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History > UK, British empire, England > Early 21st century, 20th century

 

WW1 (1914-1918) > UK, British empire

 

1910s > WW1 (1914-1918) > UK >

Timeline in articles, pictures, podcasts

 

Timeline in pictures > 1880s-1920s

 

 

Australia,

 

Austria-Hungary,

 

Balkan league

(Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro),

 

Belgium,

 

Canada,

 

France,

 

Germany,

 

Italy,

 

Morocco,

 

Ottoman Empire,

 

Palestine,

 

Russia,

 

USA

 

 

 

 

 

Reconstruction in Europe

 

https://www.theguardian.com/business/from-the-archive-blog/2020/mar/04/
reconstruction-in-europe-keynes-guardian-guide-1922

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany

 

the Dolchstosslegende,

or stab-in-the-back myth.

 

 

amid the implosions

of Imperial Germany,

powerful conservatives

who led the country into war

refused to accept

that they had lost.

 

Their denial gave birth

to arguably the most potent

and disastrous political lie

of the 20th century

— the Dolchstosslegende,

or stab-in-the-back myth.

 

Its core claim was

that Imperial Germany

never lost World War I.

 

Defeat,

its proponents said,

was declared

but not warranted.

 

It was a conspiracy,

a con, a capitulation

— a grave betrayal

that forever stained

the nation.

 

That the claim

was palpably false

didn’t matter.

 

Among a sizable

number of Germans,

it stirred resentment,

humiliation and anger.

 

And the one figure

who knew best

how to exploit

their frustration

was Adolf Hitler.

 

In 1918, Germany

was staring at defeat.

 

The entry of the United States

into the war the year before,

and a sequence

of successful counterattacks

by British and French forces,

left German forces demoralized.

 

Navy sailors went on strike.

 

They had no appetite

to be butchered

in the hopeless

yet supposedly holy mission

of Kaiser Wilhelm II

and the loyal aristocrats

who made up

the Supreme Army Command.


A starving population

joined the strikes

and demands for a republic

grew.

 

On Nov. 9, 1918,

Wilhelm abdicated,

and two days later

the army leaders

signed the armistice.

 

It was too much

to bear for many:

Military officers, monarchists

and right-wingers

spread the myth that

if it had not been

for political sabotage

by Social Democrats

and Jews back home,

the army would never

have had to give in.

 

The deceit found

willing supporters.

 

“Im Felde unbesiegt”

— “undefeated

on the battlefield” —

was the slogan

with which

returning soldiers

were greeted.

 

Newspapers and postcards

depicted German soldiers

being stabbed in the back

by either evil figures carrying

the red flag of socialism

or grossly caricatured Jews.

 

By the time

of the Treaty of Versailles

the following year,

the myth was already

well established.

 

The harsh conditions

imposed by the Allies,

including painful

reparation payments,

burnished

the sense of betrayal.

 

It was especially incomprehensible

that Germany,

in just a couple of years,

had gone from one of the world’s

most respected nations

to its biggest loser.


The startling aspect

about the Dolchstosslegende

is this: It did not grow weaker

after 1918 but stronger.

 

In the face of humiliation

and unable or unwilling

to cope with the truth,

many Germans embarked

on a disastrous self-delusion:

 

The nation

had been betrayed,

but its honor and greatness

could never be lost.

 

And those without a sense

of national duty

and righteousness

— the left and even

the elected government

of the new republic —

could never be legitimate

custodians of the country.

 

In this way, the myth

was not just

the sharp wedge that drove

the Weimar Republic apart.

 

It was also at the heart

of Nazi propaganda,

and instrumental

in justifying violence

against opponents.

 

The key

to Hitler’s success

was that, by 1933,

a considerable part

of the German electorate

had put the ideas

embodied in the myth

— honor, greatness,

national pride —

above democracy.

 

The Germans

were so worn down

by the lost war,

unemployment

and international humiliation

that they fell prey

to the promises of a “Führer”

who cracked down hard

on anyone perceived as “traitors,”

leftists and Jews above all.

 

The stab-in-the-back myth

was central to it all.

 

When Hitler

became chancellor

on Jan. 30, 1933,

the Nazi newspaper

Völkischer Beobachter wrote

that “irrepressible pride

goes through the millions”

who fought so long to

“undo the shame

of 9 November 1918.”

 

Germany’s

first democracy fell.

 

Without a basic consensus

built on a shared reality,

society split into groups

of ardent, uncompromising

partisans.

 

And in an atmosphere

of mistrust and paranoia,

the notion that dissenters

were threats to the nation

steadily took hold.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/30/
opinion/trump-conspiracy-germany-1918.html

 

 

https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/
weimarer-republik/innenpolitik/dolchstosslegende.html

 

https://www.dw.com/de/juden-im-ersten-weltkrieg/a-17808361

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/30/
opinion/trump-conspiracy-germany-1918.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dead British soldiers lying on a roadside in northern France

during World War I.

 

Photograph:

Daily Herald Archive/SSPL, via Getty Images

 

‘1917’ Turns a Horrific War Into an Uplifting Hero’s Journey

World War I was a disaster, but Sam Mendes’s Oscar-nominated epic

paints a dangerously misleading picture of the conflict.

NYT

Feb. 8, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/08/
opinion/1917-movie-world-war-I.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Casualties

 

More than 17 million

soldiers and civilians

died between 1914 and 1918

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

65m men fought

and about 8.5m were killed

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de.html

 

 

 

The conflict claimed

20 million

military and civilian lives,

with a further

21 million wounded.

 

For some countries

the burden was greater

than others.

 

While Britain,

France and Germany

lost between 2 and 3 percent

of their total populations,

Serbia suffered a staggering

15 percent depletion.

 

Such losses

had seemed unthinkable

when the war began.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/
books/review/the-war-that-ended-peace-by-margaret-macmillan.html

 

 

 

Selon les différents décomptes,

le nombre de victimes de la guerre

varie de 8,5 à 10 millions de morts,

rien que parmi les militaires.

 

L’approximation

est encore plus complexe

pour les populations civiles.

https://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2018/11/10/
comment-evaluer-le-nombre-de-morts-de-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
_5381812_4355770.html

 

 

 

nearly a million men

fell just at Verdun in 1916;

 

in four years,

the combatant nations

suffered a total of 40 million

dead, missing, and wounded;

 

more than 116,000 Americans

died in just 19 months;

 

billions of shells

and bullets were fired;

the map of the entire world

was forever redrawn

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/travel/100-years-of-gratitude.html

 

 

 

more than 100,000 horses

(were) killed or wounded

in the first world war

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/02/
more-than-100000-horses-killed-or-wounded-in-first-world-war-1925

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More than a million Indian soldiers

fought in the first world war.

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/feb/21/
found-translation-indias-first-world-war 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/23/
british-army-failed-treat-indian-soldiers-shell-shock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the Commonwealth

War Graves Commission

finally admits today,

up to 54,000 casualties,

from Indian, east African,

West African,

Egyptian and Somali units

were treated

with unequal dignity in death.

 

Some were commemorated

collectively on memorials,

instead of being given

individually marked graves

like their European

counterparts.

 

Others had their names

recorded on registers,

rather than in stone.

 

As many as 350,000,

mainly east African and Egyptian,

personnel who fought for Britain

were not commemorated by name.

 

Some of them

were not commemorated at all.

 

The logic for this outrage

was explained

by Gordon Guggisberg,

the governor

of the Gold Coast (now Ghana),

who wrote in 1923:

 

“The average native

of the Gold Coast

would not understand

or appreciate a headstone.”

 

A War Graves Commission

document refers to

African soldiers and carriers

as “semi-savage”.

