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History > America, English America, USA

 

17th-20th century > English America, America, USA

Slavery, Lynchings, Abolitionists, Civil War, Reconstruction

 

Slavery > Rebellions, Abolitionists, Reconstruction > Timeline in pictures

 

 

Ida B Wells        1862-1931

 

 

 

Ida B Wells    (1862–1931)

 

She was born into slavery in Mississippi

but freed during the American civil war.

 

As a pioneering journalist and editor,

she worked tirelessly to expose racial injustice.

 

She spent months travelling alone

around the American south

to investigate the horrors of lynching,

and campaigned against segregation.

 

In 1910,

she co-founded the National Association

for the Advancement of Colored People.

 

Eminent Victorians:

19th-century celebrity portraits – in pictures

 

As a new picture of Billy the Kid

goes on sale for $1m,

these photographs showcase

some of the most significant

people of the 19th century

to be captured on camera

G

Thu 21 Nov 2019    16.32 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/nov/21/
eminent-victorians-19th-century-celebrity-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

African-American investigative journalist,

educator, and an early leader

in the civil rights movement.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_B._Wells

 

 

 

She was born  into slavery in Mississippi

but freed during the American civil war.

 

As a pioneering

journalist and editor,

she worked tirelessly

to expose racial injustice.

 

She spent months travelling alone

around the American south

to investigate the horrors of lynching,

and campaigned against segregation.

 

In 1910,

she co-founded

the National Association

for the Advancement

of Colored People.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/nov/21/
eminent-victorians-19th-century-celebrity-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/nov/21/
eminent-victorians-19th-century-celebrity-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross)    1822-1913

 

 

 

Under a proposed redesign of the $20 bill,

Harriet Tubman would have replaced Andrew Jackson.

 

Photograph: Universal History Archive/Getty Images

 

Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Is Delayed Until Trump Leaves Office,

Mnuchin Says

NYT

May 22, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/22/
us/harriet-tubman-bill.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/30/
books/review/the-agitators-dorothy-wickenden.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/01/
775148791/the-superhero-journey-of-harriet-tubman-now-on-film

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/22/
us/harriet-tubman-bill.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/05/22/
725801691/harriet-tubman-on-the-20-bill-not-during-the-trump-administration

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2016/may/03/
slave-rescuer-harriet-tubman-to-be-subject-of-hollywood-biopic

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/04/27/
475768129/nurse-spy-cook-how-harriet-tubman-found-freedom-through-food

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/24/
harriet-tubman-20-bill-myths-freed-slaves-quotes

 

https://one.npr.org/?sharedMediaId=475161438:475161441 - April 21, 2016

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2013/03/06/
173624827/harriet-tubman-was-tough-and-tender

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe    1811-1896

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From its very first moments,

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s

debut novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin

was a smashing success.

 

It sold out its 5,000-copy print run

in four days in 1852,

with one newspaper declaring that

“everybody has read it, is reading,

or is about to read it”.

 

Soon, 17 printing presses

were running around the clock

to keep up with demand.

 

By the end of its first year in print,

the book had sold more

than 300,000 copies in the US alone,

and another million in Great Britain.

 

It went on to become

the bestselling novel of the 19th century.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/jun/19/
josiah-henson-the-forgotten-story-slavery-uncle-tom-s-cabin 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/jun/19/
josiah-henson-the-forgotten-story-slavery-uncle-tom-s-cabin

 

https://www.npr.org/2011/07/04/
137561902/-harriet-beecher-stowe-freeing-slaves-promoting-change

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/
story/story.php?storyId=93059468 - July 30, 2008

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/
story/story.php?storyId=5188487 - Feb. 4, 2006

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/
story/story.php?storyId=1147132 - July 23, 2002

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2002/mar/30/
race.society

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frederick Douglass    1818-1895

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rutherford Birchard Hayes

(October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)

was the 19th president of the United States

from 1877 to 1881, after serving

in the U.S. House of Representatives

and as governor of Ohio.

 

A lawyer and staunch abolitionist,

he had defended refugee slaves

in court proceedings

during the antebellum years.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_B._Hayes - Ovember 7, 2020

 

 

 

With the future of Reconstruction

on the ballot,

the presidential election of 1876

was hard fought.

