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History > 18th, 19th century > America, USA > Native Americans > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

An 1892 map of the Indian and Oklahoma territories

showing the boundaries of tribal reservations.

 

Soon after,

the federal government started

the process of dividing the tribally-held land

despite resistance by tribal leaders.

 

Photograph: Library of Congress

 

In 1920,

Native Women Sought the Vote. Here’s What’s Next.

The 19th Amendment

did not bring the right to vote to all Native women,

but two experts in a conversation said

it did usher in the possibility of change.

NYT

Published July 31, 2020

Updated Aug. 11, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/31/
style/19th-amendment-native-womens-suffrage.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Map of Indian Territory (Oklahoma),

1885

https://www.archives.gov/files/education/lessons/
fed-indian-policy/images/territory-map-01.jpg 

 

National Archives and Records Administration

Records of the General Land Office

Record Group 49

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/
fed-indian-policy 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Map of Indian Territory (Oklahoma), 1891

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy/images/territory-map-02.jpg

 

National Archives and Records Administration

Records of the General Land Office

Record Group 49

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clement V. and William P. Rogers' Application

For Enrollment in the Five Civilized Tribes

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy/images/application-page-05.gif

 

National Archives and Records Administration

Record Group 49

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A portrait of Chief Spotted Tail

by David Frances Barry,

circa 1880.

 

Photograph: Denver Public Library/Bridgeman Images

 

This 19th-Century Law Helps Shape Criminal Justice in Indian Country

And that’s a problem — especially for Native American women,

and especially in rape cases.

NYT

July 19, 2020, 11:00 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/19/
opinion/mcgirt-native-reservation-implications.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Laurens Dawes    1816-1903

 

 

 

TITLE: Dawes, Hon. Henry L. of Mass.

REPRODUCTION NUMBER:

LC-DIG-cwpbh-04976 (digital file from original neg.)

MEDIUM:

1 negative : glass, wet collodion.

CREATED/PUBLISHED:

[between 1865 and 1880]

 

NOTES:

Title from unverified information on negative sleeve.

Annotation from negative, scratched into emulsion:

Sen H.L. Dawes, 1333, 1315, 497.

Forms part of Brady-Handy Photograph Collection (Library of Congress).

FORMAT:

Portrait photographs 1860-1880. Glass negatives 1860-1880.

REPOSITORY:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (digital file from original neg.) cwpbh 04976 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpbh.04976

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@band(cwpbh+04976))

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_L._Dawes

 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sitting Bull    c. 1831-1890

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/07/01/
624792101/woman-walks-ahead-lead-sees-a-sea-change-for-indigenous-people-on-film

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 8, 1887

 

The Dawes Act

 

The Dawes Act of 1887

(also known as

the General Allotment Act

or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887;

named after

Senator Henry L. Dawes

of Massachusetts)

authorized

the President of the United States

to subdivide Native America

 tribal landholdings

into allotments

for Native American

heads of families

and individuals,

transferring traditional

systems of land tenure

into government-imposed

systems of private property

by forcing Native Americans

to "assume

a capitalist and proprietary

relationship with property"

that did not previously exist.

 

The act also opened

remaining Native land

for appropriation

by white settlers.

 

Before private property

could be dispensed,

the government

now had to determine

"which Indians were eligible"

for allotments, which propelled

an "official search

for a federal definition

of Indian-ness."

- 20 April 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/dawes.htm

 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act

 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Sioux War

 

1876

 

Battle of Little Bighorn / Custer’s Last Stand

 

 

 

Sitting Bull. (Bust).

Photograph by D. F. Barry, 1885.

 

Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-2315

Digital ID: cph 3a06022

Reproduction Number:

LC-USZ62-2315 (b&w film copy neg.)

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division,

Washington, DC 20540 USA

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a06022))

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paWestern.html

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes.

Library of Congress > Pictorial Americana > Selected Images

Western Life and Indian fighting

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paWestern.html

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/bighorn.htm

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/07/01/
624792101/woman-walks-ahead-lead-sees-a-sea-change-for-indigenous-people-on-film

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/19/
opinion/sunday/a-real-war-story-in-drawings.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian genocide > California

 

 

The state

of sunshine and pleasure

is drenched

in the blood of Indians,

the victims of mass killings.

 

These peaked

between 1846,

when Americans

conquered California

from Mexico,

and 1873,

when they snuffed out

the last group resistance

by natives in the state.

 

The slaughter

of California’s Indians

was rapid and thorough

even by the grim standards

prevailing elsewhere

in North America.

 

Before 1846,

California’s native peoples

suffered great losses

from diseases

and dispossession.

 

But Spanish colonizers

and their Mexican successors

wanted to preserve Indians

as mission inmates

or as cheap and dependent

farm labor.

 

The American newcomers,

however,

came by the thousands

and treated natives

as menaces best destroyed,

the sooner the better.

