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History > 20th, 19th century > British empire, England, Ireland, Scotland, UK

 

United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland    1927

 

United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Ireland    1801-1922

 

Irish free State    1922

 

British empire

 

Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

 

Afrikaners with bolt-action rifles

during the second Boer War.

 

Photograph:

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

 

A picture of Johannesburg on the eve of the Boer war

G

Monday 26 October 2015    10.24 GMT

Last modified on Monday 26 October 2015    10.38 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/
boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Boer War begins        October 11 1899

 

 

 

A Boer picket on Spion Kop,

Ladysmith during the Boer War.

 

Photograph:

Van Hoepen/Getty Images

 

A picture of Johannesburg on the eve of the Boer war

G

Monday 26 October 2015    10.24 GMT

Last modified on Monday 26 October 2015    10.38 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/
boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second Boer war

was fought

from October 1899

to May 1902

between British

and Afrikaner settlers

in the Transvaal

and Free Orange State.

 

The peace treaty led

to the founding

of a united South Africa

in 1910.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/
boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/vic_boer_war.shtml

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/07/
749043160/scorched-earth

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/
boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1899/nov/17/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1899/oct/13/
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1898

 

Sudan

 

Battle of Omdurman

 

 

In 1898,

(...)

a whole panoply

of British officers

(including Winston Churchill)

who would later fight in Europe

were on hand for a battle

at Omdurman, in Sudan.

 

The 50,000 Sudanese they faced

were armed only with spears,

swords and antiquated rifles.

 

In a few hours,

the six Maxim machine guns

of the far smaller

Anglo-Egyptian force

fired half a million bullets,

leaving nearly

11,000 Sudanese dead

and some 16,000 wounded,

many fatally.

 

The battle determined

the outcome of a war

in less than a day.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1897

 

Benin City, originally called Edo,

was once the capital

of a pre-encounter African empire

in what is now southern Nigeria.

 

It was one of the oldest states

in west Africa,

dating back to the 11th century.

 

At the height of the scramble

for Africa,

the “Benin expedition” of 1897

led to British troops

punitively sacking the ancient city

after it defied the British empire

by imposing customs duties.

 

The city’s walls

– at the time the world’s

largest earthworks created

in the pre-mechanised era

and four times the length

of the Great Wall of China –

were razed.

 

The city

was burned to the ground

and its treasures looted.

 

Much of Benin’s

artworks and artefacts

were taken to Britain

where many were auctioned

as war booty

or gifted to museums

across Europe.

 

Hundreds

of the stolen artefacts

still reside in museums,

galleries, universities

and private collections

across the UK.

 

The Benin bronzes,

in particular, remain

the subject of demands

for repatriation.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/11/
black-history-month-events-that-should-be-taught-to-every-pupil

 

 

Benin was crushed,

its treasures stolen

as if its people

had produced nothing

and knew nothing.

 

The destruction of Benin City

happened

at the most irrational period

in the history of the empire,

when Britain competed with the French,

Germans and Belgians to grab

as much of the African continent

as possible.

 

Between 1880 and 1902

Britain seized Egypt, Nigeria,

Kenya, the Sudan and Rhodesia;

 

it established

possession of South Africa

and controlled eastern Africa

from the Cape to the Suez Canal,

fulfilling - partly -

the megalomaniac dreams

of imperialists

such as Cecil Rhodes

and Joseph Chamberlain.

 

The attack on Benin

took place in the year

of the Diamond Jubilee

of Queen Victoria,

Empress of India.

 

The Daily Mail,

voice of popular imperialism,

had been founded

the year before.

 

A year later

Rudyard Kipling published

The White Man's Burden:

"Take up the White Man's Burden/

Send forth the best ye breed."

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2003/sep/11/2

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/11/
black-history-month-events-that-should-be-taught-to-every-pupil

 

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2003/sep/11/2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

late 19th century / early 20th century > Suffragettes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British battles

 

The Egypt War of 1882

 

 

The importance

of Egypt to Britain

rose dramatically

after the opening

of the Suez Canal

in 1869.

 

At a stroke

there was a new route

from Europe to the Far East

that halved the journey time

between Britain and India.

 

At this point Egypt

was developing rapidly

along western lines,

but the following decade

saw increasing tension

between Britain and Egypt,

resulting in the British attack

on Egypt in 1882.

 

This gallery looks in detail

at the war of 1882

and its conclusive engagement,

the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir.