 

Another states

“they are hardly

in such a state of civilisation

as to appreciate

such a memorial”,

and “the erection

of individual memorials

would represent

a waste of public money”.

 

As an organisation

that prides itself

on “equality in death”

it’s difficult to imagine

what the reaction

of the Commonwealth

War Graves Commission

would be if it discovered

that hundreds of thousands

of white soldiers

who fought for Britain

were buried without graves.

 

However,

it is to be welcomed

that the organisation

now admits

that the decision to exclude

Black and Brown soldiers

from equal commemoration

was underpinned

by “the entrenched prejudices,

preconceptions

and pervasive racism

of contemporary imperial

attitudes”.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/apr/23/
war-graves-report-britain-colonial-past-soldiers-died-unremembered-race

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/apr/23/
war-graves-report-britain-colonial-past-soldiers-died-unremembered-race

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propagandists promised

that this war would end

all wars.

 

Instead it almost automatically

provoked those that followed.

 

In 1916

a British officer

condemned a prospective

attack at Fromelles

– which went ahead

despite his misgivings –

as “a bloody holocaust”.

 

What Coulthart describes

is a slaughter as systematic

as the Nazi genocide,

perpetrated by generals

such as Haig and Kitchener

who deployed

their own country’s

miners, navvies and labourers

as cannon fodder

and dismissed casualties

as “acceptable losses”.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European military alliances in 1914; Map.

 

Central Powers purplish-red,

Entente Powers pale green,

and neutral countries yellow

 

Description: Europe 1914

 

Source

www.dean.usma.edu

Author: Department of History, United States Military Academy

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Europe_1914.png

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Europe_1914.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First World War Interactive    Guardian    2014

 

 

 

 

First World War Interactive        Video

 

ABOUT THE FIRST WORLD WAR INTERACTIVE SERIES:

A brief history of the First World War,

as told by ten historians from ten countries,

looking at the conflict through a global lens.

 

Using original news reports, interactive maps and rarely-seen footage,

including extraordinary scenes of troops crossing Mesopotamia on camels

and Italian soldiers fighting high up in the Alps,

the The Guardian's interactive project explores the war and its effects

from many different perspectives.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLa_1MA_DEorFM96_lA3kPpvi2zdR4ZKoN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First world war:

how Europe and the Middle East

were reshaped

 

interactive - 4 August 2014

 

 

As the world slid

towards war in 1914,

the four empires

of Austria-Hungary,

Germany,

Ottoman Turkey

and Tsarist Russia

had ruled over vast amounts

of land and people

for centuries.

 

The first world war reshaped

Europe and the Middle East

and those changes reverberate

to this day.

 

Take our interactive map quiz

to explore

how the borders of 1914

changed shape

over the course of six years

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/aug/04/
first-world-war-how-europe-middle-east-map-changed

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/aug/04/
first-world-war-how-europe-middle-east-map-changed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 28, 1919

 

Versailles Treaty

 

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/treaty-of-versailles 

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1919versailles.asp

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/14/
first-world-war-treaty-versailles

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1919/apr/10/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 November 1918        Armistice

 

 

 

Crowds celebrating the signing of the Armistice

at the end of World War I.

 

Photograph:

Topical Press Agency/Getty Images

 

Armistice Day 100 years on:

share your letters, stories and photographs

G

Sun 12 Aug 2018    07.00 BST

Last modified on Sun 12 Aug 2018    08.06 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/12/
armistice-day-100-years-on-share-your-letters-stories-and-photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effigies of the Kaiser, Wilhelm II,

and his son, ‘Little Willie’,

are hanged in Brackley, Northamptonshire

on Armistice Day.

 

Photograph:

Bob Thomas/Popperfoto/Getty Images

 

Armistice Day: victory and beyond

On 11 November 1918,

jubilant crowds across Britain celebrated the end of the war.

But many new struggles were just beginning.

What was the legacy of the first world war?

G

Sun 11 Nov 2018    07.00 GMT

Last modified on Sun 11 Nov 2018    07.56 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
armistice-day-victory-and-beyond-first-world-war-neal-ascherson-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/series/armistice-100

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/09/
world/europe/armistice-day-100th-anniversary-photos.html

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror
07_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1918

 

Le dernier jour    2/6.

 

 

Dans les Ardennes,

le commandant

Charles de Berterèche de Menditte

a ordre de franchir la Meuse.

 

A la tête de ses troupes,

il va mener une ultime bataille

brutale et sanglante.

 

L’Armistice

est signé à 5 h 20,

ce 11 novembre 1918,

dans la clairière

de Rethondes.

 

Sur le front de la Meuse,

la guerre continue.

 

Les artilleurs français

n’ont pas fermé l’œil,

déclenchant de minute en minute

des tirs de barrage

guidés par le son ou la lueur

des batteries ennemies.

 

Les canons allemands

ont répliqué sans relâche,

pilonnant

les positions françaises

entre Nouvion-sur-Meuse,

Dom-le-Mesnil

et Vrigne-Meuse.

 

C’est là, dans les Ardennes,

à mi-chemin

de Charleville et Sedan,

que fait rage la dernière bataille

de la Grande Guerre,

la dernière empoignade

acharnée, insensée, absurde,

au-delà même

de la conclusion de l’Armistice

et jusqu’aux dernières minutes

qui précèdent

son entrée en vigueur,

à 11 heures du matin.

 

Jusqu’aux derniers morts.

 

Devant l’implacable poursuite

engagée par les Alliés

depuis l’été, les armées

du maréchal von Hindenburg

refluent sur tout le front,

depuis les Flandres

jusqu’en Lorraine.

 

Le 8 novembre,

elles ont retraversé la Meuse

pour se retrancher

sur sa rive nord.

 

Sur leurs talons,

les avant-gardes

de la 163e division d’infanterie

atteignent la rive sud,

celles du 142e régiment

arrivent à Flize

et celles du 415e régiment

à Dom-le-Mesnil.

https://www.lemonde.fr/series-d-ete-2018-long-format/article/2018/07/18/
11-novembre-1918-les-soldats-meconnus-de-vrigne-meuse
_5332999_5325928.html

 

 

https://www.lemonde.fr/series-d-ete-2018-long-format/article/2018/07/18/
11-novembre-1918-les-soldats-meconnus-de-vrigne-meuse
_5332999_5325928.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World War One Casualties

 

Dead, Wounded and Missing

in the First World War

 

 

https://h2g2.com/edited_entry/A2854730

 

https://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2018/11/10/
comment-evaluer-le-nombre-de-morts-de-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
_5381812_4355770.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First World War    1914-1918

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/origins_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/launch_ani_wwone_movies.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/launch_vr_trench.shtml

https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/museum/
item.asp?item_id=44 

https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/
firstworldwar/index.htm 

https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/
firstworldwar/

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/apr/23/
war-graves-report-britain-colonial-past-soldiers-died-unremembered-race

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jan/01/
khaki-and-darkness-london-during-wartime-1916

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/nov/18/
unrationed-tea-and-double-meat-allowance-for-christmas-archive-1918

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/02/
more-than-100000-horses-killed-or-wounded-in-first-world-war-1925

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/15/
fighting-in-british-east-africa-an-officers-story-archive-1915

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2019/nov/25/
1917-review-sam-mendess-turns-western-front-horror-into-a-single-shot-masterpiece

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/gnmeducationcentre/2018/nov/08/
forgotten-heroes-of-the-first-world-war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/07/
long-lost-photo-album-from-soldier-killed-in-first-world-war-given-to-his-family

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/23/
british-army-failed-treat-indian-soldiers-shell-shock

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/travel/100-years-of-gratitude.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2014/jul/27/
first-world-war-state-press-reporting

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/ng-interactive/2014/jul/25/
the-western-front-in-the-first-world-war-and-now-interactive - 1 November 2008

 

 

 

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
the-killing-fields-of-the-first-world-war-979730.html 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/nov/11/secondworldwar.uk 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/nov/14/military.davidsmith

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/nov/08/firstworldwar.stephenmoss1

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1918/nov/12/fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1915/apr/23/fromthearchive 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1915/apr/28/fromthearchive  

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1915/dec/20/mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1918

 

Thousands of Germans packed in cages

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-german-defeat-prisoners

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 26-September 3, 1918

 

Second Battle of Arras

 

 

The 2nd Battle of Arras,

including

the Battle of the Scarpe

(August 26-30, 1918)

and the Battle of Drocourt-Quéant

(September 2-3, 1918)

 

 

https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/
first-world-war/canada-first-world-war/Pages/default.aspx/025005-1500-e.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

camouflaged position of Ida Post in the Ploegsteert sector in Belgium        March 1918

 

 

 

Private A. Smith,

an 18th Battalion headquarters’ observer,

scans enemy territory from the camouflaged position of Ida Post

in the Ploegsteert sector in Belgium.

