

 

 

 

 

participe-ing

 

Having listened to Lisa's plan,

Flash Gordon takes off into the coming dawn.

 

 

 

 

N-ing sujet ou objet

 

Using the rocket cycle's hologram device... [ N-ing sujet ]

make [ sic ] them believe!

 

 

 

 

Having listened to Lisa's plan,

Flash Gordon takes off into the coming dawn.

 

 

With Flash's warnings of the coming invasion

having been met with disbelief...

 

 

Using the rocket cycle's hologram device...

make [ sic ] them believe!

 

 

Flash Gordon        Jim Keefe        10.10.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/fgordon/about.htm - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Having listened to Lisa's plan,

 

participe-ing antéposé,

apporte une information supplémentaire au N.

 

Ce participe-ing ne détermine pas N :

 

Flash Gordon

est un nom propre autodéterminé,

bien connu des lecteurs / lectrices.

 

 

 

 

 

having been met with disbelief

 

participe-ing postposé,

indispensable au sens,

- ne peut être supprimé -

relatif à / relié à

Flash's warnings of the coming invasion

 

 

 

 

Using the rocket cycle's hologram device...

N-ing sujet de make  [ sic ].

 

Indispensable au sens de l'énoncé,

N-ing ne peut être supprimé.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syntaxe

(= nombre et ordre des mots dans l'énoncé).

 

Le participe-ing peut être

antéposé (placé avant)

ou

postposé (placé après).

 

 

 

Guessing his mom is hiding in their family cabin at Honey Lake,

Danny Oberlin convinces...


Steve Roper and Mike Nomad        Fran Matera        13.10.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/sroper/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andy,

seeing his new friend in trouble,

dives into the water..?

 

Ici le participe-ing :

 

- fonctionne comme un gros plan

sur l'un des éléments de l'action /

attire l'attention du lecteur sur cet élément

 

- explique pourquoi le sujet agit.


Mark Trail        Jack Elrod        29 September 2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/mtrail/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case 1

 

Possessing incredible "spider-powers",

Peter Parker uses his scientific wizardry

to create an artificial web-shooter...

 

Spiderman        Stan Lee        17.10.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/spidermn/about.htm

 

 

 

Lorsqu'il porte sur N,

le participe-ing

peut être qualifiant :

il rappelle une qualité / caractéristique de N.

 

 

Case 1 :

 

Possessing incredible "spider-powers"

est un élément qualifiant,

mais non déterminant :

les lecteurs et les lectrices

savent qui est Peter Parker / Spider-Man.

 

 

Ce participe-ing

porte sur Peter Parker

et rappelle une qualité

de ce personnage bien connu.

 

 

Elément non indispensable :

ce participe-ing

ne détermine pas Peter Parker,

nom propre autodéterminé,

bien connu.

 

 

 

Case 2

 

making him master of the city's roof tops

fait comprendre l'importance / lé resultat de

a simple device.

 

Il s'agit d'un élément qualifiant / résultatif :

ce dispositif tout simple permet à Spiderman

de "régner" sur les toits de la ville.

 

Traduction explicative :

un dispositif simple,

qui fait de lui le maître des toits.

 

Ce segment -ing

n'est pas indispensable

car il pourrait être supprimé

et remplacé par trois points de suspension :

l'image parle d'elle-même,

est suffisamment "parlante".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syntaxe

 

Antéposé (placé avant)

ou postposé (placé après)

ne signifie pas nécessairement

juxtaposé (place à côté de).

 

Ci-dessous,

le participe-ing,

qui détermine / catégorise New evidence,

est postposé et séparé de ce groupe nominal

par un Groupe Verbal (GV) au present perfect :

 

New evidence has emerged

linking Jeffrey Archer to the alleged conspirators

behind the attempted coup in Equatorial Guinea.

New Archer link to coup plot alleged,
G,
13.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/oct/13/
world.equatorialguinea

 

 

Enoncé théorique :

New evidence linking Jeffrey Archer

to the alleged conspirators

behind the attempted coup in Equatorial Guinea

has emerged.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Participe-ing > Portée

 

Le participe-ing peut porter sur N

(1-2 : The recently released film Alfie,

third-quarter earnings) :

 

1 -    The recently released film Alfie,

starring the actor Jude Law and slated by the critics

 

[ complément d'information qualifiant,

non déterminant, non essentiel ;

sans cette incise / cet insert,

l'énoncé ferait quand même sens ],

 

has been voted among the worst movie remakes of all time.

Remakes fail to inspire public imagination,
G,
1.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/nov/01/
film.filmnews

 

 

 

 

 

2 -    NEW YORK (Reuters) -

International Business Machines Corp.

on Monday posted a flat quarterly net profit,

weighed down by a legal settlement,

but said fourth-quarter results would be better than expected,

and its shares rose 2.3 percent.



Excluding the costs of the legal settlement,

third-quarter earnings exceeded analysts' estimates.

 

The company also said

full-year earnings would top Wall Street estimates,

indicating that fourth-quarter profit would be better

than expected

[ ce participe-ing ne détermine

ni company ni Wall Street estimates.

Il s'agit d'une information supplémentaire

relative aux bénéfices du 4e trimestre ] .

 

Third-quarter net income for the Armonk,

New York-based company rose to $1.80 billion,

or $1.06 per share, from $1.79 billion,

or $1.02 per share, a year-earlier.

Net revenue rose 9 percent to $23.4 billion,

squarely in line with Wall Street forecasts,

according to a survey by Reuters Estimates.

 

Excluding the benefit of the weak dollar

[ traduction explicative :

si l'on ne prend pas en compte

les avantages apportés par la faiblesse du dollar.

Il s'agit d'un commentaire,

d'une contextualisation de l'énonciateur ],

which boosts the value of overseas sales

when they are converted into dollars,

revenue grew 5 percent.

 

Excluding the pension charges,

[ traduction explicative :

sans prendre en compte les frais liés aux retraites ]

IBM recorded an operating profit of $1.17 a share,

driven by improving profit margins

in its computer services business

as well as its long-struggling semiconductor unit.

IBM Net Flat; Sees Strong Fourth Quarter,
R,
Mon Oct 18, 2004 07:39 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;
jsessionid=BDZ1GLO0KAHS0CRBAE0CFFA?type=businessNews&storyID=6534525

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Un participe-ing

peut aussi se référer à une proposition.

