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grammaire anglaise > syntaxe > formes verbales > passif > formes passives


formes verbales / modales au passif


beauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé (+ by + N)


Every day a child under 5 is killed

or Ø seriously injured on our roads

[ présent passif simple ]




The Guardian        p. 13        3 August 2005

















The young bride is institutionalized

[ présent passif ]

for schizophrenia!


Steve Roper and Mike Nomad

Fran Matera


















Thursday, December 29, 2005

















ellipse de beauxiliaire


verbeau articipe passé seul, sans beauxiliaire





1 November 2004














beauxiliaire + being + verbeau participe passé (+ by + N)



A pensioner and his wife

were being questioned by detectives last night

for allegedly buying an Albanian boy

whose father had traded him

for a colour TV set. 















haveauxiliaire + been + verbeau participe passé















modal + beauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé


other rotten eggs... that should be recalled





Dave Granlund



28 August 2010



Growing Concern About Tainted Eggs After Recall
















to -> beauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé    //    mode infinitif + passif en français



Tuesday, March 21, 2006















Les formes passives

sont fréquentes en anglais











In Death, Girl, 2,

Is Caught in Fight Over Organs


NOV. 16, 2014

The New York Times



In Death, Girl, 2, Is Caught in Fight Over Organs, NYT, 16.11.2014,







Autopsy Shows

Michael Brown Was Struck

at Least 6 Times


AUG. 17, 2014

The New York Times




FERGUSON, Mo. — Michael Brown,

the unarmed black teenager who was killed by a police officer,

sparking protests around the nation,

was shot at least six times, including twice in the head,

a preliminary private autopsy performed on Sunday found.

    Autopsy Shows Michael Brown Was Struck at Least 6 Times,
    NYT, 17.8.2014,






When Emily Was Sold for Sex


FEB. 12, 2014

The New York Times

Nicholas Kristof


BOSTON — Emily, a 15-year-old ninth-grader,

ran away from home in early November,

and her parents are sitting at their dining table,

frightened and inconsolable.

The parents, Maria and Benjamin, both school-bus drivers,

have been searching for their daughter all along

and pushing the police to investigate.

They gingerly confess their fears that Emily, a Latina,

is being controlled by a pimp.

When Emily Was Sold for Sex, NYT, 12.2.2014,






Killer’s Mother Was Shot 4 Times,

Official Says


December 18, 2012

The New York Times


    Killer’s Mother Was Shot 4 Times, Official Says, 18.12.2012,







It Was Hacked 13 Times Last Year


March 2, 2012

The New York Times



(Reuters) -

NASA said hackers broke into its computer systems

13 times last year, stealing employee credentials

and gaining access to mission-critical projects

in breaches that could compromise U.S. national security.

    NASA Says It Was Hacked 13 Times Last Year, NYT, 2.3.2012,






More Human Remains Are Found

on Long Island


February 18, 2012
The New York Times


Another set of human remains was discovered

in a wooded area of eastern Long Island

that has become a dumping ground for bodies over the years,

the authorities said on Saturday.

More Human Remains Are Found on Long Island, NYT, 18.2.2012,






Condom ads

could be screened

[ modal + base verbale au passif ]

before 9pm watershed


Watchdogs call for radical shakeup of advertising rules
to stem rise in teenage pregnancies


Rebecca Smithers
The Guardian
Thursday 26 March 2009
00.01 GMT


Photo caption :

The ban on condoms being advertised on TV before 9pm

could be scrapped.


The historic ban on condoms being advertised on TV

before the 9pm watershed should be scrapped

as part of the drive to reduce

spiralling teenage pregnancy rates in the UK,

it will be recommended tomorrow,

as part of a radical shakeup of the rules governing advertising.


Pregnancy advisory services should also be permitted

to advertise for the first time on the radio,

under proposals resulting from the first major review

of national advertising codes for nearly 50 years.


The bodies responsible for looking after

the advertising codes will ask the public to give their views

on a series of proposed new, simplified advertising standards,

after an 18-month review.

The codes are written  [ présent passif ]

by the Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP)

and the Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice (Bcap)

[ by N : complément d'agent ] .

