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History > 20th century > WW2 (1939-1945) > USA, World > Timeline in pictures

 

After WW2

 

USA > Secret Army intelligence program

first known as ''Overcast'' and later ''Paperclip''

 

Operation Paperclip swept German scientists to the US

 

 

 

 

Hubertus Strughold, center,

with a pressurized chamber

for use in eventual space medicine research,

at the U.S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine

in the 1950s.

 

Photograph:

AFMS History Office

 

The Doctor From Nazi Germany and the Search for Life on Mars

Astrobiologists have used Mars Jars for decades.

Many didn’t know about the controversial Air Force scientist

who started them.

NYT

July 24, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/24/
science/mars-jars-strughold.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arthur Louis Hugo Rudolph    GER    1906-1996

 

A German-born space official

who developed the rocket

that carried Americans to the moon

has quietly left the United States

and surrendered his citizenship

rather than face

Justice Department charges

that he had brutalized

slave laborers

at a Nazi rocket factory

during World War II.

 

Announcing

the action yesterday

in a brief statement,

the Justice Department said

that the official, Arthur Rudolph,

as director

for production of V-2 rockets

at an underground factory attached

to the Dora-Nordhausen camp

from 1943 to 1945, ''participated

in the persecution of forced laborers,

including concentration camp inmates,

who were employed there

under inhumane conditions.''

 

A third to one half

of Dora's 60,000 prisoners died.

 

The National Aeronautics

and Space Administration,

which had awarded

high awards to Mr. Rudolph

for his work for the agency

from 1962 from 1969,

had no comment

on the Justice Department

announcement.  (Page A13.)

 

The announcement

on Mr. Rudolph,

who was brought

to the United States in 1945

with Wernher von Braun

and more than a hundred

other Nazi German

technicians and scientists,

was negotiated in advance

with Mr. Rudolph.

 

The announcement

did not mention

his prominent role

in the United States space

and missile programs.

 

Nor did it say

where he had gone.

Investigators said

it was West Germany.

 

Officials said it was unlikely

that Mr. Rudolph,

who is 77 years old,

would face prosecution

in West Germany

as the statute of limitations

has expired.

 

Mr. Rudolph was not carried

on an Allied list of war criminals

drawn up after the war

 

Other officials

of the rocket factory

were convicted of war crimes

and jailed or executed

- NYT, Oct. 18, 1984

https://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/18/
world/german-born-nasa-expert-quits-us-to-avoid-a-war-crimes-suit.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/18/
world/german-born-nasa-expert-quits-us-to-avoid-a-war-crimes-suit.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hubertus Strughold    GER    1898-1986

 

Dr. Strughold’s work

on astronaut physiology

and aviation medicine in the U.S.

— work he had started

in Nazi Germany for the Luftwaffe,

and which was tangled up

in inhumane experiments.

 

Dr. Strughold didn’t do

these experiments himself,

and he wasn’t a member

of the Nazi party.

 

But on his watch,

researchers locked prisoners

at the Dachau

concentration camp

in low-pressure chambers,

to show what might happen

to fliers at high altitude,

and dressed them

in fighter-pilot uniforms

only to submerge them

in freezing water.

 

(...)

 

After World War II,

Dr. Strughold arrived in America

as part of the secretive

Operation Paperclip,

which swept German scientists

to the United States.

 

Wernher von Braun,

who had overseen

the Nazi V-2 rocket

and later became

the architect of NASA’s

Saturn V rocket,

also came to North America

through this program,

and the two interacted

at space conferences.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/24/
science/mars-jars-strughold.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/24/
science/mars-jars-strughold.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun    GER    1912-1977

 

When he died

on June 16, 1977,

Wernher von Braun,

the son

of East Prussian aristocrats,

had left an indelible,

if ambiguous, legacy

as a visionary space-travel

pioneer.

 

His boyhood obsession

with rocketry

elevated him to the position

of Nazi Germany’s

leading missile scientist

and the brains behind the V-2

— Vergeltungswaffe Zwei

(Revenge Weapon Two) —

perfected

in the village of Peenemünde,

on the Baltic,

where his grandfather

had hunted ducks,

and then aimed at Britain.

 

With Soviet forces advancing

at the end of World War II,

von Braun and more than a hundred

of his fellow scientists surrendered

to the United States Army.

 

They were scooped up

in Operation Paperclip

and transplanted in Alabama,

where they formed the vanguard

of an American space program

that built the Saturn V rocket,

which sent nine crews

toward the moon.

 

In addition to Columbus,

von Braun liked to invoke

the Wright Brothers

and Charles Lindbergh.

 

But he was also often mentioned

in the same breath as Faust,

for his wartime Devil’s bargain.

 

He would say later

that his chief goal

was always space travel

— eventually a permanent

moon base

and a mission to Mars —

and that his V-2 rockets

had worked perfectly,

except that they landed

on the wrong planet.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/obituaries/archives/
wernher-von-braun

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/obituaries/archives/
wernher-von-braun

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/10/23/
772742561/the-dark-side-of-the-moon

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2019/jul/04/
prisoners-of-the-moon-review-nasa-apollo-11-arthur-rudolph-wernher-von-braun

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/oct/09/
apollo-14-song-a-hymn-to-god-or-to-the-nazis

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/cifamerica/2010/nov/15/
secondworldwar-international-criminal-justice

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/
books/review/Holloway-t.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/dec/03/
germany.kateconnolly

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/18/
books/review/Roland-t.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/media/1999/jul/19/
tvandradio.television2

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1977/06/18/
archives/wernher-von-braun-rocket-pioneer-dies-wernher-von-braun-pioneer-in.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1972/05/27/
archives/von-brauns-departure-marks-the-end-of-an-era.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1970/03/02/
archives/nasas-planning-chief-wernher-von-braun.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1964/03/17/
archives/von-braun-names-exnazi-to-key-moon-rocket-post.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1965/06/14/
archives/von-braun-fights-alabama-racism-scientist-warns-state-us-might.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1957/10/20/
archives/visit-with-a-prophet-of-the-space-age-wernher-von-braun-who-built.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century

 

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