 

Proposition = Sujet + Vintransitif (SV),

ou

Sujet + Vtransitif + Objet (SVO)

 

 

Le sens de l'ensemble en -ing

est d'ordre explicatif / significatif / résultatif / conséquentiel.

 

Un participe-ing peut également indiquer le moyen utilisé

pour réaliser l'action envisagée dans la proposition principale.

 

Dans ces cas, le participe -ing est essentiel au sens,

et il ne peut donc être supprimé.

 

 

Traduction explicative :

 

ce qui signifie, ce qui marque, ce qui veut dire que,

ce qui semble indiquer, ce qui a provoqué,

s'est soldé par, faisant / provoquant...

 

 

Exemples :

 

Lessons Unlearned on Rail Safety

 

December 3, 2013

The New York Times

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

 

When a Metro-North train jumped the tracks

in the Bronx on Sunday morning,

killing four people and injuring more than 70,

 

[ ce participe -ing

ne détermine / catégorise pas a Metro-North train,

il exprime l'effet, la conséquence

de la cause contenue dans la proposition

When a Metro-North train jumped the tracks

in the Bronx on Sunday morning ].

 

 

it was going 82 miles per hour, on a 30 m.p.h. curve.

Why it hit that horrific speed

— whether because the engineer

was sleeping, distracted or incapacitated,

or because of some catastrophic mechanical failure —

is a question for the National Transportation Safety Board,

the Metropolitan Transportation Authority,

which runs Metro-North,

and criminal investigators and prosecutors.

Lessons Unlearned on Rail Safety, NYT, 3.12.2013,
https://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/04/
opinion/lessons-unlearned-on-rail-safety.html 

 

 

 

 

 

Tesco says so many adults are sexing up

the annual fright night that sales have hit £100m,

making it a party second only to new year

 

[ appréciation, mise en en relation, commentaire :

ce qui fait de Halloween la deuxième fête

la plus commerciale de l'année ]

Halloween tricks turn to retail treat,
G,
28.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/business/2004/oct/28/
supermarkets.shopping 

 

 

 

 

 

Bill Clinton,

the perennial Comeback Kid of American politics,

returned from his sick bed to centre stage yesterday,

proving that his ailing, quadruply-bypassed heart

is still in the fight.

 

[ appréciation :

voici ce que signifie le retour de Clinton

sur le devant de la scène ]

Thinner and frailer,
the Comeback Kid puts heart into Kerry's campaign,
G,
25.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/26/
uselections2004.usa2 

 

 

 

 

 

She dialled 999,

pleading with police to come and calm down

her raging husband

[ description de l'action du référent du sujet ].

 

When she hung up before giving all her details,

police traced the call and a domestic violence unit

rushed to the couple's north London home

to find Dan had already left.

TV Gail Porter: I called cops over fight with my hubby Dan,
NoW,
31.10.2004,
http://www.newsoftheworld.co.uk/
story_pages/showbiz/showbiz1.shtml - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

The clocks go back today,

signalling the start of winter

 

[ explication :

si l'on perd une heure aujourd'hui,

c'est que c'est le début de l'heure d'hiver ].

 

From log cabins to castles

 Liz Edwards picks 15 cosy retreats for hibernation holidays

Baby, it's cold outside ...,
O,
31.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2004/oct/31/
hotels.observerescapesection 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW YORK (Reuters) -

The U.S. manufacturing sector expanded last month,

although at a slower pace than economists had forecast,

a report showed on Monday,

suggesting the economic recovery remains on track,

though not at full steam.

 

[ moi journaliste,

je vous donne le sens d'une donnée statistique :

l'industrie américaine a légèrement progressé,

donc cela signifie que la reprise continue ]

Manufacturing Up Less Than Expected,
R,
Mon Nov 1, 2004 01:00 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=businessNews&storyID=6678692 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

Police were searching for two teenage assailants last night

who launched a series of brutal attacks

on gay men along London's South Bank,

leaving one dead and at least four others injured

 

[ conséquence de la proposition en who ;

il s'agit ici d'un constat,

et non d'un commentaire ]

Gay man killed on South Bank,
G,
1.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/nov/01/
ukcrime.gayrights 

 

 

 

 

 

Insurgents mounted fresh attacks in Baghdad today,

killing a senior oil ministry official and an American soldier

and

kidnapping a Lebanese-American contractor.

 

[ conséquences, résultats de la proposition principale,

constats ]

Insurgents strike in Baghdad:
Oil ministry official killed / US soldier killed by bomb / US contractor kidnapped,
G,
3.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/nov/03/
iraq

 

 

 

 

 

WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

Republicans,

having expanded their control of Congress,

[ définition de l'état / la force politique du référent du sujet ]

 

were positioned on Wednesday to provide greater help

to President Bush to push a stepped-up conservative agenda

in his second term.

Republican Congress Set to Push Bush Agenda,
R,
Wed Nov 3, 2004 12:50 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=6704093

 

 

 

 

 

Ever the dutiful soldier, John Kerry delivered

the most painful speech of his life yesterday,

choking back the tears and the bitter aftertaste of defeat

 

[ description de l'action du référent du sujet ]

as he appealed to fellow Democrats

- and his rival George Bush -

to work to heal America's divide.

 

Amid the raw emotions that occasionally overwhelmed him,

forcing Mr Kerry to gaze up at the ceiling for composure,

 

[ description de l'action / émotion du référent du sujet ]

 

the senator apologised to his dejected supporters

for coming up short, but said it was time to admit defeat.



He had done so in a brief phone call to President Bush

earlier in the morning, praising his opponent,

but urging him to heal the divisions in the country.

 

[ description de l'action faite par le référent du sujet ]



It was a theme he took up in his concession speech,

saying it was imperative to banish

the rancour of the past four years

 

[ description de l'action faite par le référent du sujet ]

 

- especially while America remained at war.

Tearful Kerry leaves best speech to the bitter end,
G,
4.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/nov/04/
uselections2004.usa9 

 

 

 

 

 

WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

Fewer Americans filed jobless claims last week

and worker productivity slowed sharply in the third quarter,

government data showed on Thursday,

hinting at better conditions in the country's

sluggish labor market.

 

[ appréciation :

moi qui écris,

je vous donne la signification possible

de ces deux données économiques,

voilà comment je vois les choses ]

 

Financial markets took the data in stride,

with both the dollar

and benchmark U.S. 10-year Treasury bonds

hovering following the release,

[ description par l'énonciateur / l'énonciatrice

de l'état du référent des sujets

both the dollar and benchmark U.S. 10-year Treasury bonds

 

awaiting the more important October employment report

due out on Friday.

