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History > UK, British empire, England > Early 21st century, 20th century

 

20th, 19th century > British empire > India, Pakistan > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

 

Image of map of the British Indian Empire

from Imperial Gazetteer of India,

Oxford University Press, 1909.

 

Scanned and reduced

from personal copy by Fowler&fowler«Talk»

18:10, 5 August 2007 (UTC)

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:IGI_british_indian_empire1909reduced.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Raj

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

India

 

 

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12641776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 September 1965

 

India and Pakistan > Kashmir > U.N.

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1965/sep/16/
kashmir.india 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jawaharial Nehru dies        27 May 1964

 


 

 

Nehru

Date taken: November 1948

 

Photographer: Jack Birns

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=4488ea392b14a2c8 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Time Covers - The 40S

Time cover: 08-24-1942 of Jawaharlal Nehru.

 

Date taken: August 24, 1942

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=e27c47373240ee3d - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/nehru-jawaharlal  

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1964/may/28/india.
fromthearchive

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/india-pakistan

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/04/
opinion/jawaharlal-nehru-india-love.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 January 1950

 

India becomes a republic

 

From King George VI

to President Dr. Rajendra Prasad

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1950/jan/26/india.
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1948

 

Assassination of Gandhi

 

On 30 January 1948,

Godse stepped out

in front of Gandhi

and shot him three times

at point-blank range.

 

A fervent believer

in Hindu nationalism,

Godse thought Gandhi

had betrayed India’s Hindus

by agreeing to partition,

leading to the creation of Pakistan,

and by championing

the rights of Muslims.

 

In 1949,

Godse was hanged

for Gandhi’s murder.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jan/17/
mahatma-gandhis-killer-venerated-as-hindu-nationalism-resurges-in-india

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jan/17/
mahatma-gandhis-killer-venerated-as-hindu-nationalism-resurges-in-india

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/
opinion/gandhi-wont-leave-india.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1948/jan/31/india.
fromthearchive

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1948/jan/31/india.
fromthearchive1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahatma Gandi        Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi        1869-1948

 


 

 

India

Leader of India, Mohandas Gandhi.

 

Location: India

Date taken: November 1942

 

Photographer: Wallace Kirkland

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=b87c00c36903593e - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/mahatma-gandhi 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/gandhi-mohandas-k  

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
palm-sunday-sermon-mohandas-k-gandhi-delivered-dexter-avenue-baptist-church

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/india-pakistan

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jan/17/
mahatma-gandhis-killer-venerated-as-hindu-nationalism-resurges-in-india

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/10/02/
766083651/gandhi-is-deeply-revered-but-his-attitudes-on-race-and-sex-are-under-scrutiny

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/02/
opinion/modi-mahatma-gandhi.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/10/
books/review/ramachandra-guha-gandhi.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/
opinion/gandhi-wont-leave-india.html

 

 

 

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/03/10/
1922-gandhi-is-arrested/

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/oct/09/
gandhi-before-india-ramachandra-guha-review

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/picture/2013/jan/30/
gandhi-assassination-anniversary-india-photography

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2012/jan/30/gandhi-interview-india-1948

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2012/sep/22/archive-1932-gandhi-untouchables-fast

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2012/apr/07/archive-1930-gandhi-civil-disobedience 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/27/
guardian190-gandhi-obituary-1948

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2011/may/02/
mahatma-gandhi-biography-banned-india

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/jan/27/
mohandas-gandhi-women-india

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2009/oct/14/gandhi-reel-history

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2007/aug/05/worldcinema.drama

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/Story/0,,127619,00.html 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/Story/0,,126824,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1947

 

Indian Partition

 

Violent split of India and Pakistan

 

 

Up to 15 million people

moved across the two borders

in less than a year,

one of the fastest mass migrations

in history.

 

Millions of Muslims fled India,

most heading west.

 

About the same number

of Hindus and Sikhs

went mostly east

into the new India.

 

About one million people

were killed.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/india-pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mass Migration, India

Date taken: 1947

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

[ migration fr. India to Pakistan ? ]

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=84a0390866182f8f&q - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Muslim refugees fleeing India.