 

Tilden decisively defeated Hayes

in the popular vote by about 250,000 votes,

but in four states — Florida, Louisiana,

Oregon, and South Carolina —

both parties claimed

to have won electoral votes.

 

At that point, Tilden needed only

one more electoral vote to win,

so any of the four would suffice.

 

However, Republicans still controlled

the election canvassing boards

and governorships in the three southern states,

which led to the manipulation of vote counts

and the subsequent awarding of electoral votes

to Hayes.

 

Democrats refused to give up

and sent competing slates of electors

for Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina

to Congress.

 

In addition, the Democrats challenged

the eligibility of one of Oregon’s electors,

a fail-safe that would lead to a Tilden win

even if Hayes claimed victory

in the three Southern states.

 

In January 1877,

Congress convened

a special Electoral Commission

to resolve the disputes,

and the Commission broke 8 to 7

in favor of Hayes

in all four of the contested states.

 

Democrats, undeterred, tried to delay

the counting of the electoral votes

before the joint session

of Congress on Feb. 28,

which would deny Hayes a majority

and send the election

to the House of Representatives.

 

The inauguration was only four days away,

and there was a real danger

of both parties trying to have their candidate

take the oath of office.

 

Enter Samuel Randall.

 

As the newly appointed speaker of the House,

Randall refused to allow members of his party

to delay the vote count,

which they had sought to do

by producing yet another competing slate

of electors of dubious origins

from the state of Vermont.

 

When Randall rejected these efforts,

one of his fellow Democrats

tried to physically attack him,

and others began reaching for their guns.

 

Randall

had to call the sergeant-at-arms

to restore order.

 

Remarkably,

Randall halted the delaying tactics

that would have increased

the likelihood of dueling inaugurations

and subsequent violence.

 

His actions brought the count

to a nonviolent end on March 2,

just two days before the inauguration.

 

Upon becoming speaker,

Randall had pledged

“absolute fairness to both sides …

in exercising the parliamentary powers

of the chair.”

 

With his decisive action

in resolving the disputed election of 1876,

he kept that promise,

even when doing so required decisions

not in his party’s interest.

 

In the end, Democrats acquiesced

to the election of the Republican Hayes

over their own candidate, Tilden,

on the condition that Hayes agree

to remove federal troops

from the Southern states.

 

Hayes’s elevation to the presidency

effectively ended Reconstruction

and changed

the trajectory of American history,

but in the months

between the election and the inauguration,

a nonviolent resolution was far from certain.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/03/us/samuel-randall-1876-election.html

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_B._Hayes - November 7, 2020

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/03/
us/samuel-randall-1876-election.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wendell Phillips    1811-1884

 

one of the nation’s

most prominent antislavery leaders

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/06/
the-abolitionists-epiphany/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Josiah Henson    1789-1883

 

 

 

An astounding story …

Josiah Henson,

photographed in Boston, 1876

 

 

Josiah Henson: the forgotten story in the history of slavery

His life partly inspired Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

He was entertained

at both Windsor Castle and the White House.

He rescued more than 100 enslaved people.

But barely anyone has heard of him

G

Fri 19 Jun 2020    15.27 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/jun/19/
josiah-henson-the-forgotten-story-slavery-uncle-tom-s-cabin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/jun/19/
josiah-henson-the-forgotten-story-slavery-uncle-tom-s-cabin

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/
story/story.php?storyId=5251349 - March 8, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sojourner Truth (Born Isabella Baumfree)        c 1797-1883

 

 

 

Born Isabella Baumfree in New York state,

the African American lived in slavery

until she escaped with her daughter in 1826.

 

She then took on

a white man in the courts

to be reunited with her son,

who has been illegally sold into slavery,

and won – the first victory of its kind.

 

Truth dedicated her life

to the abolition movement and women’s rights,

helping to liberate many slaves,

and is renowned for her “Ain’t I a woman?”

speech of 1851.

 

Eminent Victorians:

19th-century celebrity portraits – in pictures

 

As a new picture of Billy the Kid

goes on sale for $1m,

these photographs showcase

some of the most significant

people of the 19th century

to be captured on camera

G

Thu 21 Nov 2019    16.32 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/nov/21/
eminent-victorians-19th-century-celebrity-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Born Isabella Baumfree

in New York state,

the African American

lived in slavery

until she escaped

with her daughter

in 1826.