[ description de l'état du référent du sujet Financial markets

 

 

 

 

 

Van Rolls Into Conn. Pond,

Killing 3

 

July 5, 2007

Filed at 10:06 a.m. ET

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

 

BRIDGEPORT, Conn. (AP)

-- A 6-year-old boy was the lone survivor

of a minivan that rolled into a pond,

trapping him and three others for up to 25 minutes

 

[ conséquence de la principale ],

 

before police divers were able to pull them out.

The boy was in critical condition Thursday.

 

The minivan's driver, Michelle McIntosh,

had gotten out of the van and chased it,

screaming for help

[ information supplémentaire / circonstancielle ],

 

as it rolled 60 or 70 yards down a steep hill

at a park near her home Wednesday, police said.

She jumped in the van just before it went in the water, police said.

She and two other children, including her son David, were killed,

police said.

''It's a real tragedy for a family in Bridgeport,''

Mayor John Fabrizi said.

'A day of sorrow for all Bridgeporters.''

The four victims were trapped in 15 to 20 feet of water

for 20 to 25 minutes before members

of the Bridgeport police scuba team pulled them out.

Rescuers tried to revive them

before they were taken to hospitals, where they died.

The chief medical examiner's office

identified McIntosh and her son late Wednesday,

but did not identify the other children.

Police said all three children were younger than 7.

The 6-year-old boy who survived

was in critical condition at Yale-New Haven Hospital,

hospital spokesman Mark D'Antonio said Thursday.

Fire Battalion Chief Ismael Pomales said McIntosh

apparently had gotten out of the van to ask directions

to a holiday barbecue, but police would not confirm

that Wednesday night.

He said people nearby tried unsuccessfully to stop the van,

and that fire personnel were not able

to reach those trapped inside.

''It's horrible,'' Pomales said.

''We've had children die before.

That's probably one of the toughest things

for any rescue person to deal with.''

Blanch Arpie, a neighbor,

called the McIntoshes a close-knit family.

''It's breaking my heart,'' Arpie said. It's just horrible.''

Van Rolls Into Conn. Pond, Killing 3, NYT, 5.7.2007,
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-Van-Submerged.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le participe -ing qui renvoie à une proposition (SVO)

peut aussi apporter une information supplémentaire

non essentielle, d'ordre circonstanciel :

 

LOS ANGELES (Reuters) -

The orchestra conductor of Southern California's

landmark Crystal Cathedral committed suicide early on Friday,

shooting himself inside a barricaded storage room.

Conductor Kills Himself in California Cathedral,
R,
Fri Dec 17, 2004 09:36 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?
type=domesticNews&storyID=7129695 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lorsqu'il porte sur N,

le segment -ing a une fonction

qualificative / descriptive.

 

 

Cette qualification peut être d'ordre :

 

- permanent : 1-2

 

- contingent (provisoire, éphémère) : 3

 

 

1 -    For many,

it is a region set apart from the rest of the north,

let alone the rest of England; fiercely proud, often parodied,

sometimes insular and over-romanticised

- and suspicious of a capital 300 miles away

where many still trek for work.

Stretching across mountain, moor,

national park and spectacular

countryside from the Tweed to the Tees,

with a dialect in its heartland that many cannot fathom

- it has a distinctive heritage and culture going back

to St Cuthbert,

an emerging patron saint who underpinned

the identity of the old Northumbrian kingdom.

Northern exposure:
On the eve of the referendum for self-rule in England's north-east,
Peter Hetherington asks what constitutes regional identity -
and those born in the area give their verdict,
G,
27.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/oct/27/
guardiansocietysupplement.politics 

 

 

 

 

 

2 -     A life-size nude by Lucian Freud of one of the world's

most admired and photographed women will go on sale next year.

Lucian Freud's Naked Portrait 2002

shows a pregnant Kate Moss draped over a bed,

her head resting lightly on her left arm.

With rounded belly and a discreet little fold of skin

beneath her right breast,

this is a magnificent, voluptuous, flesh-and-blood Moss,

hardly the wispy, ethereal creature

she often appears in photographs.

Her face recedes into the background

and her calves are prominently displayed;

this is Moss as few have ever seen her.

£3m estimate on Freud portrait of Kate Moss,
G,
29.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/oct/29/
arts.artsnews 

 

 

 

 

 

3 -    Four days before the US presidential election,

a new videotape of Osama bin Laden surfaced yesterday,

with the al-Qaida leader admitting responsibility

for the first time for the September 11, 2001 attacks,

and threatening new strikes against America.

Bin Laden warning to America,
G,
30.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/30/
september11.uselections2004 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lorsque le participe -ing

se rapporte à l'ensemble d'une proposition (SVO),

il ne qualifie pas Nsujet.

 

 

Le participe -ing

peut apporter une information complémentaire,

ici sur les bénéfices (§ 2) :

 

Excluding the costs of the legal settlement,

third-quarter earnings exceeded analysts' estimates.

 

§ 2

The company also said full-year earnings would top

Wall Street estimates,

indicating that fourth-quarter profit would be better

than expected.

 

 

 

indicating that fourth-quarter profit

would be better than expected

ne définit / qualifie / détermine pas

the company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Participe-ing : un participe "présent" ?

 

Le verbe de la proposition de référence (SVO)

peut être au présent ou au passé

(les deux seuls temps de la langue anglaise),

ou à une forme verbale

exprimant l'idée de passé / présent / futur :

 

 

NEW YORK (Reuters) -

Stock futures slipped [ passé ] on Wednesday,

pointing to a weak market open, as firming oil prices

and a wide-reaching investigation

into the insurance and health industry

cast a shadow over Wall Street

Stocks Look to Open Weak as Oil Firms,
R, Wed Oct 20, 2004 07:01 AM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
XSZFH4VD1XQIECRBAE0CFFA?type=businessNews&storyID=6553684

 

 

 

 

 

Education:

Three students, two teachers and a head

share [ présent ]  their diaries,

offering a gripping set of insights into British education.

Observer web frontpage, 17.10.2004,
The education diaries... revisited.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Un participe-ing déterminant est indispensable.

 

Dans ce cas,

on ne peut ni le déplacer, ni le supprimer

(voir autres exemples).

 

Postposé au nom,

le participe-ing fait partie d'un groupe nominal complexe.

 

En 1,

children est déterminé / catégorisé

par being born with three biological parents.