 

Partition marked a massive upheaval across the subcontinent.

 

Photograph: AP

 

Indian prince's descendants

can claim fortune from NatWest after 70 years

UK ruling dismisses Pakistan’s claim

to £35m in legal battle dating back to 1948

G

Wed 2 Oct 2019    16.49 BST

Last modified on Wed 2 Oct 2019    20.25 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/02/
uk-dismisses-pakistans-claim-to-natwest-fortune-of-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A train carrying Muslims

passes through the north Indian town of Kuinkshaha

on its way from Delhi to Lahore, 1947.

 

Photograph:

Henri Cartier-Bresson/Magnum

 

Partition, 70 years on:

Salman Rushdie, Kamila Shamsie and other writers reflect

G

Saturday 5 August 2017    08.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/aug/05/
partition-70-years-salman-rushdie-kamila-shamsie-writers-reflect-india-pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Refugee camp in Delhi in 1947.

 

Photograph: Alamy Stock Photo

 

Partition, 70 years on:

Salman Rushdie, Kamila Shamsie and other writers reflect

G

Saturday 5 August 2017    08.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/aug/05/
partition-70-years-salman-rushdie-kamila-shamsie-writers-reflect-india-pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 3 June 1947,

only six weeks before British India

was carved up,

a group of eight men

sat around a table in New Delhi

and agreed to partition

the south Asian subcontinent.

 

Photographs taken at that moment

reveal the haunted and nervous faces

of Jawaharlal Nehru,

the Indian National Congress leader

soon to become independent India’s

first prime minister,

Mohammad Ali Jinnah,

head of the Muslim League

and Pakistan’s first governor-general

and Louis Mountbatten,

the last British viceroy.

 

Yet the public also greeted

this agreement

with some cautious hope.

 

Nobody who agreed to the plan

realised that partition was unleashing

one of the worst calamities

of the 20th century.

 

Only weeks later,

the full scale of the tragedy

was apparent.

 

The north-eastern and north-western

flanks of the country,

made up of Muslim majorities,

became Pakistan on 14 August 1947.

 

The rest of the country,

predominantly Hindu,

but also with large religious minorities

peppered throughout, became India.

 

Sandwiched between these areas

stood the provinces of Bengal (in the east)

and Punjab (in the north-west),

densely populated agricultural regions

where Muslims, Hindus and Punjabi Sikhs

had cultivated the land

side by side for generations.

 

The thought of segregating

these two regions

was so preposterous

that few had ever contemplated it,

so no preparations had been made

for a population exchange.

 

(...)

 

However,

people took fright and,

in the face of mounting violence,

took matters into their own hands.

 

Many did not want “minorities”

in their new countries.

 

Others did not want

to become “minorities”

with all the attendant horrors

this now implied.

 

Refugees started to cross over

from one side to the other

in anticipation of partition.

 

The borderlines,

announced on 17 August

– two days after independence –

cut right through

these two provinces

and caused unforeseen turmoil.

 

Perhaps a million people died,

from ethnic violence

and also from diseases rife

in makeshift refugee camps.

 

The epicentre was Punjab,

yet many other places were affected,

especially Bengal

(often overlooked

in the commemorations),

Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,

Kashmir and beyond.

 

Lahore

– heir to the architecture

of Mughal, Sikh and British rule,

and famed for its poets,

universities and bookshops –

was reduced in large quarters

to rubble.

 

In Amritsar,

home of the Golden Temple,

and also known

for its carpet and silk weavers,

it took more than five years

to clear the wreckage.

 

There were more

than 600 refugee camps

all over the subcontinent,

70,000 women

had suffered sexual violence

and the issue

of the princely states,

especially Kashmir,

remained unresolved.

 

Many hopes

had been cruelly dashed.

 

The act of partition set off

a spiral of events unforeseen

and unintended by anyone,

and the dramatic upheavals

changed the terms

of the whole settlement.

 

The stories make us flinch.

 

Bloated and distorted bodies

surfacing in canals

months after a riot,

young pregnant women left

dismembered by roadsides.