 

 

The causes of war

 

From 1805

Egypt

had been nominally part

of the Ottoman (Turkish) empire,

but it was effectively ruled

by a dynasty established

by the strong

and modernising ruler

Muhammad Ali.

 

By 1869,

it had benefited

from years of investment

(much of it British and French)

in irrigation, railways,

cotton plantations

and schools.

 

By 1876,

however,

its ruler

the Khedive Ismail Pasha

had run up debts

of almost £100 million.

 

In spite

of the Khedive's sale

of his 45% holding

in the Suez Canal

to Britain for £4 million

in 1875,

Egypt was heading

for financial ruin.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/egypt/

 

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/egypt/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)        PM    1868        PM 1874 to 1880

 

 

 

Myth-making … Benjamin Disraeli.

 

Photograph: Jabez Hughes/Getty Images

 

Disraeli by David Cesarani review

– the Jewish prime minister and antisemitism

G

Saturday 11 June 2016    11.00 BST

Last modified on Saturday 11 June 2016    13.37 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jun/11/
disraeli-the-novel-politician-by-david-cesarani-review 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Disraeli

 

Politician,

novelist and bon viveur,

Benjamin Disraeli

was a man with many interests,

but it was as a Conservative politician

that Disraeli achieved lasting fame.

 

PM for almost 7 years,

he initiated

a wide range of legislation

to improve educational opportunities

and the life of working people.

 

Benjamin ‘Dizzy’ Disraeli

was the son of Isaac,

a Jewish Italian writer,

and had an Anglican upbringing

after the age of 12.

 

With Jews excluded

from Parliament until 1858,

this enabled Disraeli

to follow a career

that would otherwise

have been denied him.

https://www.gov.uk/government/history/
past-prime-ministers/benjamin-disraeli-the-earl-of-beaconsfield
 

 

 

https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/
benjamin-disraeli-the-earl-of-beaconsfield

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jun/11/
disraeli-the-novel-politician-by-david-cesarani-review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1878-1881

 

Afghanistan

 

Second Anglo-Afghan War

 

July 27, 1880

 

Battle of Maiwand

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/wiltshire/hi/
people_and_places/history/newsid_8659000/8659351.stm

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Maiwand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1878-1881

 

Afghanistan

 

Second Anglo-Afghan War

 

1878

 

Britain invade Afghanistan

 

 

 

 

Sir Louis Cavagnari,

British envoy to Afghanistan,

photographed on his way to Kabul

in July 1879.

 

Two months later he was killed

during an Afghan uprising in Kabul.

 

This led to the war of 1879.

 

Photograph:

 Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis, via Getty Images

 

The Empire Stopper

The foreign powers that have tried to control Afghanistan

since the 19th century have all suffered for the effort.

Now the U.S. is digging back in.

NYT

AUG. 29, 2017

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/29/
world/asia/afghanistan-graveyard-empires-historical-pictures.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4926628.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/wiltshire/hi/
people_and_places/history/newsid_8659000/8659351.stm

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/29/
world/asia/afghanistan-graveyard-empires-historical-pictures.html

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/fisk/
robert-fisk-27-july-1880-a-date-mr-blair-should-look-up-437801.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1877

 

The Transvaal Republic

is annexed to the British Empire

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1877/may/10/
mainsection.fromthearchive
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1875

 

Public Health Act

 

 

https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/38-39/55/contents 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/apr/27/
why-privatisation-is-the-key-to-the-election

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1867

 

Representation of the People Act

 

 

https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/30-31/102/contents 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1858

 

The Great Stink

 

The Great Stink

was an event in Central London

in July and August 1858

during which the hot weather

exacerbated

the smell of untreated human waste

and industrial effluent

that was present on the banks

of the River Thames.

 

The problem had been mounting

for some years,

with an ageing and inadequate sewer system

that emptied directly into the Thames.

 

The miasma from the effluent

was thought to transmit

contagious diseases,

and three outbreaks of cholera

before the Great Stink

were blamed on the ongoing problem

 with the river.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Stink - 1 July 2021

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Stink

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/06/30/
1011669888/half-the-world-lacks-proper-sanitation-is-it-possible-to-transform-the-toilet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1857-1858

 

India

 

The Indian Mutiny

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/indian_rebellion_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Peel    1788-1850

 

British Conservative statesman

who served twice

as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

(1834–35 and 1841–46)

and twice as Home Secretary

(1822–27 and 1828–30).

 

He is regarded

as the father

of modern British policing,

owing to his founding

of the Metropolitan Police Service.