 

L'ensemble forme le groupe nominal complexe

children-being-born-with-three-biological-parents

 

 

1 -    Scientists are seeking permission to carry out experiments

that would result in children being born

with three biological parents.

UK medical authorities say they will almost certainly approve

the application in the next few weeks.

Babies with three parents ahead, O, 17.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/oct/17/
genetics.health 

 

 

 

 

 

3 -    Her story is harrowing

- and familiar to many in Cambodia.

HIV infection rates in the country of 12 million people

are just under 3 per cent, the highest in Asia.

 

Almost everyone sitting in the clinic corridor has the virus.

Aids, the new killer in the fields:
A nation still recovering from years of political bloodletting,
Cambodia is being weakened by a new scourge,
O,
17.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/17/
aids.cambodia 

 

 

 

 

 

4 -    WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

A pharmacology professor

testifying in the U.S. government's $280 billion suit

against the cigarette industry said on Monday

he quit working as an expert witness for a tobacco trade group

after it pressured him to be more of an advocate.

Professor Says Pressured to Be Tobacco Advocate,
R,
Mon Oct 25, 2004 07:28 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=healthNews&storyID=6604581

 

 

 

 

 

5 -    Australian police

investigating the death of a British tourist

whose body was found in the Outback today

believe she may have got lost

while trying to walk 20km back to her hotel at night.

Outback tourist 'may have got lost',
G,
27.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/oct/27/
australia.world

 

 

 

 

 

6 -

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A l'inverse de N-ing,

séquence déterminée,

et qui sur le plan de la syntaxe

peut être utilisée seule,

ou comme

sujet, objet, complément...

 

 

 

Googling my brain

 [ séquence nominale-ing autonome ]

Headline,
G, 20.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/salon/
story/0,14752,1331700,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

Mutu denies using cocaine

 [ Nobjet ]

Headline and sub, G, 18.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/football/2004/oct/18/
newsstory.sport4 

 

 

 

 

 

N-ing peut compléter un groupe nominal.

 

L'ensemble forme un grouoe nominal complexe :

 

The government's policy

ofpréposition  [ préposition ]

handing key education services to the private sector

[ N-ing complément du GNgénitif The government's policy ]

came under renewed attack yesterday

after ministers confirmed

that a £177m contract has been awarded

to Britain's biggest outsourcing company, Capita.

Capita's school deal under fire, G, 2.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/oct/02/
privatefinance.schools
   

 

 

 

 

 

Installing and using the Desktop Search is simple:

you can visit the site and,

if you agree with the terms and conditions

and have 1GB of free space,

you can download the software in seconds.

Installing is easy, and an initial scan of your computer

is done swiftly.

Updates to the database are made when your computer

is not being used,

so it should not impinge upon your everyday work.

Seeking solutions:
Google has set the cat among the pigeons
with the release of its Desktop Search tool
which keeps track of the contents of your PC.
Bobbie Johnson reports,
G,
21.10.2004,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/
online/story/0,3605,1331537,00.html - broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

... le participe -ing,

qui permet notamment

à l'énonciateur / l'énonciatrice

de donner son avis,

d'apporter

une information supplémentaire,

porte sur N

ou

sur une proposition (SVO)

de référence :

 

 

 

 

 

In a balanced, multi-party parliamentary democracy,

Ralph Nader would have been a candidate

for secular sainthood.

 

He forced consumer protection

- physical and financial -

on to the public agenda in the 1960s,

saving thousands of lives and billions of dollars.

 

[ ce participe -ing porte sur la proposition

He forced consumer protection

- physical and financial -

on to the public agenda in the 1960s.

 

Valeur de ce participe -ing :

conséquence, effet, résultat ]

 

He championed freedom of information laws

that declared that public records belong to the people,

not to those who compile them.

His focus on corporate kleptocracy led to reforms

- albeit temporary - in political campaign finance.

Ralph Nader: Time to step aside,
headline and §1,
G,
20.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/20/
uselections2004.comment
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le participe -ing

peut avoir une valeur adjectivale :

il qualifie N.

 

Lorsque c'est le cas,

un simple déplacement suffit à le transformer en adjectif,

antéposé au nom qu'il contribue à déterminer (§ 1) :

 

 

Kerry leaves Bush scowling [ segment en -ing ]

 

§ 1 - John Kerry was yesterday widely declared

the winner of the first presidential debate,

after an aggressive performance left a

scowling [ ici adjectif épithète en -ing ]

President George Bush sometimes groping for words.

Headline and §1,
G,
2.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/02/
uselections2004.usa1 

 

 

 

 

 

Quake Measuring 6.4 Hits Central Iran

 

TEHRAN, Iran (AP) --

A powerful earthquake shook central Iran on Tuesday,

destroying villages and killing at least 14 people,

state-run television reported.

An official in the city of Kerman said

the powerful 6.4-magnitude killed at least 14 people

and scores of others were injured,

according to the broadcast.

Headline and first §§, NYT, 22.2.2005,
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/
international/AP-Iran-Earthquake.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le participe -ing

est appelé "participe" car il peut participer

à la définition de l'action effectuée

par le référent du  N / GN.

 

 

Dans les 2 participes-ing ci-dessous,

le segment -ing ne détermine / ne définit ni Bush ni Kerry,

noms propres bien connus des lecteurs / lectrices.

 

 

Chaque segment -ing apporte

une information contigente / circonstancielle

sur le président et le sénateur.

 

 

WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

President Bush and Democratic Sen. John Kerry

traded attacks in New Mexico on Monday,

with Bush saying Kerry fundamentally

misunderstands the war on terror

and Kerry charging the president favors

the rich and powerful over the middle class.

Kerry, Bush Trade Charges in New Mexico,
R,
Mon Oct 11, 2004 03:50 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=6470387

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le participe -ing

peut aussi renvoyer à une proposition (SVO)

(ci-dessous, noter les virgules qui encadrent le participe -ing,

re-présentation / commentaire de ce qui vient d'être dit ) :

 

SINGAPORE (Reuters)

- NYMEX crude kept close

to record highs near $54 early on Tuesday

as global oil supplies remained hounded by disruptions,

magnifying concerns over U.S. heating oil stocks

ahead of the winter, traders said.

    NYMEX Crude Near Highs Off $54, R, Mon Oct 11, 2004 11:11 PM ET,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    TPR2GJF2COTZACRBAE0CFEY?type=businessNews&storyID=6472449

 

 

 

 

 

NEW YORK (Reuters) -

U.S. stock futures rose steadily on Wednesday,

pointing to a strong market open,

with technology shares showing strength after Intel Corp.

and Yahoo Inc. reported solid quarterly earnings.