 

One newspaper report tells

of an unnamed man from a village

“whose family had been wiped out”,

who on meeting Jinnah

as he toured

the Pakistani camps in 1947,

“sobbed uncontrollably”.

 

Up to 15 million people

left their homes

to begin a new life

in India or Pakistan,

and by September 1947

the formal exchange of population

across the Punjab borderlines

had become government policy.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/
partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1751044.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/south_asia/1751044.stm

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/india-pakistan

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/04/
993172830/the-parted-earth-traces-the-impact-of-indias-partition-across-generations

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/music/2017/sep/20/
steve-reich-different-trains-1947

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/17/
opinion/india-muslims-hindus-partition.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/08/15/
543497914/for-indias-oldest-citizens-independence-day-spurs-memories-of-a-painful-partitio

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/08/14/
543373356/as-pakistan-marks-70-years-of-independence-its-minorities-struggle-for-space

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/
opinion/gandhi-wont-leave-india.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/14/india-and-pakistan-
prepare-for-70th-anniversary-celebrations

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/14/west-pakistani-
families-partition-anniversary-india-1947

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/08/13/
542803259/giving-voice-to-memories-from-1947-partition-and-the-birth-of-india-and-pakistan

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/
partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/aug/05/
partition-70-years-salman-rushdie-kamila-shamsie-writers-reflect-india-pakistan

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/08/04/multimedia/india-pakistan-
partition-anniversary-opinion.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2017/jun/27/
sharmeen-obaid-chinoy-home-1947-installation-manchester-international-festival-pakistan

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/2013/08/13/
arts/100000002387575/preserving-partition.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/14/
arts/potent-memories-from-a-divided-india.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1947/aug/15/
india.pakistan 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/
Story/0,6051,105143,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1947

 

India / Pakistan > Independence

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=84a0390866182f8f

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/dec/27/pakistan 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/
Story/0,6051,127969,00.html  

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/
Story/0,6051,105131,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The end of empire

after the second world war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/11/
second-world-war-indian-independence-empire
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

India        Muslim League

 

Direct Action Day        16 August 1946

 

 

Mohammed Ali Jinnah

(1876-1948)

called for Direct Action

on 16 August 1946

to protest against

Congress and the British.

 

In Calcutta

this led to three days

of Hindu-Muslim violence

- the bloodiest in nearly a century -

and thousands of deaths.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/south_asia/1751044.stm

 


 

 

Vultures feeding on corpses lying abandoned in alleyway

after bloody rioting between Hindus and Muslims.

 

Location: Calcutta, India

Date taken: 1946

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=a13af2dc17971718

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_Action_Day

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/south_asia/1751044.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/jinnah_mohammad_ali.shtml

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/17/
opinion/india-muslims-hindus-partition.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/15/
opinion/pakistan-jinnah-ideals-abandoned.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Riots between Muslims and Hindus        India        Calcutta        1946

 

 

 

 Riots that took place in the streets of Calcutta in 1946

between Muslims and Hindus claimed thousands of lives.

 

Photograph:

Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone, via Getty Images

 

India’s Muslims and the Price of Partition

NYT

AUG. 17, 2017

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/17/opinion/india-muslims-hindus-partition.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1946,

just months before independence,

carnage unimaginable in ferocity

and unprecedented in scale

broke out against Hindus

in Muslim-dominated East Bengal

and against Muslims

in Hindu-majority Bihar.

 

The great campaigner for freedom

from Britain’s imperial yoke,

Mohandas Gandhi,

spent weeks in both theaters

of what he described

as “almost a civil war.”

 

He was determined

to quell sectarian violence

with his own life if need be.

 

Gandhi never accepted

the “Two Nations” theory,

which saw a sanctuary

for the subcontinent’s

Muslims in a future Pakistan

and a natural home for its Hindus

in a Hindu rashtra, a Hindu nation.

 

On Aug. 15, 1947,

as India won its freedom

and the new nation celebrated

its new dawn,

Gandhi did not join

the celebrations in New Delhi.