 

Lacking firearms,

subdivided

into many distinct groups,

and greatly outnumbered

by 1852,

the California natives were

more vulnerable to attack

than Indians elsewhere.

 

As Benjamin Madley writes

in “An American Genocide,”

by 1873,

roaming bands of Indian-killers

played a major role

in reducing native numbers

by more than 80 percent.

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/
books/review/an-american-genocide-by-benja.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/
books/review/an-american-genocide-by-benja.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Old West        Pioneers

 

 

 

The pioneer's home. On the western Frontier.

Lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1867, after F. F. Palmer.

 

Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-21

Digital ID: pga 00861

Source: digital file from original print

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-pga-00861 (digital file from original print) ,

LC-USZC2-3442 (color film copy slide)

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/I?ils:1:./temp/~pp_eb5z::displayType=1:m856sd=pga:m856sf=00861:
@@@mdb=fsaall,app,brum,detr,swann,look,gottscho,pan,horyd,genthe,var,cai,cd,hh,yan,bbcards,lomax,ils,prok,brhc,nclc,matpc,iucpub,tgmi,lamb

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes.

Library of Congress > Pictorial Americana > Selected Images

Western Life and Indian fighting

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paWestern.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Old_West

 

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1890

 

Battle of Wounded Knee

 

 

the killing

of scores of unarmed

Lakota men,

women and children

by soldiers

of the United States Army’s

Seventh Cavalry

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/12/opinion/save-wounded-knee.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/12/
opinion/save-wounded-knee.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/places/states/dakotas/dk_wounded.htm

 

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/wklakota.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Off-reservation boarding schools

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The federal government

began sending

American Indians

to off-reservation

boarding schools

in the 1870s,

when the United States

was still at war with Indians.

 

An Army officer,

Richard Pratt,

founded the first

of these schools.

 

He based it

on an education program

he had developed

in an Indian prison.

 

He described his philosophy

in a speech he gave in 1892.

 

"A great general has said

that the only good Indian

is a dead one," Pratt said.

 

"In a sense, I agree

with the sentiment,

but only in this:

that all the Indian there is

in the race should be dead.

 

Kill the Indian in him,

and save the man."

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865 - May 12, 2008

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/03/10/
592450719/an-indigenous-language-is-stayin-alive-in-a-karaoke-contest

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=16516865 - May 12, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1870

 

Lt Gustavus C Doane,

a US army cavalry

captain and explorer

(...)

led a massacre that killed

around 175 Blackfeet people,

and he continued to brag

about the incident

throughout his life.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/05/
native-americans-yellowstone-mountain-renaming

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/05/
native-americans-yellowstone-mountain-renaming

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1868

 

The Treaty of Fort Laramie

(also the Sioux Treaty of 1868)

 was an agreement

between the United States

and the Oglala,

Miniconjou,

and Brulé bands

of Lakota people,

Yanktonai Dakota

and Arapaho Nation,

following the failure

of the first Fort Laramie treaty,

signed in 1851.

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fort_Laramie_(1868)

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/aug/03/
riding-with-the-native-americans-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1864

 

Eads, Colo.

 

Sand Creek Massacre

 

 

In 1864,

Col. John Chivington

led a group of soldiers

in an attack on a Cheyenne

and Arapaho village.

 

After attempting

to make peace,

Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle

had been ordered

by the U.S. Army

to camp along

the banks of Sand Creek

and fly an American flag,

but this did not protect them

from Colonel Chivington’s

attack.

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/08/31/
unearthing-americas-hidden-history/

 

 

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/08/31/
unearthing-americas-hidden-history/

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soldier_Blue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dakota War of 1862

 

 

Dakota Conflict Trials

 

 

Execution

of thirty-eight Sioux Indians

at Mankato, Minnesota

- December 26, 1862

 

the largest mass execution

in United States history

 

 

 

 

Execution of the thirty-eight Sioux Indians at Mankato,

Minnesota, December 26, 1862.

Lithograph by Milwaukee Lith. & Engr. Co., 1863.

 

Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-193

Digital ID: cph 3a04167

Source:

digital file from b&w film copy neg.

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a04167))

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes.

Library of Congress > Pictorial Americana > Selected Images

Western Life and Indian fighting

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paWestern.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paWestern.html 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sioux_Uprising

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Benjamin_Whipple

 

 

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/08/31/
unearthing-americas-hidden-history/

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/06/01/
531081906/after-outcry-sculpture-depicting-dakota-tragedy-to-be-dismantled-burned

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/14/us/
14dakota.html

 

https://www.criterion.com/boxsets/
1165-the-emigrants-the-new-land  *****

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dakota War of 1862

 

Dakota Conflict Trials

 

Henry Benjamin Whipple    1822-1901

 

 

 

 

TITLE: H. P. Whipple

REPRODUCTION NUMBER:

LC-DIG-cwpbh-03015

(digital file from original neg.)