    Stocks Seen Higher on Techs; Oil Declines, R, Wed Oct 13, 2004 07:49 AM ET,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    FTOESO35BVDWQCRBAEKSFEY?type=businessNews&storyID=6487788

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autre exemple

d'un participe-ing

relatif à une proposition (SVO) :

 

Switches are accidentally triggered.

 

 

Dans le comics ci-dessous :

 

Switches are accidentally triggered...

[ cause ]

 

creating a hologram

the residents of this Boston neighborhood

will not soon forget!

[ effet, conséquence, résultat ]

 

 

 

 

 

creating a hologram

the residents of this Boston neighborhood

will not soon forget!

renvoie à

la proposition principale-causale

Switches are accidentally triggered...

 

Des commutateurs

se déclenchent par hasard,

créant / ce qui crée / ce qui a pour effet...

 

 

 

Flash Gordon        by Jim Keefe        12.9.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/fgordon/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

En résumé,

le participe-ing peut renvoyer à :

 

- l'ensemble du groupe nominal sujet d'une proposition

(1 > sens du participe-ing > circonstance)

 

 

- un élément du GN sujet

(2 > ssens du participe-ing > état)

 

 

- l'ensemble d'une proposition

(3 > sens du participe-ing > information statistique).

 

 

 

 

Syntaxe

 

On peut rencontrer un participe-ing

en début, en milieu ou en fin d'énoncé :

 

1 -    The rows over money and design

that have bedevilled Freedom Tower,

the skyscraper that will dominate

the site of New York's destroyed World Trade Centre,

were set aside yesterday

as a granite cornerstone was officially laid

on US Independence Day.

 

Unveiling the 20-ton slab of stone,

the governor of New York, George Pataki,

described it as "a new symbol of this city and this country

and of our resolve in the face of terror".

Authorities believe Freedom Tower

will be the world's tallest skyscraper

when it is completed in 2009.

The twisting glass and steel design

is meant to echo the Statue of Liberty,

with an 85-metre (280ft) spire resembling her torch.

 

Stretching 541 metres (1,776ft)

above the north-west corner of the World Trade Centre site,

it will also allude to the date of America's independence

from Britain - July 4 1776.

First stone laid at Freedom Tower,
G,
5.7.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jul/05/
september11.usa 

 

 

 

 

 

2 -    The acceleration in house prices,

now rising at more than 20% a year,

has already triggered calls for "shock therapy",

with some economists telling MPs yesterday

that the cost of borrowing should jump 50 basis points

to 4.75% immediately.

Industrial outlook is the best for years:
Manufacturing's upturn adds to the acceleration in house prices,
prompting an expected Bank of England assault on borrowing costs,
G,
9.6.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/business/2004/jun/09/
manufacturing.interestrates 

 

 

 

 

 

3 -    SINGAPORE (Reuters) -

Asian stocks edged higher on Tuesday

on increasing confidence in the U.S. and Japanese economies,

hitting a one-month peak in Tokyo

and pushing Japan's benchmark bond yield

to its highest level since the end of 2000.

Asian Stocks Gain on Economic Cheer, R, 7.6.2004,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
MXYCAWQOYAST4CRBAEZSFFA?type=businessNews&storyID=5366699 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syntaxe

 

Le participe-ing peut parfois être déplacé,

sauf exceptions,

parfois même hors de l'énoncé

où se trouve le groupe nominal de référence.

 

Un effet de style - focalisation, gros plan -

consiste à l'isoler ou à le postposer.

 

Ci-dessous, les 2 segments-ing

(Helping ensure... Providing you...)

sont placés après l'énoncé / le GN de référence

BT's decade of network expertise... :

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        p.11    9.9.2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian        G2        p.1        9 March 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quelle que soit sa place,

le participe-ing renvoie à N ou à une proposition (SVO).

 

Il dépend de / est relatif à l'un ou l'autre élément.

 

le participe-ing peut transmettre une information importante

(qualité / état, circonstance, conséquence, moyen, explication,

sens).

 

Cette information est relative

au GN

ou

à la proposition (SVO) de référence :

 

Two firearms officers opened fire at Mr Stanley,

believing a table leg he was carrying in a blue plastic bag

was a shotgun

[ explication :

le segment -ing donne la raison

de ce qui vient d'être dit

dans la proposition principale

Two firearms officers opened fire at Mr Stanley ].

Policemen may face charges after unlawful killing verdict, G, 30.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/oct/30/
ukcrime.immigrationpolicy  

 

 

Cette information n'est parfois pas nécessaire.

 

Dans certains cas,

l'énoncé resterait compréhensible sans le participe-ing.

 

Ci-dessous,

Using the monstrous...

pourrait être supprimé sans nuire au sens.

 

 

 

 

Flash Gordon        Jim Keefe        22.8.2004

http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/fgordon/about.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Par ailleurs,

la suppression du groupe nominal / de la proposition de référence

rendrait souvent le message incompréhensible

- à l'exception de certains comics,

où une partie de l'image / l'onomatopée - THOOM! -

est suffisamment informative.

 

 

Ci-dessus,

la suppression de la principale

Flash fires...

ne nuierait pas à la compréhension.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fonction grammaticale

 

Contrairement à N-ing,

le participe-ing n'est ni sujet, ni objet.

 

Enoncés 1 et 2 :

le participe-ing

(favouring television and computer games instead)

ne doit pas ici être confondu avec :

 

une structure en be + -ing (1)

 

N-ing (2a)

 

un adjectif-ing (2c)

 

 

 

1 -    Children in the UK are not reading enough at home,

favouring television and computer games instead,

according to new research

Children shun books for TV,
G,
15.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/education/2004/sep/15/
schools.uk2 

 

 

 

 

 

2 -    Sorrowful Blair urges unity

in face of Iraq terror threat

 

· PM praises 'dignified' Bigley family

and warns of media manipulation

· Battle against rebels

compared to dark days of Second World War

 

Tony Blair yesterday disclosed his 'immense' sorrow

for the plight of the hostage X.

But he issued a powerful plea for the nation

to back his firm stance

againstpréposition the uprising [ N-ing ]

in Iraq

or risk fuelling global terrorism [ N-ing ].

