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History > 18 th century > United Kingdom of Great Britain, England

 

 

Timeline in pictures

 

 

1798

 

The Battle of the Nile

 

Horatio Nelson    1758-1805

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/apr/14/
military.helenasmith

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Horatio_Nelson,_1st_Viscount_Nelson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1788

 

Australia

 

Landing of the First Fleet

in Sydney Cove

 

 

Around 1,400 people arrived,

half of them convicts,

transported from England

to establish a penal colony.

 

In the aftermath

of the American War of Independence,

the British needed a new place

to send criminals.

 

The colonizers and their courts

considered Australia

“terra nullius”

or “land belonging to nobody,”

a legal fiction used to justify

the theft of Aboriginal land

over the next two centuries.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/
opinion/white-australians-celebrate-aboriginal-people-mourn.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/
opinion/white-australians-celebrate-aboriginal-people-mourn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1773

 

Enclosure Act,

Helpston, Northamptonshire

 

 

This was the first major

parliamentary act

to authorise the enclosing

of tracts of hitherto

common land.

 

The practice

increased dramatically

throughout the country

in the late 18th

and early 19th centuries

as the population rose

and the existing

open field system

struggled to produce

sufficient food.

 

One of the areas most affected

was central southern England,

where it caused

widespread destitution

of the landless poor

and great depopulation

of the countryside.

 

By the end of the 19th century

some 5,000 individual acts

had been implemented

and about 11,000

square miles enclosed.

 

Born in Northamptonshire

20 years after the 1773 act,

the so-called peasant poet

John Clare

wrote the most passionate

and highly regarded laments

for the loss of open land.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1760-1840

 

Industrial Revolution,

Dudley, West Midlands

 

 

The Black Country,

to the west of Birmingham,

stood on the thick,

rich coal seams

which were to power Britain

to the forefront

of manufacturing nations.

 

Close to the pleasant hills

of south Shropshire,

this region of some

20 expanding small towns,

each specialising

in a particular metal trade,

was the first sizeable

industrial landscape

in the world.

 

By the middle

of the 19th century,

it was producing

more than a fifth

of the country’s iron,

supplying

the cast-iron pillars

for the Great Exhibition

at Crystal Palace in 1851,

the US’s

first steam locomotive,

and the anchors

for such mighty vessels

as the Titanic

and Brunel’s

SS Great Britain.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1745

 

Jacobite Rebellion, Cumbria

 

 

Drive westwards

along the B6318,

from Greenhead

towards Carlisle,

and you are travelling

along a line of history.

 

Beneath the tarmac

on this scenic alternative

to the A69 west of Haltwhistle

are the stones of the old

military road constructed

to repel 18th century Jacobite

invaders from Scotland.

 

You can see

where the material came from

by the gaps in Hadrian’s Wall.

 

In 1745, while most

of the British Army

was in Europe

engaged in the War

of the Austrian Succession,

Bonnie Prince Charlie

led the rebels in an effort

to re-establish

a Stuart monarchy.

 

On their way south

– they got as far as Derby –

they briefly held

the city of Carlisle.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George III    r. 1760-1820    (1738-1820)

 

 

 

James Gillray (1757-1815)

was among the most popular,

prolific, revered, and reviled print satirists

of the golden age of English caricature,

the late eighteenth century.

 

He took special delight

in attacking the excesses of the royal family.

 

Here,

he caustically depicts

King George III, Queen Charlotte,

and the Prince of Wales (later George IV)

gorging themselves on the national treasury,

labelled "John Bull's Blood."

 

The title, "Monstrous Craws,"

refers to the rapidly expanding gullets

dangling from the royal necks,

probably inspired by the recent public display in London

of three "wild-born human beings,"

who apparently exhibited such features.

 

James Gillray,

MONSTROUS CRAWS,  at a New Coalition Feast,

etching with watercolor, 1787 - Library of Congress purchase, 1921

Prints and Photographs Division (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.economist.com/books-and-arts/2006/01/26/
gorgeous-george 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/01/28/
512147256/vindication-for-the-mad-king-new-archive-gives-george-iii-a-second-chance

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/dec/14/
attack-royal-carriage-protesters-1795

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1791

 

Thomas Paine's Rights of Man

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam Smith    1723-1790

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/smith_adam.shtml

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/apr/12/
businessglossary124

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Child Labour    1750-1850

 

online source material

 

Poor Law Amendment Act    1834

 

Poor Laws XIV - XX

 

 

Milk of Human Kindness

 

 

"... in 1843 the satirical magazine Punch

reported how in Bethnal Green

"An infant, only five weeks old,

had been separated from the mother,

being occasionally brought to her for the breast." "

http://users.ox.ac.uk/~peter/workhouse/poorlaws/poorlaws.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Industrial Revolution

 

 

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/modsbook14.asp   

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_steam_eng.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England and the French Revolution

 

 

https://www.bartleby.com/60/104.html  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Captain James Cook    1728-1779

 

Cook

was an 18th century

explorer and navigator

whose achievements

in mapping

the Pacific,

New Zealand

and Australia

radically changed

western perceptions

of world geography.