Condom ads could be screened before 9pm watershed, G, 26.3.2010,






Carter Wins Release of American

in North Korea


The New York Times
August 27, 2010


SEOUL, South Korea —

Former President Jimmy Carter left North Korea

on Friday with Aijalon Mahli Gomes,

an American who was sentenced [ passé temporel passif ]

to eight years of hard labor

for illegally entering the country,

the Carter Center said.


Mr. Gomes was granted [ passé temporel passif ]

amnesty by the North Korean leader, Kim Jong-il,

the Carter Center said in an e-mail. Mr. Gomes, 31,

and Mr. Carter boarded a plane at the Pyongyang Airport.

It is expected [ présent passif ]

that Mr. Gomes will be returned [ modal + passif ]

to Boston, Mass., early Friday afternoon,

to be reunited  [ infinitif passif ]

with his mother and other members of his family,”

the statement said.


Mr. Carter had been visiting Pyongyang, the North Korean capital,

on a private humanitarian mission to win the release of Mr. Gomes,

who was sentenced in April to eight years in a North Korean prison

and fined $700,000 for entering the country illegally.

There has also been speculation

that North Korea might try to use Mr. Carter

as a conduit to ease tensions with the United States.

Mr. Carter had arrived on Wednesday

at the invitation of the North Korean government,

but it was not known whether he met with Mr. Kim,

the North Korean leader.

South Korean officials said Thursday that a special train

[ ellipse : which was ] believed to be carrying Mr. Kim

had entered China around midnight on Wednesday,

setting off speculation over what might have compelled him

to travel to his isolated government’s closest ally

while Mr. Carter was visiting.

After watching Mr. Kim’s movements for the past few days,

the South Korean authorities said his train had crossed the border

with China, traveling from the North Korean town of Manpo

to Jian in China,

according to an official at the presidential Blue House in Seoul.

Two South Korean intelligence sources who,

like the presidential aide,

spoke on the condition of anonymity

because of the delicacy of the matter,

said Mr. Kim might be taking his son with him

to introduce him formally to Chinese leaders.

South Korean news outlets raised the same possibility.

Mr. Kim is grooming his youngest son, Kim Jong-un,

as successor, according to South Korean officials.

North Korea is to convene a congress

of its ruling Workers’ Party early next month,

where Mr. Kim is expected [ présent passif ]

to rally popular support for his succession plans.

If confirmed, this would be Mr. Kim’s sixth trip to China, his impoverished country’s largest trading partner and aid provider. His last trip was in May, when he met President Hu Jintao during a five-day visit. North Korea and China usually do not confirm a trip by Mr. Kim until it is over.

News of the possible trip by Mr. Kim led to rampant speculation in South Korea. Possible motives cited by analysts in Seoul included the North’s need for Chinese aid because of flooding and the possibility of a decline in Mr. Kim’s health, which might have forced aides to take him to China for treatment. Many intelligence officials believe Mr. Kim had a stroke in 2008. Around the time that Mr. Kim’s train crossed the border, North Korean news media reported that China would provide emergency flood relief.

With North Korea’s relations with the South and the United States at a low point, “China is the only one Kim Jong-il can go to for aid,” said Kim Keun-sik, an analyst at the University of North Korean Studies in Seoul. “He badly needs aid before the party meeting to make it a national festival, as it is meant to be.”

Even so, leaving North Korea without meeting Mr. Carter would be a notable breach of diplomatic etiquette, the analyst said. “A possible political message of this is that North Korea gives its priority to China over the United States,” he said.

Mr. Carter was the second former United States president to visit Pyongyang on a humanitarian mission in recent years. In August last year, Bill Clinton met Mr. Kim there and returned with Laura Ling and Euna Lee, two American journalists held there for trespassing in the North.

Mr. Gomes is believed  [ présent passif ] to have entered North Korea in support of Robert Park, a fellow Christian activist from the United States, who crossed into the country from China in December to call on Mr. Kim to release all political prisoners. Mr. Park was expelled after some 40 days.


Carter Wins Release of American in North Korea, NYT, 27.8.2010,










Auxiliaire du passif : be.



Comme le verbe be,

l'auxiliaire be se conjugue

au présent (singulier : am, are, is, pluriel : are, are, are).


au passé temporel (was / were).



Exemple :

He was [ beauxiliaire conjugué au passé temporel ] rushed

to the hospital a few minutes ago.