In his first public comments since the harrowing

[ adjectif -ing ]

tape was broadcast

ofpréposition  X pleading for the Prime Minister to save him

[ participe non déterminant,

postposé au nom propre Bigley ],

 

Blair warned of the kidnappers'

ability to 'manipulate the modern media',

which he admitted left politicians in a difficult position.

Headline, subs and first §§,
G,
26.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2004/sep/26/
iraq.labourconference 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participes-ing en série

 

 

 

Caught on film:

The sequence

showing a marine

[ ce participe-ing détermine sequence ]

shooting a wounded man in a mosque in Falluja

[ ce participe-ing détermine a marine ]

 

L'ensemble forme un Ncomplexe ;

The sequence showing a marine shooting a wounded man in a mosque in Falluja

 

The Guardian        p. 1        23 November 2004

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/nov/23/
usa.iraq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syntaxe, sens

 

Un participe-ing

peut renvoyer au participe-ing précédent :

 

SINGAPORE (Reuters) -

The U.S. dollar stumbled on Monday,

setting multi-month lows against the yen and euro

 

[ conséquence de la proposition principale ]

 

and trading around four-year lows

against the Korean won and Singapore dollar

 

[ information complémentaire

sur l'état / la valeur de dollar ],

 

prompting investors to clip Asian share markets

 

[ conséquence de trading around four-year lows

against the Korean won and Singapore dollar ].

    Asian Shares Fall on Dollar; Gold, Oil Up, R, Sun Oct 24, 2004 11:30 PM ET,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    Y0OHHN43GFKQACRBAELCFEY?type=businessNews&storyID=6592457

 

 

 

 

 

BAGHDAD (Reuters) -

Guerrillas stormed a Baghdad police station

and ambushed an American patrol,

killing a soldier and wounding nine

in daylight attacks in the capital on Saturday,

defying efforts to crush a Sunni Muslim revolt

 

[ traduction explicative : défiant ainsi... ] .

 

Hours after a U.S. general acknowledged

that it was hasty to claim

this month's offensive on Falluja had broken

the back of the insurgency,

rebels killed three policemen in a dawn strike

on their station in Baghdad's Sunni Aadhamiya district.

    Rebels Attack Baghdad Police, Troops, R, Sat Nov 20, 2004 05:19 PM ET,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    BVUFUF3PIDKZ4CRBAEZSFFA?type=topNews&storyID=6875135 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

segment -ing > déterminant ou participe

 

autres énoncés

 

 

 

Three Car Bombs Kill 4,

Wound 16 in Baghdad

 

Sat Apr 30, 2005

02:00 PM ET

Reuters

 

BAGHDAD (Reuters) -

Three car bombs targeting military patrols

exploded in Baghdad on Saturday,

killing four people and wounding 16,

police said.

[ participe > information supplémentaire,

conséquence de la proposition principale ]

 

Militants detonated one car bomb

alongside a joint Iraqi and U.S. military patrol

in the Zayuna district of eastern Baghdad,

as it passed near a police station,

killing two passers-by, one of them a child,

and wounding 10.

 

[ participe > information supplémentaire,

conséquence de la proposition principale ]

    Three Car Bombs Kill 4, Wound 16 in Baghdad, R, Sat Apr 30, 2005 02:00 PM ET,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    ARFIFRY32PVUECRBAELCFEY?type=topNews&storyID=8352345

 

 

 

 

 

VANCOUVER, Wash. (Reuters) -

Scientists tracking renewed earthquake activity

at Mount St. Helens

[ le participe -ing détermine scientists ]

 

raised their warning level on Saturday

to a Level 3-Volcano Alert,

signaling a second eruption may be brewing.

    Eruption Warning at Mount St. Helens -- Scientists, R, Sat Oct 2, 2004 07:42 PM ET,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    U1FEZPNHHNBIACRBAEOCFFA?type=topNews&storyID=6396361

 

 

 

 

 

X, the British engineer

who has been held hostage in Iraq for two weeks,

appeared in chains on a video last night

begging for his life

but saying for the first time that his kidnappers

did not want to kill him

[ participe-ing > circonstance ].

X, 62, appeared haggard but unhurt.

He frequently broke down and sobbed as he spoke,

at times grasping his head in his hand

[ participe-ing > circonstance ].

 

"My captors don't want to kill me," he said.

But moments later he added:

"I am begging you for my life.

Have some compassion. Please."

There was no way of verifying when the video was taken

[ N-ing ],

but his family took it as proof that Mr X was still alive.

Caged and chained, X makes new plea:
Kidnappers should contact us,
says PM as video shows hostage's plight,
G,
30.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/30/
iraq.iraq 

 

 

 

 

 

CBS News anchor Dan Rather on Wednesday strongly defended

his 60 Minutes story critical of President Bush's military service,

saying that his report is true but that legitimate questions

have been raised about the authenticity of documents

he used to support it

 

[ participe-ing > complément d'information ].

    Rather says memo flap doesn't change his story, USA Today, §1, 15.9.2004,
    http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2004-09-15-cbs-guard_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA

 

 

 

 

 

NEW ORLEANS (Reuters) -

Hurricane Ivan killed at least two people on Wednesday

as it began to batter U.S. shores with high winds

and ferocious surf,

touching off tornadoes that ripped through coastal cities

 

[ participe-ing > valeur > information complémentaire ].

    Hurricane Ivan Slams U.S. Gulf Coast, Kills Two, R, 15.9.2004,
    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
    RAJC55WHICAUSCRBAE0CFEY?type=topNews&storyID=6249643

 

 

 

 

 

The prime minister, Tony Blair,

today declared that the government's crusade

against social exclusion was working,

but his claim coincided with new figures

that showed homelessness had reached a new record high.

Launching a progress report on social exclusion

Mr Blair said the government's record on poverty

was one "we can be proud of".

 

[ participe-ing > valeur > circonstance / cadre / contexte ]

Blair 'proud' of crusade against poverty,
G,
13.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/sep/13/
socialexclusion.politics

 

 

 

 

 

She said it to Rudolf Nureyev

and then to the Royal Ballet...

Sylvie Guillem has said 'no' so often

they call her Mademoiselle Non.

 

Now approaching 40

and still impossibly slim and spiky,

is she about to hang up her ballet shoes

and spend more time with her cat?

 

[ participe-ing > valeur > complément d'information, état ] ,

 

You can probably guess the answer

'If I'm ready for a fight, I go for it', O, 12.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2004/sep/12/
dance1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participe-ing  ≠  N-ing

 

 

 

Le participe-ing ne doit pas être confondu

avec une autre forme -ing : N-ing

 

N-ing est une forme nominale.