 

While the picture was being taken,

two Germans could be seen less than 400 yards away.

 

Photograph: March 1918

Courtesy of the Byrd Polar & Climate Research Centre,

Ohio State University.

 

Through the lens of Australian explorer Hubert Wilkins – in pictures

From documenting the first world war

to attempting to pass under the north pole by submarine,

Sir George Hubert Wilkins lived a life of adventure and intrigue.

A retrospective of his photography work

has been compiled in The Eye of Wilkins

G

Sat 22 Jan 2022    19.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2022/jan/23/
through-the-lens-of-australian-explorer-hubert-wilkins-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Jews in the first world war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/mar/14/
king-country-jewish-museum-first-world-war-adam-foulds
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November-December 1917

 

Palestine

 

Battle of Jerusalem / "Jerusalem Operations"

 

 

December 11, 1917

 

Britain liberates Jerusalem,

ending 673 years of Turkish rule

http://www.bbc.co.uk/remembrance/timeline/timeline-1917.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

The Mayor of Jerusalem

Hussein Effendi el Husseini [al-Husseini],

meeting with Sergts. Sedwick and Hurcomb

of the 2/19th Battalion, London Regiment,

under the white flag of surrender,

Dec. 9th [1917] at 8 a.m., 1917.

 

LC-DIG-ppmsca-13291-00011

(digital file from original, page 5, no. 11)

Primary source + caption: Library of Congress

http://memory.loc.gov/phpdata/pageturner.php?
type=contactminor&cmIMG1=/pnp/ppmsca/13200/13291/00011t.gif&agg=ppmsca&item=13291&caption=11

 

Image: Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Ottoman_surrender_of_Jerusalem_restored.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ottoman_surrender_of_Jerusalem_restored.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jerusalem_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jerusalem_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 November 1917

 

The Balfour Declaration

 

 

The Balfour Declaration of 1917

was the first significant

declaration by a world power

in favour of a Jewish

"national home"

in what was known as Palestine.

 

Historians disagree

as to what the then

British Foreign Secretary,

Arthur James Balfour,

intended by his declaration.

 

The letter has no mention

of the word "state", and insists

that nothing should be done

"which may prejudice

the civil and religious rights

of existing non-Jewish communities

in Palestine".

 

The letter was addressed

to Lord Rothschild, a leader

of the Jewish community

in Britain.

 

It became an important arm

of the movement

to create a Jewish state

in Palestine.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1682961.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/
key_documents/1682961.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1917.stm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jun/28/
balfour-and-weizmann-geoffrey-lewis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Middle East during World War One

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/middle_east_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1301-1922

 

Ottoman Empire

 

 

The Ottoman Empire

was the one of the largest

and longest lasting Empires

in history.

 

It was an empire

inspired and sustained by Islam,

and Islamic institutions.

 

It replaced the Byzantine Empire

as the major power

in the Eastern Mediterranean.

 

The Ottoman Empire

reached its height under

Suleiman the Magnificent

(reigned 1520-66),

when it expanded to cover

the Balkans and Hungary,

and reached the gates of Vienna.

 

The Empire began to decline

after being defeated

at the Battle of Lepanto (1571)

and losing almost its entire navy.

 

It declined further

during the next centuries,

and was effectively finished off

by the First World War

and the Balkan Wars.

 

(...)

 

At its peak it included:

Turkey


Egypt


Greece


Bulgaria


Romania


Macedonia


Hungary


Palestine


Jordan


Lebanon


Syria


Parts of Arabia


Much of the coastal strip of North Africa

https://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/
ottomanempire_1.shtml

 

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/
ottomanempire_1.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Menin Road beyond Ypres, Belgium        October 1917

 

 

 

A scene on the Menin Road beyond Ypres, Belgium.

It was reported that the loss of horses,

injured especially to shell fire,

that required them to be immediately put down

was most distressing to their responsible soldiers.

 

Photograph: October 1917

Courtesy of the Byrd Polar & Climate Research Centre,

Ohio State University.

 

Through the lens of Australian explorer Hubert Wilkins – in pictures

From documenting the first world war

to attempting to pass under the north pole by submarine,

Sir George Hubert Wilkins lived a life of adventure and intrigue.

A retrospective of his photography work

has been compiled in The Eye of Wilkins

G

Sat 22 Jan 2022    19.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2022/jan/23/
through-the-lens-of-australian-explorer-hubert-wilkins-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The largest fleet of airships

ever to attack the UK

set off on 19 October, 1917

to bomb the industrial

Midlands.

 

It was called the "Silent Raid"

as the 11 German navy airships

flew too high to be heard

from the ground.

 

They were Super-Zeppelins,

able to fly at 20,000 feet

and so out of range

of anti-aircraft guns

or fighter aircraft.

 

However,

the crews were vulnerable

to the extreme cold,

lack of oxygen,

and on this occasion

to the strong winds

that wrecked the mission.

 

The Germans

had forecast good weather,

but no observations

were made over 10,000 feet.

 

Above that height

the crews faced

gale force winds

from the north-west.

 

The 650ft hulls were distorted

by the turbulence and,

with men struggling

to hold the rudders,

the Zeppelins

were forced off course.

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2011/oct/16/
weatherwatch-zeppelin-air-raid-first-world-war 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2011/oct/16/
weatherwatch-zeppelin-air-raid-first-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Australian soldiers in a field hospital

near Ypres, Belgium, during World War I,

when “shell shock” was first noted.

 

Photograph: Australian War Memorial

 

What if PTSD Is More Physical Than Psychological?

A new study supports what a small group of military researchers

has suspected for decades: that modern warfare destroys the brain.

NYT

JUNE 10, 2016

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/
magazine/what-if-ptsd-is-more-physical-than-psychological.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1914-1918

 

Belgium

 

Ypres battles

 

 

Of the 300,000

British and Commonwealth

soldiers killed

in the Ypres Salient

during the five battles

that spanned 1914 to 1918,

100,000 bodies

were never recovered.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
ypres-menin-gate-remembrance-armistice-first-world-war

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
ypres-menin-gate-remembrance-armistice-first-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 July - November 1917

 

Belgium        Third Battle of Ypres / Battle of Passchendaele

 

 

 

British casualties litter the churned up battlefield

outside the town of Passchendaele

during the 3rd Battle of Ypres.

 

Location: Passchendaele, Belgium

Date taken: October 1917

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/ec4ae642c2786d1b.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tour de la Halle aux draps, Ypres,  [vers 1918]

 

Photographe inconnu

 

Albums du corps expéditionnaire canadien

Photographie noir et blanc

Code de référence : C 224-0-0-9-1

Archives publiques de l'Ontario, I0004760

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/big/big_48a_cloth_hall.htm

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/battles.htm#cloth_hall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passchendaele

has become a synonym

for military failure

as well as the myopia

of the British top brass.