 

Peel was one of the founders

of the modern Conservative Party.

27 December 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Peel

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Peel

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1850/jul/06/
leadersandreply.mainsection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1845 - 1850s

 

The Irish famine / The Great Hunger

 

The great Irish potato famine of the 1840s

claimed a million lives

https://www.theguardian.com/books/1999/jul/10/
historybooks.books

 

 

 

 http://vassun.vassar.edu/~sttaylor/FAMINE/ILN/Mortality/SkibFuneral.gif - broken link

 

 

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/trollope/famine2.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/10/28/
world/europe/tuam-ireland-babies-children.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/aug/10/
teeth-of-irish-famine-victims-reveal-scientific-markers-for-starvation

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2011/sep/22/
weatherwatch-irish-potato-famine

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/08/
newspapers-national-newspapers5

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/1999/jul/10/
historybooks.books

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The British Empire / British dominions

 

 


http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/britain_empire_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/ 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learning/library/british_empire.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1834/aug/02/
race.world 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Imperialistic Anthem

 

Rule Britannia

and Land of Hope and Glory,

and more

 

 

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/
rulebritannia.asp
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Victoria    r. 1837-1901    (1819-1901)

 

The Victorian age

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/vic_boer_war.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/o_victorians.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1901/jan/23/
monarchy.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crimea, 1854

 

British battles

 

The Crimean War

 

 

In Britain,

the Crimean War

is principally remembered

for three reasons:

 

the Charge

of the Light Brigade,

maladministration

in the British army,

and Florence Nightingale.

 

However, this war,

fought by an alliance

of Britain, France,

Turkey and Sardinia

against Russia,

is far more complex.

 

Many wars

have been fought

on the grounds

of the strategic importance

of a region;

 

many wars

have been fought

over religious differences.

 

The Crimean War

was the result

of both factors.

 

 

 

The causes of war

 

During the years

leading up

to the Crimean War,

France, Russia and Britain

were all competing

for influence

in the Middle East,

particularly with Turkey.

 

Religious differences

were certainly a catalyst

in the Crimean War.

 

Control of access

to religious sites

in the Holy Land

had been a cause of tension

between Catholic France

and Orthodox Russia

for a number of years

and in 1853,

the conflict came to a head

with rioting in Bethlehem,

which was then part

of the Ottoman empire

ruled by Turkey.

 

A number

of Orthodox monks

were killed

during fighting

with French monks.

 

Tsar Nicholas I

blamed the Turks

for these deaths.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/crimea/

 

 

https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/crimea/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1840,1846

 

The Corn Laws

 

 

https://www.economist.com/unknown/1843/08/05/
wheat

 

https://www.economist.com/unknown/1843/08/05/
coffee-and-sugar

 

https://www.economist.com/unknown/1843/08/05/
sugar

 

https://www.economist.com/unknown/1843/08/05/
wool-and-c

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jun/28/
penny-loaves-butter-cheap-stephen-bates-review

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/09/
1846-corn-laws-abolished

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1840/jan/20/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irish emigrants

 

 

The story

of Irish immigration to America

during the 19th century

 

 

Ireland’s 1845 Potato Blight

 

 

Anti-immigrant

and anti-Catholic sentiments

 

 

Racial tensions

 

 

The Irish Famine: 1845-9

 

"Potato crop fails in Ireland

sparking the Potato Famine

that kills one million

and prompts almost 500,000

to immigrate to America

in the next five years."

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/irish8.html

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1839-1842

 

Afghanistan

 

First Anglo-Afghan war

 

 

The Massacre

of Elphinstone's Army

was a victory

of Afghan forces,

led by Akbar Khan,

the son

of Dost Mohammad Khan,

over a combined

British and Indian force

led by Major General

William Elphinstone,

in January 1842.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massacre_of_Elphinstone%27s_Army

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/making_history
_20081028.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/
opinion/09dalrymple.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1839-1842

 

Afghanistan

 

First Anglo-Afghan war

 

1839

 

The British invade Afghanistan

 

 

The First Anglo-Afghan War

broke out

when Britain

invaded Afghanistan

because she feared

Russian encroachment

into Central Asia.

 

The British

were eventually routed

and the 16,000 strong army

forced to flee Kabul

in the winter of 1841.