 

Selon le contexte,

N-ing est sujet, objet ou complément.

 

Alors que le participe -ing

détermine / renvoie / complète / "s'accroche"

à N ou à une proposition (SVO)

pour en compléter le sens,

 

N-ing est une séquence auto-sémantique :

 

US researchers have questioned whether

eating plenty of fruit and vegetables [ N-ing sujet ]

reduces

the risk of developing cancer [ N-ing complément du nom risk ],

a central claim in official health advice.

 

A study led by the Harvard school of public health in Boston

analysed data from more than 100,000 health professionals

over 14 years and concluded such a diet led

to a "modest" overall reduction in chronic disease,

largely because of the impact

on preventing heart disease and strokes.

[ préposition on + N-ing > valeur : objectif ]

 

The Department of Health has said

increasing fruit and vegetable consumption

is the most important anti-cancer measure

after stopping people smoking.

It offers free portions to children aged up to seven

in schools.



Last night the government continued to stress

the value of fruit and vegetables

on reducing the risks of disease

[ N + préposition on + N-ing > valeur : objectif ] ,

 

citing World Health Organisation recommendations

and those of its own advisers

[ participe-ing, relatif à la proposition principale ].

 

The reduction of risk in some cancers

was supported by other research findings, it said.

Study questions cancer claims for 5-a-day diet,
G,
3.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/nov/03/
highereducation.food

 

 

 

 

 

Americans started voting in federal

and state elections on Tuesday,

with President George W. Bush and Senator John Kerry

locked in a neck-and-neck battle for the White House.

President Bush and his wife voted early in Crawford, Texas,

near their ranch, before boarding a plane to pay a visit

to the fiercely contested state of Ohio

in a bid to mobilise Republican support.

Senator Kerry spent the morning in Wisconsin

supporting get-out-the-vote efforts in a state

that allows same-day registration of voters

 

[ participe -ing,

relatif à Senator Kerry ],

 

before heading home to Boston to vote and await results.

 

[ before est une préposition ;

une préposition est toujours liée

à une forme nominale ],

Voting gets under way in tight presidential race,
FT, 2.11.2004,
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/ff7eacd6-2b89-11d9-92d4-00000e2511c8.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participe-ing > autres énoncés

 

 

 

Un participe-ing peut déterminer un nom.

 

Ci-dessous,

dealing with abuse vise et détermine medics.

 

L'ensemble forme le groupe nominal complexe

medics-dealing-with-abuse.

 

Equivalence théorique de Protecting children :

The fact of protecting.

 

 

Protecting children puts doctors at risk

 

Threats and violence face medics dealing with abuse

 

Threats, violence and unjustified complaints

against doctors and other health professionals

are driving them out of the area of child abuse,

leaving vulnerable children potentially unprotected,

surveys showed yesterday.

Headline, and sub,
G,
9.4.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2004/mar/09/
childrensservices.childprotection

 

 

 

 

 

Enoncé suivant

 

Equivalence théorique du participe-ing :

As he was meeting...

 

Meeting 10 Palestinian and Israeli editors

and journalists in Downing Street on Tuesday,

two hours before the first of two suicide bombings in Israel,

he said that without security,

negotiations on the outstanding issues

- borders, settlements, the future of Jerusalem, refugees -

would be fruitless.

Blair talks of 'terrible virus',
G,
11.9.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/sep/11/
israel.foreignpolicy 

 

 

 

 

 

Leaving the independent Atlantic label

to sign with a major company,

[ Après avoir quitté... ]

 

he recorded Georgia,

a song written by Hoagy Carmichael 30 years earlier.

It provided the first sign of his desire

to broaden his audience still further,

and it took the charts by storm in 1960.

A year later Hit the Road, Jack

returned to the gospel-blues style

and gave Charles and his backing singers, the Raeletts,

a worldwide hit.

Ray Charles, father of soul music, dies at 73:
Richard Williams
on the legendary singer who blended blues and gospel,
G
11.6.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jun/11/
arts.artsnews

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participes-ing > autres énoncés

 

 

 

ISTANBUL (Reuters) -

A bomb blast ripped through a city bus,

killing two people in Istanbul on Thursday,

 

[ participe-ing > valeur ici > effet, conséquence,

effet de la principale SVO ],

 

days before President Bush arrives in the country

for a NATO summit, Turkish television said.

Second Bomb Blast in a Day Rocks Turkey, 2 Dead,
R,
24.6.2004,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
4L2IN4NP1TKG2CRBAEOCFFA?type=topNews&storyID=5504807

 

 

 

 

 

Speaking yesterday in Warsaw, the Polish capital,

 

[ participe-ing > valeur ici > repérage >

précision

d'ordre circonstanciel, spatio-temporel, contextuel ],

 

Mr Blair said the evidence

of weapons of mass destruction in the dossier

was "evidence the truth of which

I have absolutely no doubt about at all".

Straw, Powell had serious doubts over their Iraqi weapons claims:
Secret transcript revealed,
G,
31.5.2003,
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/may/31/
uk.iraq 

 

 

 

 

 

Looking directly through the bigger telescopes,

 

[ participe-ing > valeur ici > complément de moyen ],

 

their lenses covered with glass so dark

you couldn't see anything except the sun,

we could look at an even finer sight,

as if a black bug was crawling very slowly

across a lemon yellow frisbee.

"It's gorgeous, gorgeous!" cried Dr Allan Chapman of Oxford,

a professor of the history of science.

He is also the world authority on Jeremiah Horrocks,

a genius from Liverpool who had gone to work in a village

near our field, possibly to train as a vicar.

Using others' incorrect tables of planetary motions,

accurate observations of his own,

and endless calculations on scraps of paper,

 

[ participe-ing > valeur ici > complément de moyen ],

 

this youth worked out that Kepler

- one of the greatest astronomers of all time - was wrong,

and there would be a transit of Venus

on December 4 (our calendar) 1639.

A piece of history passes by
and 350 years on the sun shines for Jeremiah the genius,
G,
9.6.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/jun/09/
spaceexploration.uknews 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participe-ing

 

sémantisme    détermination        syntaxe        style

 

segment difficilement / non déplaçable

 

 

 

1 - Déplacer entering Israel,

qui vise et détermine 4 militants,

créerait un contre-sens :

 

???Entering Israel Israeli Soldiers kill 4 militants.