 

Nick Lloyd’s book

reassesses the conduct

and impact of this hellish battle,

which lasted from 31 July

until 10 November 1917.

 

By then

more than half a million men

had been killed or injured,

many vanishing without trace

in the thick mud.

 

The British forces

had advanced just five miles,

ground that was lost agai

the following year.

 

It was, says Lloyd,

“the ultimate expressio

of meaningless,

industrialised slaughter”.

 

On just one day in August,

more shells were fired than

in the entire Franco-Prussian

war of 1870-71.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/07/
passchendaele-new-history-review

 

 

 

The town was reduced to ruins

during the four years of the war

as it held a strategic position

on the route

of the German advance

into France, the Schlieffen Plan.

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/ng-interactive/2014/apr/02/ypres-
ruins-first-world-war-ww1-then-and-now

 

 

 

Three horrific battles

were fought for little gain here,

of which the third and final

was launched 100 years ago

on Monday.

 

“I died in hell

– they called it

Passchendaele”,

the soldier and poet

Siegfried Sassoon

wrote of the carnage

that raged between 31 July

and 10 November 1917.

 

There were more

than 320,000 allied deaths.

 

German losses

are estimated

to have been between

260,000 and 400,000.

 

The allied victors

had made just

five miles (8km) of ground

when all was said and done,

and still today the remains

of around 30 soldiers

are found every year,

to be identified initially

by the boots

they were wearing

when they died,

said Peter Francis

of the Commonwealth

War Graves Commission.

 

“A more sacred place

for the British

does not exist in the world,”

concluded Winston Churchill

in 1919.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/29/
passchendaele-100-years-on-a-final-great-act-of-remembrance

 

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/
battle_passchendaele.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/07/
passchendaele-new-history-review

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/29/
passchendaele-100-years-on-a-final-great-act-of-remembrance

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/ng-interactive/2014/apr/02/
ypres-ruins-first-world-war-ww1-then-and-now

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/26/
world-war-one-veteran-harry-patch-dies-aged-111

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-passchendaele 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
last-post-ypres-menin-remembrance-day 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/203397.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6386991.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        First Battle of Arras        9 April - 16 June 1917

 

 

 

La prise de la crête de Vimy.

Des soldats  allemands évacuent leur tranchées

devant l’avance canadienne, 1917.

 

Photographe inconnu

 

Photographie noir et blanc

Albums du corps expéditionnaire canadien

Code de référence : C 224-0-0-9-31

Archives publiques de l'Ontario, I0004790

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/big/big_51a_can_advance.htm

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/battles.htm#cloth_hall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-battle-of-arras

 

https://www.longlongtrail.co.uk/ 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1917/06/01/
archives/british-losses-in-may-total-112233-men-second-month-of-arras-battle.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7-14 June 1917

 

Belgium

 

The Battle of Messines

 

 

The Battle of Messines

was an offensive conducted

by the British Second Army,

under the command

of General Herbert Plumer,

on the Western Front

near the village of Messines

in Belgian West Flanders

(...) .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Messines_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

Launched on 7 June 1917,

the Messine offensive

was designed to force

the German enemy to withdraw

from the main battlefront

of Vimy – Arras.”

 

The Battle exemplified

tactical success

through careful planning

and overwhelming

firepower.

 

The primary objective

was the strategically important

Wyschaete-Messines Ridge,

the high ground south of Ypres.

 

The Germans used this ridge

as a salient into the British lines,

building their defence

along its 10 mile length.

 

Winning this ground

was essential for the Allies

to launch a larger campaign

planned for east of Ypres.

 

General Sir Herbert Plumer’s

Second Army

was chosen for the task,

with three Corps allotted

to secure the objective.

 

Australian involvement

came under Lieutenant General

Sir Alexander Godley’s

II Anzac Corps

(25th British, 3rd Australian,

and the New Zealand Division)

which was to capture

the village of Messines

and advance to the flat ground

beyond.

 

The 4th Australian Division

was reinforcement for II Anzac

for the attack and was to complete

the second phase of consolidation.

http://www.army.gov.au/Our-history/History-in-Focus/The-Battle-of-Messines-1917

 

 

 

 

The Battle of Messines

in June 1917

was an important attack

that sought to seize

the strategically important heights

of the Messines/Wytschaete ridge

in southern Belgium.

 

Pre-empted

by the detonation

of 19 enormous mines

containing one million

pounds of ammonal,

the assault was launched

by three Corps

under General Herbert Plumer’s

Second Army.

http://www.army.gov.au/Our-history/History-in-Focus/The-Battle-of-Messines-1917/The-Battle-of-Messines-1917-Part-Two

 

 

https://www.army.gov.au/our-history/history-in-focus/
the-battle-of-messines-1917

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In January 1917

British codebreakers

known as Room 40,

named after their original

cramped space at the Admiralty,

intercepted and deciphered

a German secret message

which changed the course

of the first world war,

helping to bring the US

into the conflict.

 

The Zimmerman telegram,

sent from the German foreign minister

to their ambassador in Mexico,

urged the central American county

to “make war together,

make peace together”.

 

In return

for becoming a German ally,

it promised

the US states of Texas,

Arizona and New Mexico

as a prize after the war.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/29/
bletchley-park-codebreakers-first-world-war-exhibition

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/29/
bletchley-park-codebreakers-first-world-war-exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1916

 

France

 

Battle of Fromelles

 

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/postcolonial-blog/2016/jul/19/
australians-didnt-sacrifice-themselves-at-fromelles-the-british-sacrificed-them

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/jun/03/
firstworldwar.france 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        Battle of Verdun        1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        Battle of the Somme        1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women and the first world war

 

Home Front

 

Women war workers

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
women-first-world-war-taste-of-freedom

 

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/sep/21/
kate-adie-fighting-home-front

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2013/sep/21/
photography-first-world-war-women

 

United Kingdom > late 19th century / early 20th century > Suffragettes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Marshal Douglas Haig    1861-1928

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/
haig_douglas_general.shtml 
 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/211471.stm

https://www.nytimes.com/1918/08/09/
archives/marshal-haigs-turn.html

https://www.nytimes.com/1918/12/22/
archives/honors-for-marshal-haig.html

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/
wwone/lions_donkeys_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/22/
earl-haig-dies-first-world-war-1928

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener    1850-1916

 

 

 

TITLE: Lord Kitchener says: Enlist to-day / photo Bassano ;

printed by David Allen & Sons Ld., Harrow, Middlesex.

REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZC4-11015 (color film copy transparency)

SUMMARY: Poster showing portrait of Lord Kitchener, with a quote from him.

MEDIUM: 1 print (poster) : lithograph and halftone photomechanical print, color ; 50 x 75 cm.

 

CREATED/PUBLISHED: London : Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, [1915]

 

NOTES: "Men, materials & money are the immediate necessities. ...

Does the call of duty find no response in you until reinforced

- let us rather say superseded - by the call of compulsion?"

Lord Kitchener speaking at Guildhall, July 9th 1915.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (color film copy transparency) cph 3g11015

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g11015

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/f?ils:20:./temp/~pp_CmJ9:

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/wwiposhtml/wwiposSubjects11.html

TIFF > JPEG + vertical cropping by Anglonautes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/voluntary-recruiting 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/kitchener_lord.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/kitchener_lord_horatio.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1916

 

Sykes-Picot Agreement

 

 

The Sykes-Picot agreement

is a secret understanding

concluded in May 1916,

during World War I,

between

Great Britain and France,

with the assent of Russia,

for the dismemberment

of the Ottoman Empire.