 

Only one man

survived the retreat.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/making_history
_20081028.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/
opinion/09dalrymple.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The "People's Charter,"

drafted in 1838 by William Lovett

 

Chartism or The Chartist Movement

 

The Chartist Movement    1838-1848

 

The Poor Man's Guardian

 

 

 


http://www.unionhistory.info/timeline/Tl_Display.php?Where=
Dc1Title+contains+'The+Poor+Mans+Guardian%2C+No.+5%2C+6+August+1831'

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist3.html

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chartism7.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/chartist_01.shtm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/jul/24/
past.britishidentity 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2006/jul/27/
mainsection.guardianletters2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1833

 

Abolition of Slavery Act

 

https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/articles/
the-slavery-abolition-act-of-1833/

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/jan/25/
comment.comment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1830

 

Tasmania

 

Liffey Falls massacre

 

 

In 1830,

in response to conflicts

between colonisers

and Indigenous people,

Governor George Arthur

called for every British man

to form a human chain

across Tasmania

to capture and kill

Aboriginal people.

 

More than 2,200

settlers, military,

police and convicts

joined in.

 

“The Black Line”

was the largest force

assembled against

Aboriginal people

anywhere in Australia.

 

Those captured

were forcibly removed

to Flinders Island

in Bass Strait,

where many later died.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/jun/22/
no-blood-stained-the-wattle-a-picture-essay

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/jun/22/
no-blood-stained-the-wattle-a-picture-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Peterloo Massacre        Manchester        August 16, 1819

 

 

 

A contemporary political cartoon of the Peterloo massacre.

 

Photograph:

The Art Archive/Rex/Shutterstock

 

Public re-enactment

to mark 200th anniversary of Peterloo massacre

G

Tue 23 Jul 2019    16.31 BST

Last modified on Wed 24 Jul 2019    08.11 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/jul/23/
public-re-enactment-to-mark-200th-anniversary-of-peterloo-massacre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

over-zealous

local magistrates

sent armed soldiers

to disperse a peaceful

public meeting

in support

of universal suffrage.

 

At least 11 people

were killed.

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/may/02/
miranda-carter-we-should-thank-a-devon-shoemaker-for-the-freedom-of-the-press

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/manchester/content/articles/2007/08/15/
160807_peterloo_memorial_feature.shtml

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/riots/peterloo.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/jul/23/
public-re-enactment-to-mark-200th-anniversary-of-peterloo-massacre

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/jan/04/
peterloo-massacre-bloody-clash-that-changed-britain

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/may/02/
miranda-carter-we-should-thank-a-devon-shoemaker-for-the-freedom-of-the-press

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/aug/15/
past.leadersandreply  

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/aug/13/
britishidentity.artnews 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/jul/24/
past.britishidentity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1811-1816

 

The Luddites

 

 

After the end

of the French Wars,

it became increasingly clear

that England was suffering

from great social, economic

and political upheavals.

 

These problems

collectively became known

as the 'Condition

of England Question'.

 

Many of these problems

would have occurred

eventually

but had been

speeded up

by the effects

of the French Wars

on the country.

 

Most of the major changes

were the direct result

of the French Wars.

 

Others came

from natural growth

and change.

 

The distress and discontent

caused by

these enormous changes

were manifested

in a series of events

in the period 1811-19.

 

One of these

was the upsurge

in Luddism.

 

Luddites were men

who took the name

of a (perhaps)

mythical individual,

Ned Ludd

who was reputed

to live

in Sherwood Forest.

 

The Luddites

were trying

to save

their livelihoods

by smashing

industrial machines

developed for use

in the textile industries

of the West Riding

of Yorkshire,

Nottinghamshire,

Leicestershire

and Derbyshire.

 

Some Luddites

were active

in Lancashire also.

 

They smashed

stocking-frames

and cropping frames

among others.

 

There does not seem

to have been

any political motivation

behind the Luddite riots;

equally, there was no

national organisation.

 

The men merely were attacking

what they saw as the reason

for the decline in their livelihoods.

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/riots/luddites.html

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/riots/luddites.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 June 1815

 

Battle of Waterloo

 

Belgium,

then part of the United Kingdom

of the Netherlands.

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/battle_waterloo_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spencer Perceval    1762-1812

 

Spencer Perceval

is best remembered

as the only British

prime minister

to be assassinated.

 

A professional lawyer,

he made his mark

as by holding down

the senior posts

of Solicitor-General

and Attorney-General.

 

An admirer

of William Pitt the Younger,

he was politically conservative

and an active Anglican,

opposing Catholic emancipation.

 

In later life

he became an expert

on Biblical prophecy

and wrote pamphlets

relating prophecies

that he had discovered.