 

Un segment déterminant n'est pas mobile,

puisqu'il fait partie intégrante d'un GN complexe :

4 militants entering Israel.

   

 

1 - Israeli Soldiers Kill 4 Militants Entering Israel

 

Sat Oct 2, 2004

01:33 AM ET

 

GAZA (Reuters) -

Israeli troops shot dead four Palestinian gunmen

who were infiltrating Israel's border with northern Gaza,

witnesses said, as the army continued

a wide-scale offensive in the area

to weed out rocket launchers.

A military source said soldiers had received earlier information

about militants who planned to infiltrate into southern Israel

and carry out an attack in a town in the area.

Troops spotted four gunmen wearing explosives belts

cutting through the border fence, and killed them,

the source said.

Headline and first §§,
R,
2.10.2004,
http://www.reuters.com/
newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=6394821 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

The government plans to forge ahead

with compulsory home sellers' packs,

despite the Lords having thrown out the proposal last night.

Compulsory home sellers' packs face struggle,
G,
4.11.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/business/2004/nov/04/
movinghouse.property 

 

 

 

 

 

Polls show the race is extraordinarily close,

with a flurry of surveys showing a dead heat nationally

and contradictory polls indicating most of the 10 hardest

fought battleground states could tip either way.

Bush and Kerry Face Verdict of Voters,
R,
Tue Nov 2, 2004 01:31 AM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/
newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=6683699 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

Last week's seizure of material belonging

to anti-globalisation websites

could have serious consequences for citizen publishers.

Bobbie Johnson reports

Heavy hand of the law,
G,
14.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2004/oct/14/
media.newmedia

 

 

 

 

 

Occupants of car seen near shooting

are urged to 'look in mirror',

amid call to protect bystanders giving evidence

School leads mourning for gun victim,
G,
12.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/oct/12/
ukcrime.ukguns

 

 

 

 

 

SINGAPORE (Reuters) - NYMEX crude kept close

to record highs near $54 early on Tuesday

as global oil supplies remained hounded by disruptions,

magnifying concerns over U.S. heating oil stocks

ahead of the winter, traders said.

NYMEX Crude Near Highs Off $54,
R, Mon Oct 11, 2004 11:11 PM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=
TPR2GJF2COTZACRBAE0CFEY?type=businessNews&storyID=6472449

 

 

 

 

 

ST. LOUIS (Reuters) -

President Bush and Democratic challenger John Kerry

argued about Iraq, jobs and taxes in their second debate Friday,

with Kerry questioning Bush's judgment

and the president accusing Kerry of crumbling

under political pressure.

Bush, Kerry Differ Sharply on Iraq, Taxes,
R,
Sat Oct 9, 2004 12:24 AM ET,
http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=SIGL55TW3MI5ACRBAEOCFEY?type=topNews&storyID=6457377
- broken link

 

 

 

 

 

New tremors were detected at Mount St Helens yesterday

as scientists warned that the volcano,

which erupted in May 1980,

killing 57 people,

 

[ conséquence, effet

de l'action décrite dans la proposition en which ]

 

was about to blow again.

Tremors heard at Mount St Helens,
G,
4.10.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2004/oct/04/
usnews.naturaldisasters 

 

 

 

 

 

At least 46 people were killed and 200 injured

in a series of bomb attacks targeting US and Iraqi forces

in and around Baghdad today.

 

Dozens of the victims were children.

Multiple Iraq bombings kill 46,
G,
30.9.2004,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/30/
iraq 

 

 

 

 

 

No stranger experience

can have happened to Mr. Chamberlain

during the past month of adventures

than his reception back home in London.

He drove from Heston to Buckingham Palace,

where the crowd clamoured for him,

and within five minutes of his arrival he was standing

on the balcony of the Palace with the King and Queen

and Mrs. Chamberlain.

The cries were all for "Neville,"

and he stood there blinking in the light of a powerful arc-lamp

and waving his hand and smiling.

For three minutes this demonstration lasted.

Another welcome awaited the Premier in Downing Street,

which he reached fifteen minutes later.

With difficulty his car moved forward from Whitehall to No. 10.

Mounted policemen rode fore and aft

and a constable kept guard on the running board of the car.

Every window on the three floors of No. 10 and No. 11

was open and filled with faces.

The windows of the Foreign Office

across the way were equally full

- all except one, which was made up with sandbags.

Everywhere were people cheering.

One of the women there found no other words

to express her feelings

but these, "The man who gave me back my son."

Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlain stood for a few moments

on the doorstep acknowledging the greeting.

Then Mr. Chamberlain went to a first-floor window

and leaned forward happily smiling on the people.

"My good friends," he said - it took some time to still the clamour

so that he might be heard - "this is the second time in our history

that there has come back from Germany 'peace with honour.'

I believe it is peace for our time. "

Return from Munich,
G,
Saturday October 1, 1938
,
https://www.theguardian.com/world/1938/oct/01/
secondworldwar.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participe-ing > valeur > commentaire

 

autres énoncés

 

 

Judge Dismisses NRA Bankruptcy Case,

Heightening Risk For Dissolution Of Group

 

[ valeur de ce participe-ing :

commentaire

relatif à l'information transmise

par la proposition principale ]

 

May 11, 2021    NPR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reaching Back To The New Deal,

 

[ valeur de ce participe-ing :

commentaire

relatif à l'information transmise

par la proposition principale ]

 

Biden Proposes A Civilian Climate Corps

 

May 11, 2021    NPR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banking On Busy Summer Travel Season,

 

[ valeur de ce participe-ing :

commentaire, déduction

relatif / relative à l'information transmise

par la proposition principale ]

 

Airlines Add More Flights And New Routes

 

May 7, 2021    NPR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

participe-ing > valeur > contexte, cause

 

autres énoncés

 

 

Facing A Recall [ election ]

And A Massive Surplus [ budget surplus ],

 

[ valeur de ce participe-ing :

contexte de l'information transmise

par la proposition principale ]

 

Gov. Newsom Proposes More Stimulus Checks

 

May 10, 2021    NPR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé

 

participe-ing

déterminant, catégorisant

 

 

participe-ing

non déterminant, non catégorisant

 

 

formes-ing

 

 

séquence-ing > portée de -ing > Ncomplexe

 

 

séquence-ing -> portée > proposition (SVO)

sens : conséquence, résultat

 

 

-ing > valeur adjectivale

 

 

-ing > question > présupposition

 

 

séquence nominale-ing autonome

 

 

 

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