Exceptions :

Au present perfect passif (1)

et au past perfect passif (2),

l'auxiliaire be est au participe passé : been.


1 - He has been rushed to the hospital.

2 - He had been left for dead.


Ces énoncés ont donc chacun 2 auxiliaires :

have - conjugué au présent (1) puis au passé temporel (2) -


be au participe passé (been).



Dans un groupe verbal (GV) modalisé,

l'auxiliaire du passif, be,

apparaît en base verbale

(forme non conjuguée du verbe) :


You could be killed.

It can be said...

It will be done.










Dans un GV à la forme affirmative,

un modal (will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must)

est toujours suivi de la base verbale : modal + Base Verbale.



Un adverbe peut s'insérer entre le modal et la base verbale.










Dans un groupe verbal (GV) au passif,


qu'il soit en base verbale,

conjugué (présent ou passé temporel),

ou au participe passé,

est toujours suivi du participe passé du verbe

(ici done) :














Participe passé régulier ou irrégulier


Il y a 2 catégories de verbes en anglais :

réguliers et irréguliers.



Au participe passé, chaque verbe irrégulier a sa propre forme.


Exemples :


take (base verbale), took (passé temporel), taken (participe passé)


cut    cut    cut


run    ran    run


show    showed    shown


find    found    found


shoot    shot    shot






Conjugaison > Exemple :




[ beauxiliaire conjugué au passé temporel ]


[ participe passé du verbe irrégulier shoot ].





Les verbes réguliers

prennent régulièrement (toujours) -ed

au participe passé :


BV + -ed  >  jail + -ed = jailed


Exemple : He was jailed.





Five [ ellipse de beauxiliaire  >  are ] arrested

over fatal stabbing

of teenager Zac Olumegbon


Boy of 15 was ambushed

at the gates of his school in south London,

and fell into the arms of his teacher


Saturday 3 July 2010
13.27 BST
James Meikle,
Amy Fallon and agencies


This article was published on guardian.co.uk
at 13.27 BST on Saturday 3 July 2010

Zac Olumegbon, 15, from Brixton Hill in south London,

was confronted  [ passé temporel passif ]

by four young men [ complément d'agent ]

at the gates of Park Campus School

in West Norwood yesterday morning.


He was stabbed several times

and afterwards fell into the arms of his teacher.

He was confirmed dead shortly after arriving at hospital.

Zac's 14-year-old companion ran back to the school

to seek safety after the attack,

but was also stabbed in the arm in the school grounds.

He was taken to hospital with minor injuries.

"I am now satisfied this was a planned attack,

with four black males arriving in the area in a car,"

said Det Ch Insp McFarlane

from the Metropolitan Police Homicide and Serious Crime Command

"Our inquiries have so far led me to believe that a confrontation

took place outside the school

involving the two victims and the suspects.

"The victims were chased into Gipsy Road Gardens where,

sadly, the 15-year-old suffered fatal injuries.

"The 14-year-old then ran back to the school to seek safety,

but was attacked in the grounds of the school,

suffering minor injuries.

"Following the attack the four males left in the car

and headed in the direction of Gipsy Hill."

A local shopkeeper described

how Zac fell into the arms of a teacher after the attack.

"She had her hands open but it was too late

and he collapsed in her arms," said Saima Sadfdar.

"I was told there were three or four people with a big knife.

Apparently one of the teachers realised

something was going on and ran out to help."

She said she knew Zac, who was "no trouble".

Zac's family was too upset to comment

but his friends laid flowers near the murder scene.

Leonie Arecha, who said she was a friend of the dead teenager,

laid a bunch of flowers at the spot where he was killed.

An attached card read: "I will always remember you.

The good, the bad times no matter what.

I will always miss you and see you when I come up there."

Arecha told the Guardian: "He was my friend.

We called him 'little Zac' and I had known him about a year.

He was funny, I really don't know why he was attacked."

Park Campus was opened two years ago

and hailed as the first school of its kind in Britain,

aimed at getting young people back into mainstream education.

Residents said the school had developed

a reputation for trouble since it opened.

Rose Gabriel, who lives nearby, said:

"We were kind of expecting something to kick off at some point.

It's a shame it had to happen like this."