 

She then took on

a white man

in the courts

to be reunited

with her son,

who has been illegally

sold into slavery,

and won –

the first victory

of its kind.

 

Truth dedicated her life

to the abolition movement

and women’s rights,

helping to liberate

many slaves,

and is renowned

for her “Ain’t I a woman?”

speech of 1851.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/nov/21/
eminent-victorians-19th-century-celebrity-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/nov/21/
eminent-victorians-19th-century-celebrity-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow    1807-1882

 

Longfellow,

a passionately private man, was,

just as passionately and privately,

an abolitionist.

 

His best friend was Charles Sumner,

for whom he wrote, in 1842,

a slim volume called

“Poems on Slavery.”

 

Sumner,

a brash and aggressive politician,

delivered stirring speeches

attacking slave owners;

 

Longfellow, a gentler soul,

wrote verses mourning

the plight of slaves,

poems “so mild,” he wrote,

“that even a slaveholder

might read them without losing

his appetite for breakfast.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/opinion/19Lepore.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/
opinion/19Lepore.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martha Coffin Wright    1806-1875

 

American feminist and abolitionist

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/30/
books/review/the-agitators-dorothy-wickenden.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Sumner    1811-1874

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Sumner

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/
opinion/19Lepore.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thaddeus Stevens    1792-1868

 

 

 

Library of Congress, Corbis and VCG, via Getty Images

 

 

Thaddeus Stevens and the Original Dreamers

NYT

July 7, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/07/
opinion/citizenship-dreamers-united-states.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A half-length seated portrait of Thaddeus Stevens, 1863,

held in the National Archives.

 

Photograph:

Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images

 

Thaddeus Stevens review:

the Radical Republican America should remember

G

Sun 28 Feb 2021 06.00 GMT

Last modified on Sun 28 Feb 2021 06.03 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2021/feb/28/
thaddeus-stevens-review-the-radical-republican-america-should-remember

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Owning an iron works

and serving in the Pennsylvania legislature

where he promoted

common schools for all,

Stevens later went to Congress

to represent Lancaster,

then as now a swing district

in a swing state.

 

Known for his “iron will

and great courage”

and “quick wit and sharp tongue”,

he possessed a flinty,

independent mind.

 

“He did not play the courtier,”

as one congressman observed,

and “he did not flatter the people;

he was never a beggar for their votes.”

 

He promoted economic development

while opposing

the “aristocracy of wealth and pride”.

 

Like Abraham Lincoln,

he spoke at Cooper Union in 1860,

where he discussed

“the long and persistent war

between Liberty and Slavery,

between Oppression and Freedom”,

the theme that dominated his public life.

 

By 1861,

as the civil war began,

Stevens was responsible

for its financing

as chairman of the committee

on ways and means.


He was an early and ardent supporter

of abolition of slavery.

 

But the Union moved slowly

in that direction and,

as Spielberg makes clear,

some supported it only

as a matter of military necessity.

 

But events moved swiftly.

 

Military defeats in 1862

hastened the end of slavery

through the Second Confiscation Act;

slaves who crossed to Union lines

were “forever free of their servitude”.

 

The Militia Act authorized Lincoln

to raise Black troops

with the promise of freedom.

 

On 31 January 1865,

the House voted for abolition.

 

Military necessity had joined

with moral imperative.

 

Levine notes that “the chamber’s floor

and galleries erupted in cheers,

tears and ecstatic shouts of celebration”

but oddly omits the real drama of the moment,

the absolute stillness immediately

after the result was announced,

in solemn recognition

of what had been done,

before the cheers and 100-gun salute.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2021/feb/28/
thaddeus-stevens-review-the-radical-republican-america-should-remember

 

 

 

The citizenship portion

of the 14th Amendment

was tied together

with the idea of suffrage for all men.

 

If Black men were made citizens,

for the most part,

they could also be made voters.

 

(This didn’t work

as smoothly as some had thought.

It would require

the adoption of the 15th Amendment

two years later, in 1870,

to guarantee that right, as it read:

 

“The right of citizens of the United States to vote

shall not be denied or abridged

by the United States or by any State

on account of race, color,

or previous condition of servitude.”)