MEDIUM:

1 negative : glass, wet collodion.

CREATED/PUBLISHED:

[between 1855 and 1865]

 

NOTES:

Title from unverified information on negative sleeve.

Forms part of Brady-Handy Photograph Collection (Library of Congress).

FORMAT:

Portrait photographs 1850-1870. Glass negatives 1850-1870.

REPOSITORY:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID:

(digital file from original neg.) cwpbh 0301

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpbh.03015 

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@band(cwpbh+03015))

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Benjamin_Whipple

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 21, 1861

 

First Battle of Bull Run

 

 

The First Battle of Bull Run

(the name used

by Union forces),

also known as

the First Battle of Manassas

(the name used

by Confederate forces),

was the first major battle

of the American Civil War

and was a Confederate victory.

 

The battle was fought

on July 21, 1861

in Prince William County,

Virginia, just north

of the city of Manassas

and about 25 miles

west-southwest

of Washington, D.C.

 

The Union's forces were slow

in positioning themselves,

allowing

Confederate reinforcements

time to arrive by rail.

 

Each side

had about 18,000

poorly trained

and poorly led troops

in their first battle.

 

It was

a Confederate victory,

followed by

a disorganized retreat

of the Union forces.

- 20 April 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Bull_Run

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Bull_Run

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 September 1851

 

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851

was signed

on September 17, 1851

between United States

treaty commissioners

and representatives

of the Cheyenne, Sioux,

Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine,

Mandan, Hidatsa,

and Arikara Nations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fort_Laramie_(1851)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1817-18        1835-42        1855-58

 

the three Seminole Wars

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/npr-history-dept/2015/09/03/
433194190/the-indian-cowboys-of-florida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Trail of Tears

 

five Southern tribes

were forced West in the 1830s.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 28, 1930

 

Indian Removal Act

 

 

The Indian Removal Act

was signed into law

by President Andrew Jackson

on May 28, 1830,

authorizing the president

to grant unsettled lands

west of the Mississippi

in exchange for Indian lands

within existing state borders.

 

A few tribes went peacefully,

but many resisted

the relocation policy.

 

During the fall and winter

of 1838 and 1839,

the Cherokees

were forcibly moved west

by the United States

government.

 

Approximately

4,000 Cherokees died

on this forced march,

which became known

as the "Trail of Tears."

https://guides.loc.gov/indian-removal-act
#:~:text=Introduction,many%20resisted%20the%20relocation%20policy.

 

 

https://guides.loc.gov/indian-removal-act
#:~:text=Introduction,many%20resisted%20the%20relocation%20policy.

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/live-updates-protests-for-racial-justice/2020/06/23/
881983918/jackson-statue-near-white-house-still-standing-after-protesters-fail-to-topple-i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Florida’s Forgotten ‘Above-Ground’ Railroad

 

The Daily 360

The New York Times

 

 

Escaped slaves

and Native Americans

created a thriving community

in the Florida Panhandle,

but hundreds were killed

when U.S. forces attacked it

in 1816.

 

Here’s their story.

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=sZ5Lw_lkAlw - NYT - 27 February 2017

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=sZ5Lw_lkAlw - NYT - 27 February 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1803-1806

 

Lewis and Clark expedition

 

 

The Lewis and Clark Expedition

from August 31, 1803

to September 25, 1806,

also known as

the Corps of Discovery Expedition,

was the first expedition

to cross the western portion

of the United States.

 

It began

in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,

made its way westward,

and crossed

the Continental Divide

of the Americas

before reaching

the Pacific coast.

 

The Corps of Discovery

was a select group

of U.S. Army

and civilian volunteers

under the command

of Captain Meriwether Lewis

and his close friend

Second Lieutenant William Clark.

- 20 April 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition

 

http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/index.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1786

 

The United States established

its first Native American reservation

 

 

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/
features/immig/alt/native_american.html
- broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Documents about Native Americans

 

NARA

 

Native American Records

at the National Archives

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/research/
native-americans

 

https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/
native-americans.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NARA

 

Teaching With Documents:

 

Maps of Indian Territory

 

Dawes Act

 

Will Rogers' Enrollment Case File

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/
fed-indian-policy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NARA

 

Pictures of Native Americans in the United States

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/research/
native-americans/pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

Edward S. Curtis's

The North American Indian

 

 

The North American Indian

by Edward S. Curtis

is one of the most significant

and controversial representations

of traditional

American Indian culture

ever produced.

 

Issued in a limited edition

from 1907-1930,

the publication continues

to exert a major influence

on the image of Indians

in popular culture.

 

Curtis said

he wanted to document

"the old time Indian, his dress,

his ceremonies, his life

and manners."

