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grammaire anglaise > vocabulaire > formation / transformation

 

nom propre -> nom commun

 

Hooligan -> hooligan / hooliganism
 

 

 

 

Quisling -> quisling

 

Sometimes, though, even the best executed plans go awry. Despite the western eulogies, Djindjic will be mourned by few in Serbia. For the great majority of Serbs, he will be remembered as a quisling who enriched himself by selling his country to those who had waged war against it so mercilessly only a few years earlier. Djindjic's much lauded reforms have led to soaring utility prices, unemployment has risen sharply to over 30%, real wages have fallen by up to 20% and over two-thirds of Serbs now live below the poverty line.

    The quisling of Belgrade:
   
The murdered Serbian prime minister
    was a reviled western stooge whose economic reforms brought misery
,
    G, 14.3.2003,
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,913918,00.html

 

Origin

Many of the other titles in the season (including Skouen's two masterpieces, Nine Lives and Cold Tracks) deal with precisely the period during which Hamsun turned from a national idol into one of the most loathed men in the country - the Nazi occupation. In the demonology of those years, he ranks only a place or two beneath Vidkun Quisling, the Norwegian politician whose name became synonymous with treachery.

    Hitler's little helper: All of Norway loved the novelist Knut Hamsun.
    Then the Nazis invaded and he welcomed them with open arms, G, 7.3.2002,
    http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/artsandentertainment/
    story/0,6000,663426,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

Hooligan -> hooligan / hooliganism
IPA pronunciation

 

The issue of racism in football is either spoken of too much or too little. Frequently it is simply merged with hooliganism and other forms of anti-social behaviour. The dominant image in the public debate is that of proto-fascist blind hate - the un-hirsute hooligan.

    Racism in the English game, GEd, 18.12.2001,
    http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/socialsciences/story/0,9846,620691,00.html

 

Origin

"Several suggestions have been made about its origin that link it to the Irish family name variously spelt Hooligan or Houlihan. It seems there was a popular music-hall song of the period about a rowdy Irish family of that name; the OED comments that there was a series about a similarly-named comic Irish character that appeared in a periodical called Funny Folks. Some reports say it was a mishearing of the term Hooley’s gang but nobody has come up with a source for this.

However, a book by Clarence Rook named Hooligan Nights, which was published in 1899, gives some helpful evidence. Mr Rook claimed that the word derives from a Patrick Hooligan, a small-time bouncer and thief, who lived in the Borough, on the south side of the river. With his family and a small gang of followers he frequented the Lamb and Flag public house in Southwark (not to be confused with the older and more famous hostelry of the same name across the river in Covent Garden). Mr Hooligan murdered a policeman, was put away for life and died in prison. Another writer, Earnest Weekley, said in his Romance of Words in 1912: “The original Hooligans were a spirited Irish family of that name whose proceedings enlivened the drab monotony of life in Southwark about fourteen years ago”. It would seem from the other evidence that spirited and enlivened are euphemisms."

    Auteur : Michael Quinion / World Wide Words

    Source : http://www.quinion.com/words/topicalwords/tw-hoo1.htm