 

One of the heroes of the 14th Amendment

as well as the 13th Amendment,

which abolished slavery

 was Representative Thaddeus Stevens

of Pennsylvania.

 

He badgered Lincoln on abolishing slavery

and he helped to write the 13th Amendment.

 

Indeed,

he gave the closing remarks

on the debate of the amendment.

 

As the National Endowment

for the Humanities has noted,

when the House passed the bill

that authorized the 13th Amendment,

Stevens said,

 

“I will be satisfied

if my epitaph shall be written thus,

‘Here lies one

who never rose to any eminence,

and who only courted

the low ambition to have it said

that he had striven

to ameliorate the condition

of the poor, the lowly,

the downtrodden of every race

and language and color.’ ”

 

Stevens would also help

write the 14th Amendment,

and in the lead-up to it

he was quite prescient

on “universal enfranchisement,”

offering words then

that we would do well to heed today.

 

In January of 1868,

Stevens wrote in The New York Times:

 

So far as I took any position

with regard to Negro suffrage,

it was and is that universal suffrage

is an inalienable right,

and that since the amendments

to the Constitution,

to deprive the Negroes of it

would be a violation of the Constitution

as well as of a natural right.

 

True, I deemed the hastening

of the bestowal of the franchise

as very essential to the welfare of the nation,

because without it I believe

that the Government will pass

into the hands of rebels and their friends,

and that such an event

would be disastrous to the whole country.

 

With universal suffrage,

I believe the true men of the nation

can maintain their position.

 

Without it,

whether that suffrage be impartial,

or in any way qualified,

I look upon this Republic

as likely to relapse into an oligarchy,

which will be ruled by coarse copperheadism

and proud conservatism.

 

Copperheads were Northern Democrats,

mostly in the Midwest,

who opposed the Civil War and emancipation

and wanted to negotiate a compromise

with the South to preserve the Union.

 

The name comes

from the copperhead snake,

a notoriously sneaky serpent.

 

But the 14th Amendment would go on

to be passed and ratified,

and it signified the birth of Black citizenship.

 

The day is such an important marker of citizenship

that when the first Black senator,

Hiram Revels of Mississippi,

arrived in Washington to be seated in 1870,

his being seated was objected to

by conservative congressmen,

some arguing that he had only been a citizen

since the ratification

of the 14th Amendment two years earlier

and thus didn’t meet

the citizenship requirements for a senator.

 

(By the way,

Revels was born in America

and fought in the Civil War.)

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/07/
opinion/citizenship-dreamers-united-states.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/07/
opinion/citizenship-dreamers-united-states.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2021/feb/28/
thaddeus-stevens-review-the-radical-republican-america-should-remember

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reconstruction era

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2021/feb/28/
thaddeus-stevens-review-the-radical-republican-america-should-remember

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/29/
opinion/sunday/why-reconstruction-matters.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1867

 

Reconstruction Acts

 

 

The Reconstruction Acts of 1867

required the former Confederate states

to register voters, both Black and white,

by having all men sign an oath of allegiance

to the United States.

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2020/nov/01/
georgia-voter-suppression-in-pictures

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2020/nov/01/
georgia-voter-suppression-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ku Klux Klan    K.K.K.

 

Founded in the era of Reconstruction,

the KKK used terroristic violence

to suppress Black voting

and political efforts.

 

Their brutality paved the way

for conservative whites to regain control

of southern legislatures,

effectively ending Reconstruction.

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2020/nov/01/
georgia-voter-suppression-in-pictures

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3c28619/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2020/nov/01/
georgia-voter-suppression-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Lost Cause of the Confederacy / The Lost Cause

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/resource/pga.01734/

https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbpe.24502100/?st=text

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001696840/

https://www.loc.gov/item/2002709961/

https://www.loc.gov/item/11032055/

https://www.loc.gov/item/2010717215/

https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3c28619/

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/06/15/
876962140/times-are-changing-as-tolerance-weakens-for-confederate-monuments

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/06/06/
871404659/richmond-to-remove-confederate-statues-from-historic-avenue

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/01/21/
686547376/the-very-particular-history-being-presented-at-confederate-sites

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frances Adeline Miller Seward    1805-1865

 

abolitionist

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/30/
books/review/the-agitators-dorothy-wickenden.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham Lincoln    February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan. 31, 1865

 

Thirteenth Amendment

 

 

The thirteenth amendment

to the U.S. Constitution

abolishes slavery

throughout the country

 

 

ON Jan. 31, 1865,

Congress passed the 13th Amendment,

banning slavery in America.