 

The agreement

led to the division

of Turkish-held Syria, Iraq,

Lebanon, and Palestine

into various French

and British-administered

areas.

 

The agreement took its name

from its negotiators,

Sir Mark Sykes of Britain

and Georges Picot of France.

 

Some historians

have pointed out

that the agreement conflicted

with pledges already

given by the British

to the Hashimite leader

Husayn ibn Ali,

Sharif of Mecca,

who was about

to lead an Arab revolt

in the Hejaz

against the Ottoman rulers

on the understanding

that the Arabs

would eventually receive

a much more important share

of the territory won.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2001/
israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681362.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2001/
israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681362.stm

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25299553

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/
v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/
opinion/how-arabs-can-defeat-sectarianism.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkey > battle of Gallipoli    1915-1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belgium        Edith Cavell execution        12 October 1915

 

 

 

Edith Cavell poster

Documents de propagande antiallemande

Musée canadien de la guerre

https://www.museedelaguerre.ca/
premiereguerremondiale/objets-et-photos/propagande/documents-de-propagande-antiallemande/

added June 23, 2022

 

Related:

https://www.theguardian.com/science/the-h-word/2015/oct/12/
edith-cavell-nurse-martyr-and-spy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At dawn on 12 October 1915

the British nurse Edith Cavell

was killed by a firing squad,

after a German military court

found her guilty

of helping Allied soldiers

escape from occupied Belgium.

 

It was strongly implied

that she was also involved

in espionage,

passing information

about German military movements

and plans back to the UK.

 

The British Government denied

that she was a spy,

but recently the ex-head of MI5,

Dame Stella Rimington,

has revealed new evidence

that strongly suggests Cavell

was involved

in smuggling information

as well as men.

 

However much Cavell knew about

the information being carried

on the bodies of the men she saved

– written on cloth

and sewn into clothes,

or hidden in shoes –

her death made her a popular martyr,

as her execution provoked

a strong public reaction of horror.

 

Author Arthur Conan Doyle said:

Everybody must feel disgusted

at the barbarous actions

of the German soldiery

in murdering this great

and glorious specimen of womanhood.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/the-h-word/2015/oct/12/
edith-cavell-nurse-martyr-and-spy

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/13/
how-edith-cavell-made-a-confession

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/the-h-word/2015/oct/12/
edith-cavell-nurse-martyr-and-spy

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/from-the-archive-blog/2015/oct/12/
edith-cavell-death-reported-1915-archive?CMP=share_btn_tw

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/from-the-archive-blog/2015/oct/12/
edith-cavell-death-reported-1915-archive

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/12/
edith-cavell-nurse-shot-by-germans-wwi-celebrated

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/05/
edith-cavell-nurse-coin-first-world-war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/picture/2013/oct/12/
photography-edith-cavell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1915

 

Over six weeks in 1915,

in contravention

of international law,

the Germans unleashed

poison gas,

unrestricted submarine warfare

and the aerial bombardment

of London.

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 22, 1915

 

Belgium

 

Second Battle of Ypres

 

 

On April 22, 1915,

the Germans launched their first

and only offensive of the year.

 

Known as

the Second Battle of Ypres,

the offensive began

with the usual

artillery bombardment

of the enemy’s line.

 

When the shelling died down,

the Allied defenders waited

for the first wave

of German attack troops

but instead

were thrown into panic

when chlorine gas wafted

across no-man’s land

and down into their trenches.

 

The Germans

targeted four miles of the front

with the wind-blown poison gas

and decimated two divisions

of French and Algerian

colonial troops.

 

The Allied line was breached,

but the Germans,

perhaps as shocked as the Allies

by the devastating effects

of the poison gas,

failed to take full advantage,

and the Allies held

most of their positions.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/germans-introduce-poison-gas

 

 

 

 

Germany gains ground

using forbidden gas weapons

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-ypres-gas-germany
 

 

 

 

The ammonia process

– which uses nitrogen

from the atmosphere

as its key ingredient –

was invented

by German chemist

Fritz Haber

to solve a problem

that faced farmers

across the globe.

 

By the early 20th century

they were running out

of natural fertiliser

for their crops.

 

The Haber plant

at Ludwigshafen,

run by the chemical giant BASF,

transformed that grim picture

exactly 100 years ago

– by churning out ammonia

in industrial quantities

for the first time,

triggering a green revolution.

 

Several billion people

are alive today

only because Haber

found a way to turn

atmospheric nitrogen

into ammonia fertiliser.

 

"Bread from air,"

ran the slogan that advertised

his work at the time.

 

But there is another,

far darker side

to the history

of the Haber process.

 

By providing Germany

with an industrial

source of ammonia,

the country was able

to extend its fight

in the first world war

by more than a year,

it is estimated.

 

Britain's sea blockade

would have ensured

Germany quickly ran out

of natural fertilisers

for its crops.

 

In addition, Germany

would also have run out

of nitrogen compounds,

such as saltpetre,

for its explosives.

 

The Haber process

met both demands.

 

Trains, bursting

with Haber-based explosives

and scrawled with

"Death to the French",

were soon chugging to the front,

lengthening the war

and Europe's suffering.

 

(...)

 

Bald and absurdly Teutonic

in demeanour,

Haber was an ardent

German nationalist.

 

He was happy his invention

was used to make explosives

and was a fervent advocate

of gas weapons.

 

As a result,

on 22 April 1915 at Ypres,

400 tons of chlorine gas

were released

under his direction

and sent sweeping in clouds

over Allied troops.

 

It was the world's

first major chemical

weapons attack.

 

Around 6,000 men died.

 

Haber later

claimed asphyxiation

was no worse than blowing

a soldier's leg off

and letting him bleed to death,

but many others disagreed,

including his wife,

Clara, herself a chemist.

 

A week after the Ypres attack,

she took Haber's service revolver

and shot herself,

dying in the arms of Hermann,

their only son.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/03/
fritz-haber-fertiliser-ammonia-centenary

 

 

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/
germans-introduce-poison-gas

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/03/
fritz-haber-fertiliser-ammonia-centenary

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-ypres-gas-germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10-12/13 March 1915

 

France

 

Battle of Neuve-Chapelle

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Neuve_Chapelle

 

https://www.longlongtrail.co.uk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 7, 1915

 

British liner Lusitania

is sunk by a German submarine

 

 

One of the great mysteries

of the first world war

– whether or not

the passenger ship Lusitania

was carrying munitions

and therefore a legitimate target

when it was sunk

by a German submarine

in May 1915 –

has been solved in the affirmative

by newly released

government papers.

 

They contain

Foreign Office concerns

that a 1982 salvage operation

might "literally blow up on us"

and that "there is a large amount

of ammunition in the wreck,

some of which

is highly dangerous".

 

Yet the truth

was kept hidden in 1915

because

the British government

wanted to use the sinking

of a non-military ship,

and the loss of 1,198 lives,

as an example

of German ruthlessness.

 

It was also a useful means

of swaying American opinion

in favour of entering the war.

 

It eventually had

the desired effect

– the US declared war

on Germany in April 1917 –

but the lie continued

as successive governments,

worried about their ongoing

relations with America,

denied there were munitions

on board.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/01/
lusitania-secrets-of-war-revealed-sinking
 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/hfront3_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A4803284

https://www.loc.gov/collections/world-war-i-rotogravures/
about-this-collection/

https://www.pbs.org/lostliners/lusitania.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/01/
lusitania-secrets-of-war-revealed-sinking

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1910-1919/
Story/0,,99008,00.html  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1915

 

Zeppelin raid

on the north- east coast

district of England

 

https://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/15/
1915-zeppelin-attack-a-huge-fiasco/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 January 1915

 

The first zeppelin raid

 

 

Before the 20th century,

British civilians had been

largely untouched by war.