All pupils at the school, which has 80 places,

were kept inside for questioning by teachers and police yesterday.


A post-mortem examination will be held [ modal + passif ]

at Greenwich Mortuary today.


Zac was the 13th teenager to be killed [ infinitif passif ]

in the capital this year.

Five arrested over fatal stabbing of teenager Zac Olumegbon,















Souligné dans le texte original,


peut porter l'accent de phrase

et valider / certifier, tel un sceau,

la relation prédicative :


        Intelligence chief's bombshell:

We were overruled on dossier'

Headline, I, 4.1.2004











Dans un énoncé au passif,

le référent du sujet

est souvent (mais pas toujours)

présenté comme subissant l'action.




dans l'extralinguistique (la "réalité"),

le sujet est tout sauf secondaire

sur le plan linguistique :


cadré en gros plan,

le sujet occupe

le devant de la scène / de la phrase

(noter à nouveau, ci-dessous,

l'ellipse de beauxiliaire) :



1 November 2004

















The Guardian        p. 8    30.10.2004














    Two girls were caught

[ passé temporel passif ] by police

throwing bricks at cars

from a footbridge over the M25

- but had to be released

[ infinitif passif ]

because aged nine they were too young

to be prosecuted

[ infinitif passif ].

Nine-year-olds caught throwing bricks on to M25,
I, p. 11, 30.5.2003.





La voix passive

a ici le même effet qu'un gros plan :


au lieu de cadrer

policiers et petites filles,

on isole dans un gros plan

les enfants - Two girls -,

sur laquelle s'abat

la main du policier / de la police.



A noter qu'ici

le complément d'agent

- by police -

est mentionné.



Dans nombre d'énoncés,

ce complément reste "hors champ" :


Ncomplément d'agent (introduit par by)

est sous-entendu.














Transformer l'actif en passif,

    c'est souvent renverser la perspective,

changer d'angle, de plan,

d'échelle, de point de vue

(champ / contre-champ,

plongée / contre-plongée) :




Soon after Mrs. H. leaves the day care center,

she's pulled over by the police!


Rex Morgan        Woody Wilson and Graham Nolan

Created in 1948 by Nicholas P. Dallis        1.11.2004

















le sous-titre est d'abord à l'actif

(Une de l'édition internet du Guardian),


    Goliath falls but Angel flies towards Els fire

    Sport: Bernhard Langer knocks out Vijay Singh

as Ernie Els scraps into the semi-finals

with his final putt.




puis repris au passif

dans le corps de l'article :


    Goliath falls but Angel flies towards Els fire

    The world No1 is knocked out by Langer

but the world No2 survives

to reach the semi-finals

        Headline and sub, G, 16.10.2004











La passivation

peut aussi être purement linguistique,

sans référence à un état passif

- le fait d'être victime, de souffrir, de subir -

dans l'extralinguistique (la "réalité") :



'We want to play an old folks' home'

The Noisettes are being called Britain's best live band.

It's all about picking the right venues,

they tell Leonie Cooper

   'We want to play an old folks' home', G, 16.1.2006,





It is said that ... / N is said to -> Base Verbale




it is thought that...




It is expected that ...




They are expected to + Base Verbale...




Girl shot in chest

is believed to be London's youngest gun crime victim





Dans ces cas,

le passif anglais

peut se traduire en français



par la tournure impersonnelle


"on dit que / pense que /

s'attend à ce que... ";



par le conditionnel :


"La petite fille

blessée par balles à la poitrine

serait la plus jeune victime..."


Girl shot in chest

is believed to be London's

youngest gun crime victim
















rappel : structures passives fréquentes



passif simple (présent)


second US hostage is killed

(présent passif simple)






infinitif passif


Victim of cannibal agreed to be eaten






modal + base verbale passive


Schoolgirls should be given

contraceptive injections






present perfect passif


I have been stoned,

I have been beaten.






past perfect passif


A terrorist

who had been convicted of six murders...





équivalent du subjonctif passif




























Woman Is Burned Alive

in an Elevator in Brooklyn

Woman Is Burned Alive in an Elevator in Brooklyn,
NYT, 17.12.2011,






Teenager dies

after stabbing outside party


Monday 8 September 2008
The Guardian
Damien Francis


A teenager was stabbed to death in Sheffield

after a group of up to 40 people,

some armed with baseball bats and knives,

fought outside a 16-year-old girl's birthday party.