 

It was an achievement that abolitionists

had spent decades fighting for

— and one for which their movement

has been lauded ever since.

 

But before abolitionism succeeded,

it failed.

 

As a pre-Civil War movement,

it was a flop.

 

Antislavery congressmen

were able to push through

their amendment

because of the absence

of the pro-slavery South,

and the complicated

politics of the Civil War.

 

Abolitionism’s surprise victory

has misled generations

about how change gets made.

 

(...)

 

It’s hard to accept

just how unpopular

abolitionism was

before the Civil War.

 

The abolitionist Liberty Party

never won a majority

in a single county,

anywhere in America,

in any presidential race.

 

(...)

 

In 1860

the premier antislavery newspaper,

The Liberator,  had a circulation

of under 3,000,

in a nation of 31 million.

 

Even among Northerners

who wanted to stop

the spread of slavery,

the idea of banning

it altogether seemed fanatical.

 

On the eve of the Civil War,

America’s greatest sage,

Ralph Waldo Emerson,

predicted that slavery

might end one day,

but “we shall not live to see it.”

 

In a deeply racist society,

where most white Americans,

South and North,

valued sectional unity

above equal rights,

“abolitionist”

was usually a dirty word.

 

One man who campaigned

for Abraham Lincoln

in 1860 complained:

“I have been denounced

as impudent, foppish,

immature, and worse than all,

an Abolitionist.”

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/30/was-abolitionism-a-failure/

 

 

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1865.html 

 

https://guides.loc.gov/13th-amendment

 

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/30/
was-abolitionism-a-failure/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 19th, 1863 / Juneteenth

 

 

 

 

What is Juneteenth – and should it be a federal holiday in the US?        Video        G        18 June 2020

 

Every 19 June for more than 150 years

African Americans across the US

have celebrated freedom from slavery.

 

Guardian US reporter Kenya Evelyn

explores the significance of Juneteenth,

how celebrations have evolved over the years

and looks at whether it is time for the holiday

to receive federal recognition

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Az6hJaNEbSU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Az6hJaNEbSU
video - G - 18 June 2020

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=91633172
June 18, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 1863

 

President Abraham Lincoln

issued

the Emancipation Proclamation

on January 1, 1863,

as the nation approached

its third year of bloody civil war.

 

The proclamation declared

"that all persons held as slaves"

within the rebellious states

"are, and henceforward shall be free."

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured-documents/
emancipation-proclamation

 

 

 

Lincoln issues

the Emancipation Proclamation,

freeing all slaves in areas of rebellion

 

Lincoln puts forth a reconstruction plan

offering amnesty to white Southerners

who take loyalty oaths

and accept the abolition of slavery.

 

State government can be formed

in those states where at least

10 percent of voters

comply with these terms.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1863.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1863.html

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/21/freedom-and-restraint/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1862

 

Congress abolishes slavery

in Washington, D.C.,

and the territories

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1862.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 22, 1862

 

Lincoln

issues Emancipation Proclamation

 

 

On September 22, 1862,

President Abraham Lincoln

issues a preliminary

Emancipation Proclamation,

which sets a date for the freedom

of more than 3 million black slaves

in the United States

and recasts the Civil War

as a fight against slavery.

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/
lincoln-issues-emancipation-proclamation

 

 

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/
lincoln-issues-emancipation-proclamation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Brown    1800-1859

 

On October 16, 1859,

John Brown led 21 men on a raid

of the federal arsenal

at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

 

His plan to arm slaves

with the weapons

he and his men seized

from the arsenal was thwarted

by local farmers, militiamen,

and Marines led by Robert E. Lee.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3b.html 

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/09/
in-camp-reading-les-miserables/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/28/
arts/design/28brown.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Compromise of 1850

admits California to the Union

as a free state,

allows the slave states

of New Mexico and Utah

to be decided

by popular sovereignty,

and bans slave trade in D.C.