 

However,

with the stalemate

on the Western Front,

the Germans

deployed zeppelins

carrying up

to two tons of bombs.

 

The first raid was

on 19 January 1915.

 

The effects of war

were brought home

to the British people

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/picture/2013/jan/19/
photography-zeppelin-raid
 

 

 

 

 

on May 31,

a zeppelin randomly

dropped 28 explosive

and 91 incendiary bombs

on London,

leaving seven dead

and 35 injured.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/picture/2013/jan/19/
photography-zeppelin-raid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First world war ministers

were warned of ‘eternal stalemate’

in January 1915

 

Cabinet papers show

Lloyd George despairing

of ‘throwing away’

Kitchener’s citizen army

as cabinet colleagues searched

for a ‘blow to end the war

once and for all’

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/30/
first-world-war-ministers-eternal-stalemate-cabinet-papers

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/30/
first-world-war-ministers-eternal-stalemate-cabinet-papers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October-November 1914

 

Belgium

 

The First Battle of Ypres / the Battle of Flanders

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Ypres

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26-30 August 1914

 

Battle of Tannenberg

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/
battle_tannenberg.shtml
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western front

 

From autumn 1914

to the spring of 1918,

475 miles of parallel trenches

were the scene

of countless battles

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/western-front-battles-timeline

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/12/
forgotten-muslim-heroes-fought-for-britain-first-world-war

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war/the-western-front

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-western-front

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
western-front-battles-timeline

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/23/
firstworldwar.military

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Western Front    1914-1918

 

 

Britain and its Empire

lost almost a million men

during World War One;

most of them died

on the Western Front.

 

Stretching 440 miles

from the Swiss border

to the North Sea,

the line of trenches, dug-outs

and barbed-wire fences

moved very little

between 1914-1918,

despite attempts on both sides

to break through.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

 

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/
launch_ani_western_front.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29 October 1914

 

Turkey (then known

as the Ottoman Empire)

enters the war

in alliance with Germany

and Austria-Hungary

 

 

The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

enters the war

on the side of the Germans

as three warships shell

the Russian port of Odessa.

 

Three days later,

Russia declares war

on Turkey.

 

Russian and Turkish troops

then prepare for battle

along the common border

of the Russian Caucasus

and the Ottoman Empire.

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

 

 

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 September 1914

 

The three British

'Live Bait' ships are sunk

by torpedoes

fired by the German

U-boat U-9

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_22_September_1914

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        First Battle of the Marne        6-10/12 September 1914

 

 

 

Positions des armées alliées et allemandes

au début de la bataille, le 5 septembre au soir.

Carte tirée des mémoires du maréchal Joffre,

publiées à titre posthume en 1932.

 

Météo France

added 14 September 2014

http://www.meteofrance.fr/
la-meteo-au-temps-de-la-grande-guerre/quel-temps-faisait-il-lors-de/lors-de-la-1ere-bataille-de-la-marne - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_marne.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/27/
forgotten-british-role-battle-marne-france

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conscientious objectors / 'conchies'

 

 

 

Objectors at Dyce Camp in Aberdeen,

where they faced 10 years of hard labour.

 

Photograph:

Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Britain

 

Conscientious objectors

of first world war – their untold tales

Project recognises names of 400 men

held in Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire

G

Fri 19 Jul 2019    06.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/19/
conscientious-objectors-of-first-world-war-their-untold-tales

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Over eight million men

served in the British army

during the first world war,

and as the centenaryapproaches,

their descendants

will be remembering them

and the battles they fought.

 

A much smaller number of men

– about 16,000 –

registered not as soldiers

but as conscientious objectors.

 

Some accepted

non-combatant roles

in, for example,

the ambulance service;

 

others took on

alternative service

in other parts of the world

and some were absolutists,

who refused to play any part

in the war machine,

and were often imprisoned

as a result.

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/apr/25/
conscientious-objectors-men-fought-different-battle

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/19/
conscientious-objectors-of-first-world-war-their-untold-tales

 

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/apr/25/
conscientious-objectors-men-fought-different-battle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 August 1914

 

Lord Kitchener (1850-1916)

calls for 100,000 men

to join British Army

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
voluntary-recruiting 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/pals_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sensuous life in the trenches

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
sensuous-life-in-the-trenches

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The daily life of soldiers

 

Combat and the soldier's experience

in World War One

 

How did soldiers cope with war?

 

Wounding in World War One

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
the-daily-life-of-soldiers
 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
combat-and-soldiers-experiences

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
how-did-soldiers-cope-with-war
 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
wounding-in-world-war-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prisoners of War

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
prisoners-of-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Military discipline and punishment

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/
articles/military-discipline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Training to be a soldier

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
training-to-be-a-soldier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supply and logistics

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
supply-and-logistics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerial warfare during World War One

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
aerial-warfare-during-world-war-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The War at sea

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
the-war-at-sea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weapons of World War One

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
weapons-of-world-war-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals and war

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
animals-and-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Race, racism and military strategy

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
race-racism-and-military-strategy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Atrocity propaganda

 

Atrocity propaganda focused

on the most violent acts

committed by the German

and Austro-Hungarian armies,

emphasising their barbarity

and providing justification

for the conflict.

http://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/atrocity-propaganda

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
atrocity-propaganda

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How the newspapers covered

the outbreak of the first world war

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/04/
firstworldwar-national-newspapers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 August 1914

 

Great Britain declares war on Germany

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror01_01.shtml 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/30/
britain-first-world-war-biggest-error-niall-ferguson

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/05/
england-declares-war-germany-1914

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 July 1914

 

Austro-Hungarian artillery

and gunboats on the Danube

begin shelling Serbia

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First world war:

how the Manchester Guardian

fought to keep Britain

out of conflict

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/02/
sp-first-world-war-manchester-guardian-uk-neutrality

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/02/
sp-first-world-war-manchester-guardian-uk-neutrality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Causes of the First World War / Debate on the war’s origins

 

 

 

 

 

 

There was intense rivalry

between nations

over the strength

of their armies and navies

leading up to the war.

 

The German Kaiser

wanted his forces to match

the armies of France and Russia

and his navy to rival Britain.

 

The growing potential

threat from Germany,

as well as Germany's alliance

with Austria-Hungary and Italy,

brought Britain, France

and Russia into alliance.

 

The rivalries

between the countries

were also stoked

by competition

over the size and extent

of their empires.

 

In particular,

many European powers

were competing

for land and wealth

in Africa.

 

Finally,

the potential for conflict

was growing between

smaller European countries,

such as those of the Balkans,

which sought self rule,

and the larger nations

that wished to continue

governing them.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/four-main-causes-of-the-first-world-war/5646.html

 

 

(...)

 

the military,

diplomatic and political crises

that framed the road to war

from 1870 to 1914.

 

Europe’s state system

suffered from the problem

that Prussia,

having defeated France in 1870,

united Germany

and annexed Alsace-Lorraine,

had guaranteed

the lasting enmity of Paris.

 

Otto von Bismarck

avoided trouble for 20 years

by aligning Germany

with the conservative monarchies

of Russia and Austria-Hungary,

but his successors

were more careless

in their diplomacy.

 

In particular, they allowed

Germany’s Reinsurance treaty

with Russia to lapse in 1890,

a step that opened the door

to the Franco-Russian

alliance of 1894,

heightening German fears

of encirclement.

 

Then the kaiser

and Alfred von Tirpitz,

his grand admiral,

started a naval arms race

with Britain in 1898,

failing to see that

this was the worst

possible way

to persuade London

to cede Germany

the “place in the sun”

for which its leaders

clamoured.