 

He was in Calcutta,

where sectarian riots

had disfigured life,

even as bloody carnage

had left hundreds of Hindus dead

in East Bengal

and Muslims, likewise, in Bihar.

 

Freedom had come

with the partition of the country

on the basis of religion.

 

Gandhi described the day

as meant for celebration

but also for sorrow.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/
opinion/gandhi-wont-leave-india.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/
opinion/gandhi-wont-leave-india.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

India

 

The Muslim League

 

 

The Muslim League,

a party established

by Muslim landlords

and the educated middle class,

claimed that it alone had the right

to represent Muslims

and their interests.

 

This brought it into conflict

with the Indian National Congress

of Mahatma Gandhi

and Jawaharlal Nehru,

who argued

that they represented all Indians.

 

In 1936-7,

the British decided

to conduct elections

to 11 provincial legislatures.

 

A large measure

of administrative powers

was to be transferred

to the governments thus elected.

 

The Congress, the League

and a slew of provincial parties

participated in the polls.

 

Despite its claim of representing

Muslims’ aspirations,

the Muslim League

polled less than 5 percent

of their votes, which inspired

fantasies and fears.

 

The League began to argue

that the Hindu majority

of undivided India

would swamp Muslims

and suppress

their religion and culture.

 

As evidence,

the League pointed

to Hindu-Muslim riots

in the northern states of Bihar

and the United Provinces

(now Uttar Pradesh),

both ruled by the Congress,

as an ominous portent.

 

They argued

that the movement

to ban the slaughter of cows,

led by an assortment

of religious leaders,

Hindu nationalist groups

and some members

of the Congress,

was aimed at subverting

Muslim culture.

 

Unlike Muslims,  Christians,

Jews and animists,

a segment of Hindus

worship the cow

and don’t eat its meat.

 

In 1937,

Congress adopted

as the national song of India

some verses from “Vande Mataram,”

or “I praise you, Mother,”

a poem written in the 1870s

by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay,

a Bengali poet and novelist,

as an ode

to the Hindu goddess Durga.

 

The League objected to its singing

as it depicted India as Mother Goddess,

which the League construed

to promote idolatry,

anathema to Muslims.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/17/
opinion/india-muslims-hindus-partition.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/17/
opinion/india-muslims-hindus-partition.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1945

 

British policy on India

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1945/sep/20/
india.pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bengal famine        1943

 

 

 

An emaciated family who arrived in Kolkata in search of food

in November 1943.

 

Photograph:

Keystone/Getty Images

 

Churchill's policies contributed to 1943 Bengal famine – study

Study is first time weather data has been used

to argue wartime policies exacerbated famine

G

Fri 29 Mar 2019    11.15 GMT

Last modified on Fri 29 Mar 2019    16.41 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/
winston-churchill-policies-contributed-to-1943-bengal-famine-study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 1943 famine in Bengal (...)

killed up to 3 million people

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/
winston-churchill-policies-contributed-to-1943-bengal-famine-study

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/
winston-churchill-policies-contributed-to-1943-bengal-famine-study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1942

 

Bombay riots

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/10/
bombay-riots-follow-gandhi-arrest-archive-1942

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The English in India

 

A hundred years of rule

by Rabindranath Tagore - 1936

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1936/oct/02/
india.fromthearchive
 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/
Story/0,,127025,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in London

for a conference on Indian constitutional reform in 1931.

 

Photograph: Associated Press

 

Why India and the World Need Gandhi

The great leader envisioned a world

where every citizen has dignity and prosperity.

NYT

Oct. 2, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/02/
opinion/modi-mahatma-gandhi.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 April 1919

 

Jallianwallah Bagh massacre / The Amritsar shooting

 

 

 

Reginald Dyer was found responsible

for the killing of unarmed Indian Sikhs

during the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre

and forced into retirement.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann Archive, via Getty Images

 

The Massacre That Led to the End of the British Empire

The events at Jallianwala Bagh,

in the Indian city of Amritsar,

marked the beginning of the resistance

against colonial governance.