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1850.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Abolitionists

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/npr-history-dept/2015/02/26/
388993874/how-black-abolitionists-changed-a-nation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848

 

Anti-slavery groups organize

the Free Soil Party,

a group opposed

to the westward

expansion of slavery

from which the Republican Party

will later be born

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1848.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1837

 

New York City

hosts the first National

Anti-Slavery Society Convention

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1837.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1831

 

Nat Turner,

an enslaved Baptist preacher

believing himself divinely inspired,

leads a violent rebellion

in Southampton, Virginia.

 

At least 57 whites are killed

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1831.html

 

 

http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1829

 

In Boston, Massachusetts,

David Walker publishes his widely read

vociferous condemnation of slavery,

AN APPEAL TO THE COLORED CITIZENS

OF THE WORLD

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1829.html

 

 

http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denmark Vesey    1767-1822

 

black abolitionist

who was executed in 1822

for leading a failed slave rebellion

(Charleston, S.C.)

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/opinion/abolitionist-or-terrorist.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/
opinion/abolitionist-or-terrorist.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1820

 

Missouri Compromise

 

 

In an effort to preserve

the balance of power in Congress

between slave and free states,

the Missouri Compromise

was passed in 1820

admitting Missouri as a slave state

and Maine as a free state.

 

Furthermore,

with the exception of Missouri,

this law prohibited slavery

in the Louisiana Territory

north of the 36° 30´ latitude line.

 

In 1854,

the Missouri Compromise

was repealed

by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

 

Three years later

the Missouri Compromise

was declared unconstitutional

by the Supreme Court

in the Dred Scott decision,

which ruled that Congress

did not have the authority

to prohibit slavery

in the territories.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1820.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1817

 

The American Colonization Society

is founded to help free blacks

resettle in Africa

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1817.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1811

 

(...) in January of 1811,

a group of enslaved people

on a plantation on the outskirts

of New Orleans rose up,

armed themselves and began

a long march toward the city.

 

Hundreds would join them

along the way.

 

Their goal:

to free every slave they found

and then seize the Crescent City.

 

The rebellion came to be known

as the German Coast Uprising

and it's believed to be the largest

slave rebellion in United States history.

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/09/µ
777810796/hundreds-march-in-reenactment-of-a-historic-but-long-forgotten-slave-rebellion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/09/µ
777810796/hundreds-march-in-reenactment-of-a-historic-but-long-forgotten-slave-rebellion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1808

 

The U.S. bans

international slave trading

 

 

on January 1st, 1808,

the U.S. officially banned

the importation of slaves.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=17988106 - January 10, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h92.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/07/18/
423803204/remembering-new-orleans-overlooked-ties-to-slavery

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=17988106 - January 10, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1787

 

The Northwest Ordinance forbids slavery,

except as criminal punishment,

in the Northwest Territory

(later Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,

Michigan, and Wisconsin).

 

Residents of the territory

are required to return fugitive slaves

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1787.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pennsylvania’s

Gradual Abolition Act of 1780

 

The act began dismantling slavery,

eventually releasing

people from bondage

after their 28th birthdays.

 

Under the law,

any slave who entered Pennsylvania

with an owner and lived in the state

for longer than six months

would be set free automatically.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1739

 

Slaves in Stono, South Carolina,

rebel, sacking and burning

an armory and killing whites.

 

The colonial militia

puts an end to the rebellion

before slaves are able

to reach freedom in Florida

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1739.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1781

 

Mum Bett

and another Massachusetts slave

successfully sue their master

for freedom

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1781.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1731

 

The Spanish reverse a 1730 decision

and declare that slaves fleeing

to Florida from Carolina

will not be sold or returned

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1731.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1712

 

An alleged slave revolt

in New York City

leads to violent outbreaks.

 

Nine whites are killed

and eighteen slaves are executed

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1712.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1671

 

Bacon's Rebellion

 

 

In Virginia, black slaves

and black and white indentured servants

band together to participate

in Bacon's Rebellion

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1676.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History / Historical documents

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

19th century > USA > Emancipation Proclamation - 1863

 

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

Thirteenth Amendment    1865

 

 

Fourteenth Amendment    1868

 

 

slavery, racism > lynchings

 

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

The Guardian > Slavery

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/13/
us-slavery-400-years-virginia-point-comfort

 

 

 

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