 

As one

of the very few men

in the 18th century navy

to rise through the ranks,

Cook was particularly

sympathetic

to the needs

of ordinary sailors.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cook_captain_james.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cook_james.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/06/
george-stubbs-cook-endeavour-works-saved-maritime-museum

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/mar/22/uk.australia 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/jul/13/artsandhumanities.arts1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain and America's war for independence

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/rebels_redcoats_02.shtml

http://memory.loc.gov/const/declar.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/bdsds/timelin2.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sir Isaac Newton    1642-1727

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/isaac-newton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Colston    1636-1721

 

notorious slave trader

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/audio/2022/jan/10/
what-colston-four-acquittal-means-future-protests-podcast

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2022/jan/10/
colston-four-britain-apology-for-past

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acts of Union:

The creation of the United Kingdom

 

Political unification

of Scotland and England

 

1707

 

Act of Union

 

 

The Treaty of the Union

creates

the United Kingdom

of Great Britain,

the parliamentary union

of England

- which for administrative

purposes

also encompasses

the Principality of Wales -

with Scotland.

 

It takes effect on May 1

but Scotland retains

its own legal

and educational systems.

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/04/
scotland-independence-history-idUSL5N0KY26120140204

 

 

 

The Acts of Union,

passed by the English

and Scottish Parliaments in 1707,

led to the creation

of the United Kingdom of Great Britain

on 1 May of that year.

 

The UK Parliament

met for the first time

in October 1707.

- 27 December 2020

https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/
evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/act-of-union-1707/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/feb/08/britishidentity.constitution  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/acts_of_union_01.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/6263977.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/6262813.stm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Union_1707

https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/
evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/
act-of-union-1707/

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2011/may/20/
how-scotland-compares-1707-2011

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/may/01/
scotland.devolution2

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/may/01/
scotland.devolution1

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/feb/08/
scotland.britishidentity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Anne    r. 1702-1714    (1665-1714)

 

 

 

Queen Anne and William, Duke of Gloucester

by studio of Sir Godfrey Kneller.

Scanned from the book

The National Portrait Gallery

History of the Kings and Queens of England

by David Williamson,

ISBN 1855142287.

Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Queen_Anne_and_William,_Duke_of_Gloucester_by_studio_of_Sir_Godfrey_Kneller.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne,_Queen_of_Great_Britain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Born in 1665,

the younger daughter

of James VII and II

by his first wife,

Anne Hyde,

Queen Anne

inherited the throne

in 1702.

 

(...)

 

During Queen Anne's reign,

Scotland and England

found it

increasingly difficult

to co-exist peacefully,

for their separate parliaments

had conflicting foreign

and economic policies.

 

Eventually,

the situation became

so unstable

that the Union

of the Crowns itself

seemed to be in danger.

 

In 1701,

England

settled the succession

of the Protestant

Sophia of Hanover,

granddaughter

of James VI and I,

but two years later

the Scots declared

that they were free

to choose someone else,

the implication being

that they might select

the exiled

Jacobite claimant,

James VII and II's son.

 

The situation

was untenable.

 

After months

of bitter debate,

the anti-Unionists

led by Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun

were finally defeated

and the Scottish Parliament

agreed that henceforth

the kingdoms

of Scotland

and England

would be united

as Great Britain,

with one parliament.

http://www.royal.gov.uk/historyofthemonarchy/scottish%20monarchs%28400ad-1603%29/thestewarts/anne.aspx
- broken lionk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William III (of Orange)    1650-1702

 

William

 was 'stadtholder'

of the Netherlands

and in 1688-1689

became king of England

in the 'Glorious Revolution',

ruling jointly with his wife,

Mary.

 

He deposed James II.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/william_iii.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/william_iii.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James II    1633-1701

 

James

was a Stuart king

of England,

Scotland and Ireland

who in 1688

was overthrown

in the 'Glorious Revolution'

by William III.

 

James was born

on 14 October 1633

to Charles I

and his French wife,

Henrietta Maria

and was named

after his grandfather,

James I and VI.

 

During the English Civil War

he was captured but fled

to exile on the continent.

 

He distinguished

himself a soldier,

returning to England

at the Restoration

of his brother, Charles II,

in 1660.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_ii.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_ii.shtml 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1701

 

The act of settlement

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A695441

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/dec/06/monarchy 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1700

 

The Act of Settlement

 

 

https://www.legislation.gov.uk/aep/Will3/12-13/2/contents    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mary II    1662-1694

 

The daughter

of James II, Mary

and her husband

William of Orange

became

co-rulers of England

after

the 'Glorious Revolution'.