Emergency services were called to Rokeby Drive,

Parson Cross, just after 11pm on Saturday.

Witnesses said they saw the victim staggering in the street

before he collapsed.

The 18-year-old, named yesterday as Dale Robertson,

was taken to hospital, where he died from his injuries,

South Yorkshire police said.

A 16-year-old and a 17-year-old

were last night being held on suspicion of murder.

Part of the street remained cordoned off

as officers searched gardens and alleyways

close to the murder scene.

The police called for witnesses.

A group of tearful youths arrived

to place flowers at the scene yesterday afternoon.

One said a fight had begun in the street

and had been between rival gangs.

"It all started after a bit of banter

and name-calling between the two gangs.

One of them walked off to go home

and then they all started fighting.

"About 40 people were involved in the fight

- some were carrying baseball bats and knives.

It lasted for about 10 minutes.

At one point two cars came screeching up the street

and you could hear them being trashed."

He added that the victim had walked away

before collapsing on the ground.

It is understood members of one of the gangs were invited

to the party, but that a rival group turned up without invitation.

A pensioner who called the police said:

"There was a tremendous noise and I saw a lot of men fighting.

I didn't dare go out so I phoned the police.

The next thing I hear, someone has been stabbed."

Teenager dies after stabbing outside party, G, 8.9.2008,






Schoolgirls should be given contraceptive injections

to cut the rising number of teenage pregnancies,

according to the children's minister, Margaret Hodge.

Minister backs contraceptive jabs to cut teen pregnancies, G, 16.11.2004,






Glimmer of hope for Briton

but second US hostage is killed


Iraq claims woman prisoner

[ ellipse de beauxiliaire > is ] to be released

Headline and sub, G, 22.9.2004,






A 15-year-old boy who died on Monday night

in a privately run child jail

was being physically restrained by three adult members of staff

when he lost consciousness, the Guardian has learned.

(...) is believed to be the youngest person in living memory

to die not by their own hand in a British penal institution.

The teenager, who had only arrived

at the Rainsbrook secure training centre, Northamptonshire,

run by Group 4, on Friday, to start his 12-month sentence,

is believed to have been restrained

by two men and a woman in his room.

A full-scale investigation by Northamptonshire detectives has begun

and will look at how Gareth "lost consciousness"

following "an incident" at Rainsbrook.

"It is too early to determine whether the death is suspicious or not,

but this is a very serious matter

and we will continue to investigate it thoroughly,"

a Northamptonshire police spokeswoman said.

The three members of staff directly involved

have been moved to other duties at Rainsbrook

which do not involve daily contact with the 76 children held there.

Last night Frances Crook, of the Howard League for Penal Reform,

called for the suspension of the staff involved,

and demanded that the privately run children's jail be closed

pending a full investigation of the use of physical restraint.

"This is a unique and shocking case," Ms Crook said.

"There must be a full investigation into the use of physical restraint

in all penal institutions for children,

the prisons, local authority secure units

and the private secure training centres."

It is believed that an operations manager at Rainsbrook,

who has been exonerated of previous allegations

concerning bullying and coercion of children in his care,

was not directly involved in the incident

but gave Gareth first aid and also accompanied him to hospital.

A statement by the Youth Justice Board this week

said the exact cause of the "tragic death" was, as yet, unclear.

The statement said: "It is reported that (...) lost consciousness.

A duty nurse was called and attempted resuscitation

while an ambulance was called.

The ambulance arrived at 9.42pm

and he was taken to Walsgrave hospital in Coventry

where he was pronounced dead at 10.25pm."

Jailed teenager died after being restrained:
Three staff off care duties as death of boy, 15, is investigated,
GI, p.7, 23.4.2004,






Blair to unveil crime superforce


Intelligence-led agency

to be launched

[ infinitif passif ]

to take on the 'Mr Bigs'

of international criminal cartels


Tony Blair is to unveil a crime-busting superforce to tackle

organised drugs, vice and money-laundering operations

at a national and international level.