 

(...)

 

Events

in the decade before 1914

pushed Europe closer to war.

 

After Britain and France

settled their colonial disputes

in the Entente Cordiale,

Germany tried to exploit

the first Moroccan

crisis of 1905-06

to drive a wedge

between them.

 

Rivalry between Vienna

and St Petersburg intensified

thanks to diplomatic duplicity

and incompetence on both sides

over Austria-Hungary’s annexation

of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908.

 

Arguably,

the second Moroccan crisis of 1911

and two Balkan wars in 1912-13

inured politicians, generals

and the European public

to the idea that war

was becoming inevitable.

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de.html

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/yugoslavia_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/03/06/
285893848/how-bad-directions-and-a-sandwich-started-world-war-i

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/
opinion/macmillan-the-great-wars-ominous-echoes.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/
books/review/the-war-that-ended-peace-by-margaret-macmillan.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/18/
books/max-hastings-traces-a-wars-origins-in-catastrophe-1914.html

 

https://www.ft.com/content/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de - October 4, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 28, 1914

 

Sarajevo, Bosnia Herzegovina

 

A Bosnian Serb,

Gavrilo Princip,

assassinates

Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria,

heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.ft.com/content/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/17/
archduke-ferdinand-trial-princip-archive-1914

 

https://www.npr.org/2014/06/28/
326174000/princip-pulled-the-trigger-but-never-meant-to-start-a-war

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/06/27/
326164157/the-shifting-legacy-of-the-man-who-shot-franz-ferdinand

 

https://www.npr.org/2014/06/27/
325516359/a-century-ago-in-sarajevo-a-plot-a-farce-and-a-fateful-shot

 

https://www.npr.org/2014/06/26/
325909195/a-century-from-archdukes-death-spotlight-turns-back-to-bosnia

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/06/
gavrilo-princip-hero-villain-first-world-war-balkan-history

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/apr/15/
first-world-war-gavrilo-princip-terrorist-freedom-fighter-revisionism

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/
first-world-war-franz-ferdinand-sarajevo

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/25/firstworldwar.exhibition

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1914/jun/29/
fromthearchive 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/century/year/0,,128312,00.html - 1914

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1912-1913

 

Balkan Wars   

 

two successive military conflicts

that deprived the Ottoman Empire

of almost all its remaining territory

in Europe.

 

The First Balkan War

was fought

between the members

of the Balkan League

—Serbia, Bulgaria,

Greece, and Montenegro—

and the Ottoman Empire.

 

The Balkan League

was formed

under Russian auspices

in the spring of 1912

to take Macedonia

away from Turkey,

which was already involved

in a war with Italy.

 

The league

was able to field

a combined force

of 750,000 men.

 

Montenegro opened hostilities

by declaring war on Turkey

on Oct. 8, 1912,

and the other members

of the league

followed suit 10 days later.

 

The Balkan allies

were soon victorious.

 

In Thrace,

the Bulgarians defeated

the main Ottoman forces,

advancing to the outskirts

of Constantinople

(now Istanbul)

and laying siege

to Adrianople (Edirne).

 

In Macedonia,

the Serbian army achieved

a great victory at Kumanovo

that enabled it to capture Bitola

and to join forces

with the Montenegrins

and enter Skopje.

 

The Greeks, meanwhile,

occupied Salonika

(Thessaloníki)

and advanced on Ioánnina.

 

In Albania,

the Montenegrins

besieged Shkodër,

and the Serbs

entered Durrës.

http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/50300/Balkan-Wars

 

 

https://global.britannica.com/topic/Balkan-Wars 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/jan/11/
archive-a-study-of-the-balkan-war-1913

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Lloyd George    1890-1945

 

British Prime Minister    1916-1922

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_david_lloyd.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herbert Henry Asquith    1852-1928

 

British Prime Minister    1908-1916

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/asquith_herbert.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winston Churchill    1874-1965

 

 

 

Churchill by Sir William Orpen, 1916.

Photograph: National Portrait Gallery London

 

The Great War in Portraits – in pictures

Astonishing medical drawings of mutilated soldiers, scenes from the Somme,

and paintings that reveal the filth and gore forced into the minds of all involved ...

for the first world war’s centenary, the National Portrait Gallery has put on an exhibition

that truly shows the haunting horror of war

G

Tuesday 25 February 2014    17.07 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/feb/25/
the-great-war-in-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/churchill_winston.shtml

 

https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/
a-short-history-of-the-dardanelles-campaign  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1907

 

France, Russia and Britain

 

Triple Entente

 

 

The Triple Entente

was created in reaction

to the forming

of the Triple Alliance,

and included Britain,

France and Russia.

 

An alliance was formed

between Russia and France

in 1894.

 

By 1904

Britain began talks with Russia

and decided that it should come

out of its 'splendid isolation',

joining the Entente Cordiale

('Friendly Agreement').

 

By 1907, Foreign Minister

Sir Edward Grey

negotiated Britain

into the Triple Entente,

and united three old enemies.

 

In contrast

to the Triple Alliance,

the terms of the Entente

did not require each country

to go to war

on behalf of the others,

but stated that they had

a 'moral obligation'

to support each other.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes2_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes2_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WW1    Timeline

 

https://www.loc.gov/collections/world-war-i-rotogravures/about-this-collection/ 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/remembrance/timeline/timeline-1917.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/summary_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1882

 

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

formed the Triple Alliance

 

 

This alarmed

France, Britain and Russia.

 

By 1907,

they had all joined

the Triple Entente.

 

Europe was divided

into two armed camps,

to help each other

if there was a war.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/
gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/underlyingcausesrev1.shtml

 

 

 

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

formed the Triple Alliance.

 

In 1882,

they signed a document

that promised they would give

each other military support

in case of a war.

 

The Alliance agreement

stated it was 'essentially

defensive and conservative'

with the aim of stopping

anyone who 'might threaten'

the three nations.

 

The alliance formed between

Germany and Austria-Hungary

had strong ethnic ties.

 

Germany and Austria-Hungary

shared borders

and (in many regions)

the German language,

as well as a desire

to add to their territories.

 

Austria-Hungary

specifically wanted the Balkans.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes1_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes1_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WW1        Glossary

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/glossary/index.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

National Archives        First world war

 

https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BBC        The Great War

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/197437.stm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/overview_britain_ww1_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shot at dawn        Executed for Example

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jun/29/
chloe-dewe-mathews-shot-at-dawn-moving-photographic-memorial-first-world-war

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/sep/05/military.richardnortontaylor

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/aug/16/military.immigrationpolicy 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/aug/16/military.samjones

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/08/16/npardon16.xml

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?view=
BLOGDETAIL&grid=P30&blog=yourview&xml=/news/2006/08/16/ublview16.xml

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4796579.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4798025.stm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/shot_at_dawn_01.shtml

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/lincolnshire/4561447.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1399983.stm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/shot_at_dawn_02.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967)        Poems

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/greatpoets/
sassoon/0,,2260116,00.html  

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/209544.stm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/sassoon_siegfried.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/sassoons1.shtml

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/52564.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 August 2014

 

First world war's

Chinese Labour Corps

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/14/
first-world-war-forgotten-chinese-labour-corps-memorial

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/14/
first-world-war-forgotten-chinese-labour-corps-memorial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nearly 4,000 first world war diaries

made available online - March 2014

 

First-hand accounts

of trench warfare,

gas attacks

and horseback battles

digitised by National Archive

and Imperial War Museum

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/13/
first-world-war-diaries-online-national-archive

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/13/
first-world-war-diaries-online-national-archive
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The octopuses of war:

WW1 propaganda maps in pictures - 3 June 2014

 

From John Bull

charging across the Channel

to take charge of Europe

to scrapping dogs of all nations,

these remarkable

caricatures and cartoons

show how cartography

can be turned

into a rhetoric of war

http://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2014/jun/03/
war-ww1-propaganda-maps-in-pictures

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2014/jun/03/
war-ww1-propaganda-maps-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A gallery of World War I posters

featured in a show at the Bruce Museum

in Greenwich, Connecticut        USA

November 1, 2008–February 1, 2009

 

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2008/11/09/nyregion/1109poster_index.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/nyregion/connecticut/09artsct.html

 

https://brucemuseum.org/files/WWIPosters_PRwebPDF.pdf 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Great War in Portraits

 

 

 

The Great War in Portraits – in pictures

 

Astonishing medical drawings

of mutilated soldiers, scenes from the Somme,

and paintings that reveal the filth and gore

forced into the minds of all involved ...