 

In over 2000 photogravure

plates and narrative,

Curtis portrayed

the traditional customs

and lifeways

of eighty Indian tribes.

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ienhtml/curthome.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

History of the American West

 

Photographs    1860-1920

 

 

Over 30,000 photographs,

drawn from the holding

of the Western History

and Genealogy Department

at Denver Public Library,

illuminate many aspects

of the history

of the American West.

 

Most of the photographs

were taken

between 1860 and 1920.

 

They illustrate

Colorado towns

and landscape,

document

the place of mining

in the history

of Colorado and the West,

and show the lives

of Native Americans

from more than

forty tribes living west

of the Mississippi River.

 

 

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/
ammem/award97/codhtml/hawphome.html
- broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

Pictorial Americana        Selected Images

 

Western Life and Indian fighting

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paWestern.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Indians of the Pacific Northwest

 

 

This digital collection

integrates

over 2,300 photographs

and 7,700 pages of text

relating

to the American Indians

in two cultural areas

of the Pacific Northwest,

the Northwest Coast and Plateau.

 

 

https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1779

 

The American Revolution

and Native Americans

 

 

Narratives of atrocity

were themselves

weapons of war,

and “both sides recognized

the power of print media,”

Hoock points out.

 

The Patriots’

near monopoly

on American printing presses

meant that reports

of British and Hessian cruelty

spread and survived

disproportionately.

 

But Patriots, too,

engaged in decidedly

irregular warfare,

especially with Britain’s

native allies.

 

Hoock narrates

the brutal “campaign of terror”

Gen. John Sullivan

waged in Iroquoia

during the summer of 1779,

a scorched-earth march

involving one-third

of the total Continental

fighting force.

 

George Washington himself

planned the campaign,

telling Sullivan to pursue

“the total destruction

and devastation

of their settlements

and the capture

of as many prisoners

of every age and sex

as possible.

 

It will be essential

to ruin their crops

now in the ground

and prevent

their planting more,”

wrote the Patriots’

supreme commander,

whom the Seneca

nicknamed Town Destroyer.

 

Sullivan followed

Washington’s orders;

his men put at least

41 Indian towns to the torch.

 

They desecrated native graves,

raped native women

and mutilated native bodies

for profit and for sport.

 

One lieutenant, William Barton,

sent a party of his men

“to look for some dead Indians.”

 

The soldiers returned to camp

having skinned two of them

from their hips down for boot legs:

a pair for Barton’s commander

and “the other for myself,”

he wrote in his official journal.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/19/
books/review/scars-of-independence-americas-violent-birth-holger-hoock.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/19/
books/review/scars-of-independence-americas-violent-birth-holger-hoock.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1763

 

Conestoga Massacre in Pennsylvania

 

 

The Conestoga Massacre

took place in Pennsylvania

in December of 1763,

when a band

of around 50 white settlers

rode 40 miles

from Paxton Township

to Conestoga Indian Town,

(at the time,

made up of 20 people.)

 

The white settlers,

later dubbed

the Paxton Boys,

killed and mutilated

six Conestoga

in their homes,

and then did the same

for the remaining 14,

who were sheltering

in a workhouse nearby.

 

In the course

of an afternoon,

Conestoga Indian Town

was no more.

 

In addition

to wiping out the Conestoga,

the massacre ignited

long-simmering tensions

between

Scots-Irish frontiersman,

which included

the Paxton boys,

and the Quaker elite,

who were perceived

to be running

the Pennsylvania government.

 

People in the frontier

believed

that the Quakers

gave resources

to Native people

at the expense

of white settlers.

 

Over the course

of the next few weeks,

those tensions escalated,

and in early 1764,

white frontiersmen

numbering in the hundreds

marched

east toward Philadelphia

with the thinly-masked intention

of wiping out even

more Native people.

 

But before they arrived

in Philadelphia,

Benjamin Franklin was able

to deescalate the mob.

 

He convinced folks

to put down their weapons

and, instead,

print their grievances

for the local government to read.

 

What resulted was

America's first "pamphlet war."

 

In more than 60 pamphlets

and ten political cartoons,

the settlers put their claims

in writing.

 

According to Ghost River,

"At stake was much more

than the conduct

of the Paxton murderers.

Pamphleteers staked claims

about westward settlement,

representation,

and white supremacy

in pre-Revolutionary

Pennsylvania."

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2020/02/26/
806124981/how-a-graphic-novel-resurrected-a-forgotten-chapter-in-american-history

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2020/02/26/
806124981/how-a-graphic-novel-resurrected-a-forgotten-chapter-in-american-history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

English America, America, USA

 

 

America, USA > Thanksgiving - from 1621

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

USA > race relations > Native Americans / American Indians

 

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations,

racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

genocide, war,

weapons, arms sales,

espionage, torture

 

 

 

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