The Organised Crime Agency, to be announced [ infinitif passif ]

early next week, will combine elements of police

and law enforcement units,

such as the National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS)

and Customs, with highly-skilled financial and technology specialists

to fight increasingly sophisticated global criminal cartels.

Headline, sub and first §§, G, 7.2.2004,






Victim of cannibal

agreed to be eaten

[ infinitif passif ]

Headline, G, 4.12.2003,






But, she alleges,

she was subsequently gang-raped

by up to seven other players

and forced to perform unnatural sexual acts.

Crisis rocks game, V, 7.10.2003.






A pensioner and his wife

were being questioned by detectives last night

for allegedly buying an Albanian boy

whose father had traded him for a colour TV set.

Pensioners 'bought' child traded for TV set:
Trafficked boy found after 3 years, G, 30.9.2003,






A Special Branch detective was stabbed to death

by a suspected Al Qaeda terrorist last night.

The 40-year-old married man was killed

during a raid on a house in Manchester

which had been under surveillance for days.

Four other officers were wounded

as police swooped on a man suspected of masterminding a plot

to launch a bio-terror attack on Britain.

The raid was linked to the discovery

of the deadly poison ricin in London earlier this month.

Greater Manchester Police said

three men of North African origin had been arrested.

The force's Special Branch had been conducting a joint operation

with MI5 watching the house in Crumpsall, North Manchester,

a rundown area of Victorian houses and modern blocks of flat.

It is believed that after police raided the property

and 'contained' the suspects, one managed to break away.

He grabbed a knife and launched a furious attack on officers,

leaving one dying from a chest wound.

None of the police had been armed.

It was not clear whether the murdered detective,

who was married with children,

was wearing protective clothing.

Five officers stabbed in raid in a suburban street:
'Terrorist' murders a detective, DM, p. 1/4, 15.1.2003.






Up to 140,000 people are thought to have been killed when an atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. As many as 80,000 died when a second device exploded in the skies above Nagasaki three days later. It was the first time nuclear weapons had been used to kill people and for almost six decades since, physicists have been laboriously trying to piece together exactly what happened during and in the immediate aftermath of the attacks.

Weapons like the bomb used on Nagasaki were tested after the war, so scientists knew a fair amount about what must have happened there during the blast. But with Hiroshima things were more complex, partly because the bomb dropped there was a one-off - nothing like it was ever used again.

Now, almost 58 years to the day after the Hiroshima bomb was dropped, scientists think they have all the answers they will ever get about events that day. Using recently discovered large-scale Japanese maps from the time, sophisticated computer models and new radiation measurements taken from old lightning rods and guttering, the scientists from Japan and America have completed a painstaking reconstruction of events in Hiroshima.

This is more than mere scientific curiosity. The reconstruction is already being used to better estimate the doses of radiation received by the people who survived the attack. This information is used to set everything from their financial compensation from the Japanese government to safety limits on modern-day exposures to radiation.

In a Japanese census in 1950, some 280,000 people said they had been exposed to radiation from one of the two atomic bombs. The crucial question was: how much? Human exposure to dangerous levels of radiation is extremely rare, so the atomic bomb survivors provide the best evidence of what the effects are. By comparing the radiation doses the survivors received with the illnesses they later developed, scientists try to work out how lower exposures to radiation may trigger cancer. Every time you have an x-ray, for example, the safety data used to set your dose of radiation can be directly traced back to the events at Hiroshima. Likewise for patients receiving radiotherapy and for those people working in nuclear power stations.

The day the sky exploded:
Scientists have finally pieced together exactly
what happened when an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima,
G/G2, p. 13, 31.7.2003.







Young people in a child jail

are being locked in their bedrooms

in breach of Home Office rules

as a way of controlling them,

according to a government inspection report.

Inmates excluded from education are locked alone in a bedroom

for the duration of morning or afternoon lessons

at the Medway Secure Training Centre, near Rochester.

The report demands an immediate review of "single separation"

which the social services inspection team found

fell short of acceptable standards.

The child jail is also criticised

for failing to tackle criminal attitudes and antisocial behaviour.

Staff are accused of using language

that could be seen as offensive to teenagers

from ethnic minority backgrounds.

It highlights "coloured" and "half-caste"

as words used to describe some young inmates.