 

When the Duke of Portland

put together a coalition

of Tories in 1807,

Perceval served

as Chancellor of the Exchequer

and Leader

of the House of Commons.

 

With Portland old and unwell,

Perceval was effectively

the chief minister,

and even lived

at 10 Downing Street.

 

In 1809,

Perceval

formally succeeded

the Duke of Portland

as prime minister.

 

It was a difficult time

due to the upheavals

of the Industrial Revolution

and the Napoleonic Wars,

and the final descent

of George III

into madness.

 

His government also suffered

from the absence

of most of the senior statesmen

of the period.

 

He had to serve

as his own Chancellor

after obtaining

six refusals of office.

 

After two years

his government had survived

much longer than predicted

amidst a severe

economic depression.

 

Indeed,

it began to seem

that the situation

of his government

looked as if

it was set to improve.

 

But Perceval’s

administration

ended dramatically

on 11 May 1812,

when he was shot dead

in the lobby

of the House of Commons

on his way

to attend an inquiry

into the recent Luddite riots.

 

The assassin

was John Bellingham,

a merchant who had incurred

business debts in Russia.

http://www.number10.gov.uk/past-prime-ministers/spencer-perceval/

 

 

https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/
spencer-perceval

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2012/may/06/
pass-notes-spencer-perceval
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1807

 

British empire

 

Legislation abolishing the slave trade

 

Abolition of the Slave Trade / Slave Trade Act

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/derby/content/articles/2007/03/02/
abolition_nyatanga_2007_feature.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17th and 18th centuries

 

Parliament

and the British Slave Trade

 

 

Throughout

the 17th and 18th centuries

Parliament significantly shaped

the progress and development

of the transatlantic slave system.

 

The Act of Parliament

to abolish

the British slave trade,

passed on 25 March 1807,

was the culmination

of one of the first

and most successful

public campaigns

in history

https://www.parliament.uk/slavetrade

 

 

https://www.parliament.uk/slavetrade

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Horatio Nelson    1758-1805

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/nelson_horatio.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/nelson_1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/french_threat_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/protest_reform/british_french_rev_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1805

 

The Battle of Trafalgar

 

 

The battle took place

in the Atlantic Ocean

off the southwest coast of Spain,

just west of Cape Trafalgar,

near the town

of Los Caños de Meca.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trafalgar

 

 

 

Horatio Nelson

 

Napoleon Bonaparte

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/geo_battle_trafalgar.shtml 

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nelson/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1760-1840

 

Industrial Revolution,

Dudley, West Midlands

 

 

The Black Country,

to the west

of Birmingham,

stood on the thick,

rich coal seams

which were

to power Britain

to the forefront

of manufacturing nations.

 

Close to the pleasant hills

of south Shropshire,

this region of some

20 expanding small towns,

each specialising

in a particular metal trade,

was the first sizeable

industrial landscape

in the world.

 

By the middle

of the 19th century,

it was producing

more than a fifth

of the country’s iron,

supplying

the cast-iron pillars

for the Great Exhibition

at Crystal Palace in 1851,

the US’s

first steam locomotive,

and the anchors

for such mighty vessels

as the Titanic

and Brunel’s

SS Great Britain.

https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

was a sovereign state

that existed between 1801 and 1922.

 

It was established

by the Acts of Union 1800,

which merged the kingdoms

of Great Britain and Ireland

into a unified state.

 

The establishment

of the Irish Free State in 1922

led to the country

later being renamed to

the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

in 1927,

which continues to exist

in the present day

(27 December 2020)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
United_Kingdom_of_Great_Britain_and_Ireland

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
United_Kingdom_of_Great_Britain_and_Ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Acts of Union 1800

(sometimes referred to

as a single Act of Union 1801)

were parallel acts

of the Parliament of Great Britain

and the Parliament of Ireland

which united

the Kingdom of Great Britain

 and the Kingdom of Ireland

(previously in personal union)

to create

 the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Ireland.

 

The acts came into force

on 1 January 1801,

and the merged Parliament

of the United Kingdom

had its first meeting

on 22 January 1801.

- 27 December 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Union_1800

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Union_1800

 

https://www.legislation.gov.uk/aip/Geo3/40/38/contents

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/ireland1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > Ancient Britain - early 21st century

 

Ancient Britain - Early 21st century

England, United Kingdom, British Empire

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

English America, America, USA

 

 

Northern Ireland > 20th century > The Troubles

 

 

 

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