 

Mary was born

on 30 April 1662,

the eldest daughter

of James, Duke of York

and his first wife

Anne Hyde.

 

James

converted

to Catholicism

at the end

of the 1660s,

but Mary

and her sister Anne

were raised

as Protestants.

 

In November 1677,

Mary married

her Dutch cousin

William, Prince of Orange

and went to the Netherlands

to live with him.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_ii_queen.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_ii_queen.shtml
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Battle of the Boyne    1690

 

The Treaty of Limerick    1691

 

 

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/ni/battle_boyne.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1688

 

The Glorious Revolution

 

William III (r. 1689-1702)

and Mary II (r. 1689-94)

 

Declaration of Rights / Bill of Rights    1689

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A700372

https://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/england.asp 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Stuarts and the Civil War

 

The restoration of the monarchy    1660-85

 

John Evelyn, Anthony Van Dyck

 

Charles II    r. 1660-85

 

 

 

King Charles II

Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)        1635

Oil on canvas        Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/d/dyck_van/1portrai/charles1.html

http://www.wga.hu/art/d/dyck_van/1portrai/charles1.jpg

http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/d/dyck_van/1portrai/charles1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_restoration.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_ii_king.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_charles_ii.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Hobbes    1588-1679

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hobbes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oliver Cromwell    1599-1658

 

Civil wars    1642-1651

 

British Library

Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts

 

 

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/dobson-portrait-of-an-officer-n04619 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/cromwell_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/englishcivilwar/index.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/englishcivilwar/west_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_civil_war_p1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_world_upside_down.shtml 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_civil_war_p2.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/cromwell_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/08/
cromwell-portraitist-samuel-cooper-exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1666

 

The Great Fire of London

 

Sir Christopher Wren    1632-1723

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/fire/index.shtml  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wren_christopher.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Plague Year    1665-66

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles I    r. 1625-1649    (1600-1649)

 

Petition of Right        1628

 

 

 

The final speech of King Charles I,

given at his execution in January 1648/9.

 

Shelfmark: E.540.(17). © The British Library.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_charles_i.shtml

http://www.bl.uk/collections/early/thomason.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/englishcivilwar/index.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/personality_charles_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/jan/28/
charles-i-king-and-collector-royal-academy-review

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/nov/14/monarchy-television

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1649

 

English Civil War

Pontefract Castle,

West Yorkshire

 

 

Once the most powerful

castle in the kingdom,

the place

where Shakespeare’s

doomed Richard II

laments his condition,

and the very last

stronghold to fall

to Oliver Cromwell’s

parliamentarian forces.

 

Even after Charles I

had been beheaded

in January 1649,

the royalists

hung on here,

declaring the king’s son

to be the rightful heir

as Charles II.

 

When the castle

finally fell,

Cromwell

persuaded the villagers

to help “slight” (destroy)

the troublesome redoubt.

 

This they never

fully achieved,

and when Victoria

reigned,

centuries later,

it became used

for growing

and storing liquorice.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Witness statements

from Irish rebellion and massacres of 1641

 

 

Fully searchable

digital edition

of the 1641 depositions

at Trinity College Dublin Library,

comprising transcripts and images

of all 4000 depositions,

examinations

and associated materials

in which Protestant men

and women of all classes

told of their experiences

following

the outbreak of the rebellion

by the Catholic Irish

in October, 1641

http://1641.eneclann.ie/

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/07/
irish-rebellion-archive-online

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 5, 1605

 

The Gunpowder Plot        Guy Fawkes

 

 

In 1605,

a group

of disaffected Catholics

plotted to assassinate

King James I

by blowing up

the House of Lords.

 

They hoped

to restore

Protestant England

to Catholicism

and end the persecution

of their faith.

 

The 'Gunpowder Plot'

was foiled

at the eleventh hour,

an event still

celebrated annually

on 5 November

and named for

the most famous

of the conspirators

- Guy Fawkes Night.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/histories/the_gunpowder_plot

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/histories/the_gunpowder_plot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1604-1611

 

King James Bible

 

 

In 1604,

(King James)

convened

the Hampton Court Conference

in order to set in train

a translation,

accomplished

by 47 scholars,

which would

properly reflect

the vision and structure

of the Church of England.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King James VI of Scotland

and I of England

r.1603-1625        1566-1625

 

House of: Stuart

 

Ascended to the throne:

March 24, 1603 aged 36 years

 

Died:

March 27, 1625

at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire

 

Reigned for: 22 years, and 3 days,

King of Scotland for 57 years

1567-1625

http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=james1

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_i_king.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_james_i_acc.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_jamesbible.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_jamesbible.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > Ancient Britain - early 21st century

 

Ancient Britain - Early 21st century

England, United Kingdom, British Empire

 

 

 

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