Although the report found the staff at the centre

were less likely to resort to physical restraint

in dealing with disruptive behaviour than in the past,

single separation was being used as a means of control

more widely than acceptable

under national guidance and regulations.

The Home Office contract stated

that young people should be put in their bedrooms

only at night between the hours of 9.30pm and 7.30am

or exceptionally when necessary for their own safety,

the safety of others or the security of the centre.

The report also found that life at the centre,

which is run by Rebound ECD, a subsidiary of Group 4,

had been disrupted

by management difficulties and high staff turnover.

A social services inspectorate report in 1999

found that excessive force was used to keep order.

Wrist and neck locks were used to control offenders aged 12 to 14

and physical restraint was used by staff 150 times a month.

Young offenders locked in bedrooms, source à préciser, 2003.






The reality matched the hype yesterday

as the latest Harry Potter book

continued to fly off the shelves at a record rate.

More than 1m copies of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

are estimated to have been sold in Britain over the weekend.

An average of 220 copies were bought every minute

at Tesco supermarkets, with 317,400 copies sold

by the chain in the first 24 hours

after the book went on sale

at one minute past midnight on Saturday.

Harry casts worlwide spell, GI, p. 5, 23.6.2003.






Black people are five times more likely than white people

to be stopped and searched by police and, once arrested,

are more likely to be remanded in custody

than other offenders charged with similar sentences.

Black people six times more likely to be jailed than whites, O, p. 9, 29.12.2002.






A credit card that tells you

"Don't spend any more, you're far too drunk"

is being developed by Tesco

for those whose thrift is addled by alcohol.

Credit card that tells you when you're drunk in charge, GE, p. 6, § 1, 18.1.2003.






Thousands of children are being smuggled into Europe

from war-ravaged Somalia every year,

with Britain the most popular destination,

according to a UN report released yesterday.

Somali children in exodus to Europe, GE, p. 9, § 1, 18.1.2003.






The burglar who was injured by Tony Martin

after breaking into his home

is to sue the farmer for £15,000 compensation

for loss of earnings, it emerged yesterday.

Burglar wounded in break-in will sur for loss of earnings, GE, p. 4, 24.12.2002.






All young people are to be warned

[ infinitif passif

intégré dans une forme verbale exprimant le futur ]

about the dangers of crack cocaine amid growing evidence

that dealing it is seen as an attractive career option by some,

under a Home Office strategy unveiled yesterday.

Crack warning for the young, GE, p. 4, 24.12.2002.






Forty new jails would have to be built

[ infinitif passif ]

to cope with a prison population

which will reach almost 110,000 by the end of the decade,

according to Home Office statistics published yesterday.

40 new jails needed as courts get tougher, T, p. 12, 10.12.2002.






A terrorist who had been convicted

[ past perfect passif ]

of six murders

was found shot dead in a wood at the weekend

in a suspected suicide just weeks

after he had been released

[ past perfect passif ]

on parole.

Eta murderer commits suicide after release,
T, p. 16, 25.11.2002.






The two suspects were taken without a struggle.

After their arrest in the early hours of the morning,

a rifle of the same calibre used in the attacks was found

in their car, along with telescopic sights and a tripod.

A hole had been drilled

[ past perfect passif ]

in the boot of the two men's Chevrolet,

which could have allowed them to shoot from the car

if they had pushed the back seat down

to make an improvised sniper's nest.

Found asleep but ready to kill: Gulf veteran and the teenager,
GE, p.1, 25.10.2002






An Italian photographer was killed by Israeli machine-gun fire

in fierce fighting in central Ramallah yesterday.

He was the first foreign journalist to be killed

[ infinitif passif ]


in the 18 months of the Palestinian uprising.

A French photographer was injured by shrapnel yesterday

and an Egyptian cameraman was hit

when Israeli troops shot at his car

– which was marked with TV signs –

but the bullets were stopped by his flat jacket.

Israeli shots kill journalist, GE, p. 6, 14.3.2002.






In Santiago City, Philippines, mobiles are banned in public

to "forestall the occurrence of accident and disturbance".

Hi, I'm in G2, G2, p. 5, 11.11.2002.






Railtrack and Thames Trains are to be prosecuted

[ infinitif passif

intégré dans une forme verbale exprimant le futur ]


over their roles in the 1999 Paddington rail crash,

in which 31 people died and a further 500 were injured,

it was announced yesterday.