NYT

April 13, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/13/
opinion/1919-amrtisar-british-empire-india.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 13 April 1919,

the day of the Sikh festival of Vaisakhi,

British soldiers fired indiscriminately

on unarmed men, women and children

attending a peaceful public meeting

in a walled park called Jallianwala Bagh,

in Amritsar, Punjab.

 

An estimated 1,000 people were killed

and many more injured

as they were shot in cold blood,

even as they tried to escape.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/apr/12/
amritsar-massacre-india-general-elections-colonial-hindus-muslims

 

 

 

 

On April 13, 1919,

Gen. Reginald Dyer

led a group of British soldiers

to Jallianwala Bagh,

a walled public garden

in the Sikh holy city of Amritsar.

 

Several thousand unarmed civilians,

including women and children,

had gathered to celebrate

the Sikh New Year.

 

Viewing the gathering as a violation

of the prohibitory orders

on public assembly, General Dyer

ordered his troops to fire

without warning.

 

According to official figures,

the 10 minutes of firing

resulted in 379 dead

and more than a thousand

injured.

 

As news of the massacre

became public,

many British officials

and public figures hailed

General Dyer’s actions

as necessary to keep

an unruly subject population

in order.

 

For Indians, Jallianwala Bagh

became a byword

for colonial injustice and violence.

 

The massacre triggered

the beginning of the end

of the colonial rule in India.

 

General Dyer’s

very British determination

to teach the colonized population

a lesson was rooted in the memories

of the Great Rebellion of 1857,

when Indian rebels — sepoys

of the British Indian Army,

peasants, artisans

and dispossessed

landholders and rulers —

revolted against

the East India Company,

killed several Europeans

and brought

the company to its knees

in much of northern India.

 

The British responded ferociously,

decisively defeated the rebels,

and carried out wanton retribution

to teach the natives a lesson

in imperial governance.

 

Reginald Dyer

was found responsible

for the killing

of unarmed Indian Sikhs

during the Jallianwalla

Bagh massacre

and forced into retirement.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/13/
opinion/1919-amrtisar-british-empire-india.html

 

 

 

 

at least 379 innocent Indians

were killed

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/feb/20/
david-cameron-amritsar-massacre-india

 

 

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-amritsar-massacre

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p03q5b6g

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2019/apr/13/
amritsar-massacre-that-shook-the-empire-channel-4

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/13/
opinion/1919-amrtisar-british-empire-india.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/apr/12/
amritsar-massacre-india-general-elections-colonial-hindus-muslims

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/apr/10/
theresa-may-expresses-regret-for-1919-amritsar-massacre

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/info/2017/jun/26/
how-to-access-guardian-and-observer-digital-archive

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/feb/23/
apologising-amritsar-teach-british-empire

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/feb/20/
david-cameron-amritsar-massacre-india

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/feb/20/
david-cameron-pay-respects-amritsar-massacre

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1997/10/15/
world/in-india-queen-bows-her-head-over-a-massacre-in-1919.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

famine in Bihar    1873-74

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/
winston-churchill-policies-contributed-to-1943-bengal-famine-study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Asians making Britain

 

Timeline > 1858-1950

 

 

The impact

of South Asians on British life

from the Raj

to the early years

of Indian independence

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/sep/10/
south-asians-making-britain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 December 1855

 

The Guardian visits

the East India Company's

military seminary

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1855/dec/10/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Raj / British India

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/empire/India.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1857

 

British India and the 'Great Rebellion' / The Indian Mutiny

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/indian_rebellion_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/page/150.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/empire/episodes/episode_49.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/5312092.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/jul/11/
insurgent-empire-anticolonial-resistance-british-dissent-priyamvada-gopal-review

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/aug/24/
india.randeepramesh 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1853

 

Karl Marx

in the New-York Herald Tribune

 

British Rule in India

 

 

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/
works/1853/06/25.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Presence in India in the 18th Century

 

East India Company

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/east_india_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

United Kingdom, British Empire, England

 

 

Winston Churchill    1874-1965

 

 

Northern Ireland > 20th century > The Troubles

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

Martin Luther King    1929-1968

 

 

 

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