 

for the first world war’s centenary,

the National Portrait Gallery has put on an exhibition

that truly shows the haunting horror of war

 

Soldier with facial wounds by Henry Tonks, 1916-18.

Photograph: The Royal College of Surgeons of England

G

Tuesday 25 February 2014    17.07 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/feb/25/the-great-war-in-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/feb/25/
the-great-war-in-portraits-review-national-portrait-gallery

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/feb/25/
the-great-war-in-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World War I: Unseen Images from the front        May 2014

 

 

 

German soldiers (rear) offering to surrender to French troops,

seen from a listening post in a trench at Massiges, northeastern France.

 

Boston Globe > Big Picture

World War I: Unseen Images from the front    May 28, 2014

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A viscount

in the Armoured Cavalry Branch

of the French Army left behind

a collection of hundreds of glass plates

taken during World War I

that have never before been published.

 

The images,

by an unknown photographer,

show the daily life

of soldiers in the trenches,

destruction of towns

and military leaders.

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/
world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How the first world war

changed north-west England – in pictures - 3 April 2014

 

An exhibition to mark 100 years

since the start of the first world war

opens at the IWM North on Saturday.

 

It reveals

the important contribution

made by the north-west

during the war

and includes loans of treasures

such as original manuscripts

from the Bodleian library in Oxford

of first drafts of poems

by Wilfred Owen

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2014/apr/03/first-world-war-north-west-england-in-pictures

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2014/apr/03/
first-world-war-north-west-england-in-pictures
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New! More unseen photographs from the First World War

 

A treasure trove of pictures

showing the unknown soldiers of the Somme

caused a sensation when it was published here last May.

 

But that was only the beginning of the story...

 

By John Lichfield

The Independent

Saturday, 29 May 2010

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
new-more-unseen-photographs-from-the-first-world-war-1984325.html

 

Source: Image from Folder 2 / File Tommy 0912 34

https://www.independent.co.uk/
life-style/history/more-unseen-photographs-from-the-first-world-war-1984325.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canadian recruitment poster

poster

Documents de propagande antiallemande

Musée canadien de la guerre

https://www.museedelaguerre.ca/
premiereguerremondiale/objets-et-photos/propagande/documents-de-propagande-antiallemande/

added June 23, 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century > WW1 (1914-1918)

 

UK > Timeline in articles, pictures, podcasts

 

 

USA > Timeline in articles, pictures, podcasts

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century > WW2 (1939-1945)

 

1930s-1940s > WW2 > UK >

Timeline in articles, pictures, podcasts

 

 

1939-1945 > WW2 > USA, world

 

 

1939-1945 > Germany, Europe >

Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, Nazi era, WW2, Holocaust

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, arms sales,

espionage, torture

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

The Guardian > Special report > First world war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/firstworldwar

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/23/neglected-figures-of-past-deserve-memorial-too

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/01/first-world-war-centenary-michael-morpurgo

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-key-figures-gallery?picture=339451388

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/oct/07/firstworldwar?picture=338366191

 

 

 

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/armistice-day-the-great-war-and-the-words-we-mustnt-forget-1818092.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/armistice-90-years-on-all-those-pals-of-mine-should-be-here-1012492.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/nov/09/armistice-day-first-world-war

http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2008/nov/08/family-military-first-world-war

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-mobilisation
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-anti-war-sentiments

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/nov/05/poetry-andrewmotion

http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/features/
band-of-brothers-a-tale-of-war-loss-and-remembrance-on-the-killing-fields-of-france-994636.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/the-killing-fields-of-the-first-world-war-979730.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/aug/24/firstworldwar.military

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-anti-war-sentiments

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-03-27-cover-ww1-vet_N.htm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-anti-war-sentiments

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/197437.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/great-war/

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian

A global guide to the first world war - interactive documentary        23 July 2014

 

Ten historians from 10 countries

give a brief history of the first world war

through a global lens.

 

Using original news reports,

interactive maps and rarely-seen footage,

including extraordinary scenes

of troops crossing Mesopotamia on camels

and Italian soldiers fighting high up in the Alps,

the half-hour film explores the war

and its effects from many different perspectives.

 

You can watch the documentary

in English, French, German,

Italian, Spanish, Arabic or Hindi

thanks to our partnership

with the British Academy.

 

Warning:

contains images some viewers may find disturbing

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/jul/23/
a-global-guide-to-the-first-world-war-interactive-documentary

 

 

 

 

 

Le Canada et la Première Guerre mondiale

https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/fra/decouvrez/patrimoine-militaire/premiere-guerre-mondiale/
canada-premiere-guerre-mondiale/Pages/default.aspx/025005-5000-f.html

 

 

 

 

 

Le Monde > Centenaire 14-18

https://www.lemonde.fr/centenaire-14-18/  

 

 

 

 

 

Série documentaire en huit épisodes > 1914 : des armes et des mots        2014

 

Une bouleversante saga documentaire

en huit épisodes

qui restitue le cataclysme de la Grande Guerre

à travers quatorze destins singuliers,

racontés par des lettres et des journaux intimes.

 

Ces points de vue subjectifs

de "héros du quotidien"

sont complétés par des archives rares,

clichés d’époque ou actualités filmées.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/044397-001/1914-des-armes-et-des-mots-1-8

http://www.arte.tv/sites/fr/pages/premiere-guerre-mondiale/

- broken links

 

 

 

 

 

Le dessous des cartes

1914 : LES ÉTINCELLES DE LA GUERRE

Cette émission a été diffusée la première fois

en janvier 2014

http://ddc.arte.tv/emission/1914-les-etincelles-de-la-guerre - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

UK > From The Trenches To The Web:

British WWI Diaries Digitized

NPR        January 23, 2014

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/01/23/264532419/
from-the-trenches-to-the-web-british-wwi-diaries-digitized

 

https://nationalarchives.gov.uk/first-world-war/ 

 

 

 

 

 

New! More unseen photographs from the First World War

 

A treasure trove of pictures

showing the unknown soldiers of the Somme

caused a sensation when it was published here last May.

But that was only the beginning of the story...

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Saturday, 29 May 2010

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/history/
more-unseen-photographs-first-world-war-1984325.html 

 

 

 

 

 

Exclusive: The unseen photographs

that throw new light on the First World War

 

A treasure trove of First World War photographs

was discovered recently in France.

Published here for the first time,

they show British soldiers on their way to the Somme.

But who took them?

And who were these Tommies marching off to die?

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Friday, 22 May 2009

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
exclusive-the-unseen-photographs-that-throw-new-light-on-the-first-world-war-1688443.html

 

 

 

 

 

The New York Times > The Great War

A 100-year legacy of World War I

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/06/27/
world/legacy-of-world-war-i.html 

 

 

 

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