Paddington rail crash to be prosecuted, GE, p. 5, 14.3.2002.






Doctors will be put on the alert tomorrow

for new cases of TB amid fears

that outbreaks of the deadly disease

are being misdiagnosed.

Doctors put on TB alert, O, p. 7, 24.3.2002.






‘I have been stoned, I have been beaten.

[ present perfect passif ]

My family is in hiding.’

Thousands flee Mugabe retribution, O, p. 25, 25.3.2002.






An attempt was made to kidnap Princess Anne

as she drove along The Mall in London.

Her car was ambushed and shot at,

with one bullet passing between her and Captain Mark Phillips.

The gunman was chased into St. James’ Park

where he was apprehended.

Ian Ball (right) was detained

without limit of time under the Mental Health Act.

Man accused of bid to kill royal bodyguard,
2002  sub headline, On This Day, T, March 22, 1974, T, p. 46, 22.3.2002.















énoncés modalisés au passif


modal + beauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé




The Guardian        Society 1        p. 13        21 June 2006
















The Guardian        p. 15        24.6.2006















Condom ads could be screened

before 9pm watershed


Watchdogs call for radical shakeup of advertising rules

to stem rise in teenage pregnancies


Thursday 26 March 2009
 00.01 GMT
The Guardian
Rebecca Smithers


The historic ban on condoms being advertised on TV before the 9pm watershed should be scrapped as part of the drive to reduce spiralling teenage pregnancy rates in the UK, it will be recommended tomorrow, as part of a radical shakeup of the rules governing advertising.

Pregnancy advisory services should also be permitted to advertise for the first time on the radio, under proposals resulting from the first major review of national advertising codes for nearly 50 years.

The bodies responsible for looking after the advertising codes will ask the public to give their views on a series of proposed new, simplified advertising standards, after an 18-month review. The codes are written by the Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP) and the Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice (Bcap).

Also proposed is enhanced protection of children, through a new restriction to prevent adverts for age-restricted computer and console games appearing around TV programmes likely to appeal to youngsters.

But advertising via digital media such as companies' own websites is not included, because it is subject to the outcome of a separate review. And, controversially, the proposals do not also cover the advertising of alcohol, gambling and junk food to children – each the subject of major recent changes.

Significantly, for the first time, TV and radio adverts will be subjected to an overarching "social responsibility" rule, with explicit requirements to prevent advertisers from making exaggerated and misleading environmental claims.

Based on the established principles that advertisements should be legal, decent, honest and truthful, they are independently administered by the Advertising Standards Authority, which investigates and adjudicates on complaints.

Government figures published last month showed the number of teenage pregnancies in England and Wales had risen for the first time in five years. Conception rates among girls rose from 40.9 per 1,000 in 2006 for those aged 15-17 to 41.9 per 1,000 in 2007.

The consultation document states its intention: "To relax the pre-9pm ban on condom advertising in response to evidence from the Independent Advisory Group on Sexual Health and in the light of the UK having the highest teenage pregnancy rate in Europe." However, it suggests that such advertising should be kept away from the youngest viewers.

Post-conception pregnancy advice services are to be permitted to advertise for the first time on radio, but with the requirement to make clear if they do not refer women for abortion. That information is important because, for those women who opt for it, delay in performing an abortion could result in medical complications.

The condom manufacturer Durex said in a statement last night: "We have consistently made the case for the urgent need for responsible pre-watershed condom advertising on television. We believe very strongly that it is essential to be able to get the right safer sex messages across to the right people at the right time, while ensuring adverts are kept away from the youngest viewers."

Andrew Brown, chairman of CAP and Bcap, said: "The UK advertising codes are widely recognised for setting a high bar for social responsibility. Our priority is to ensure that the rules remain relevant for the future so that consumers can continue to enjoy and trust the ads they see."

Condom ads could be screened before 9pm watershed,










Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative > Niveau avancé


passif > ellipse de beauxiliaire



infinitif passif



séquence avec 2 infinitifs passifs



passif > verbes à particule adverbiale



questions au passif



adverbes > place de l'adverbe

dans un GV au passif






information à confirmer /

équivalents anglais du conditionnel




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