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History > 20th century > USA > 1929 Crash  /  1930s-early 40s Great Depression

 

 

 

newspaper:

The Daily Mail, continental edition

date:

October 25, 1929

news event:

The American stock market collapses.

http://www.bl.uk/learning/images/front%20page/large8018.html

http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/fpage/finance/prnfinance.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1940

 

John Ford's The Grapes of Wrath

 

 

The Grapes of Wrath

is a 1940 American drama film

directed by John Ford.

 

It was based

on John Steinbeck's

1939 Pulitzer Prize-winning

novel of the same name.

 

The screenplay was written

by Nunnally Johnson

and the executive producer

was Darryl F. Zanuck.

 

The film

tells the story of the Joads,

an Oklahoma family,

who, after losing their farm

during the Great Depression

in the 1930s,

become migrant workers

and end up in California.

 

The motion picture

details their arduous journey

across the United States

as they travel to California

in search of work

and opportunities

for the family members.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Grapes_of_Wrath_(film)

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Grapes_of_Wrath_(film)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secular stagnation was an idea first conceived

in the aftermath of the Great Depression.

 

Photograph:

New York Times Co./Getty Images

 

Weak economic recovery

was down to flawed policies, not secular stagnation

 

Lesson to be learned from 2008 financial crisis

is that the challenge was – and is - political

G

Wed 29 Aug 2018    16.19 BST

Last modified on Thu 30 Aug 2018    07.57 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/aug/29/
weak-economic-recovery-was-down-to-flawed-policies-not-secular-stagnation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Migrant agricultural workers,

Nipomo, California, 1936

 

Photograph: Dorothea Lange

 

A Vision Shared:

the photographers who captured the Great Depression

G

Tue 24 Jul 2018    11.00 BST

Last modified on Tue 24 Jul 2018    11.01 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/jul/24/
a-vision-shared-book-review-great-depression-photographers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Migrant family, Texas. 1936.

 

Photograph:

Dorothea Lange/Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 

In Search of the American Family

NYT

Nov. 20, 2017

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/11/20/
in-search-of-the-american-family

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Migratory farmers (pea pickers)

changing their flat tire along route US 101.

 

Location: Santa Maria, CA, US

Date taken: February 1936

 

Photographer: Dorothea Lange

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=e539d3eba55d1e0d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dust bowl drought victims

(migratory farm workers)

at ramshackle building,

meant to be permanent home,

north of Shafter.

 

Location: CA, US

Date taken: February 1936

 

Photograph: Dorothea Lange

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=12c8291d312a21b8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A booking photograph of a vagrant in the early 1930s

 

Real life film noir: crime scenes from the LAPD – in pictures

Warning:

this gallery contains images some people may find distressing

Crime scene photographs

shot by Los Angeles police officers

in the line of duty between 1925 and the 1970s

are on show at the city’s Lucie Foundation.

More than 80 images are on display,

drawn from the thousands discovered

in a warehouse in 2000

by the fototeka Gallery.

G

Tue 16 Jul 2019    10.28 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/jul/16/
real-life-film-noir-scenes-from-the-lapd-in-pictures


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

America from the Great Depression to WW2

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/fsa/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Dust Bowl or the Dirty Thirties

 

 

 

Buried machinery in barn lot

in Dallas, South Dakota,

United States during the Dust Bowl,

an agricultural, ecological, and economic disaster

in the Great Plains region of North America in 1936

 

Date: 13 May 1936(1936-05-13)

 

Source: United States Department of Agriculture;

Image Number: 00di0971 (original link now dead)

Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Dust_Bowl_-_Dallas%2C_South_Dakota_1936.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Dust Bowl farmer John Barnett and his family.

 

Location: OK, US

Date taken: 1942

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=65a23429ac4addd7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A period

of severe dust storms

causing major ecological

and agricultural damage

to American and Canadian

prairie lands

from 1930 to 1936

(in some areas until 1940)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_Bowl

 

 

 

drought, economic depression

and devastating dust storms

created the perfect conditions

for migration in the 1930s,

away from the southern Plains states

and towards the west,

 

(...)
 

 

Facing millions of dollars

of crop losses per day

in the Dust Bowl,

millions of residents

from Oklahoma, Texas,

Arkansas and Missouri

had no choice

but to move or starve.

 

They packed their bags,

with many traveling west

to California.

 

The state of California resisted,

citing the 1933 Indigent Act

to turn back poor migrants

along the state's

major points of entry.

 

John Steinbeck's novel

The Grapes of Wrath, written in 1939,

depicted this vilification

of climate migrants

through its story

of a poor family of tenants

driven out of the Dust Bowl

and mistreated in California.

https://www.npr.org/2018/10/20/
659074873/what-migrants-displaced-by-the-dust-bowl-and-climate-events-can-teach-us

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/10/20/
659074873/what-migrants-displaced-by-the-dust-bowl-and-climate-events-can-teach-us

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World’s Highest Standard of Living

by Margaret Bourke-White, 1937.

 

Photograph:

Courtesy of the estate of Margaret Bourke-White

 

'Families were devastated':

looking back on the Great Depression via art

In a powerful new exhibition,

photography and folk art are used

to provide potentially relevant lessons

on how to deal with economic hardship

G

Wed 18 Sep 2019    06.01 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/sep/18/
great-depression-photography-art-exhibition-chicago

 

Related

 

First published

in Life Magazine’s February 1937 issue,

World’s Highest Standard of Living

became instantly recognizable

to many Americans during the Great Depression

for its starkly ironic juxtaposition of an idealized America

alongside the grimmer aspects of everyday reality.

 

Often thought to be an unemployment line,

the photo was actually taken in Louisville

after the flooding of the Ohio River,

which killed almost 400 people

and displaced about a million more across four states.

https://www.artic.edu/articles/467/
worlds-highest-standard-of-living

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1935

 

Works Progress Administration    WPA

 

The Works Progress

Administration

(WPA; renamed in 1939

as the Work Projects

Administration)

was an American

New Deal agency,

employing

millions of job-seeker

 (mostly unskilled men)

to carry out

public works projects,

including the construction

of public buildings and roads.

 

It was established

on May 6, 1935,

by Executive Order 7034.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Works_Progress_Administration

 

 

 

By the time the agency

closed up shop in 1943,

it had put 8.5 million

Americans to work

— a sizable chunk

of the workforce

in a country less

than half as populous

as it is today.

 

Most of that direct employment

was organized and done

by the WPA, an icon

of the "bold persistent

experimentation"

FDR said would characterize

his approach to recovery.

https://www.npr.org/2020/04/04/
826909516/in-the-1930s-works-program-spelled-hope-for-millions-of-jobless-americans

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Works_Progress_Administration

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/04/04/
826909516/in-the-1930s-works-program-spelled-hope-for-millions-of-jobless-americans

 

https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/july-25/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1933

 

National Industrial Recovery Act    NIRA

 

 

Following the enactment

of the the National Industrial

Recovery Act (NIRA),

the National Recovery

Administration (NRA)

was established

on June 16, 1933

in an effort

by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

to assist the nation's

economic recovery

during the Great Depression.

 

The passage of NIRA

ushered in

a unique experiment

in U.S. economic history -

the NIRA sanctioned,

supported,

and in some cases,

enforced

an alliance of industries.

 

The National Recovery

Administration (NRA),

created by

a separate executive order,

was put into operation soon

after the final approval

of the act.

 

The administration

was empowered

to make voluntary agreements

dealing with hours of work,

rates of pay,

and the fixing of prices.

 

Patriotic appeals

were made to the public,

and firms were asked

to display the Blue Eagle,

an emblem signifying NRA

participation.

https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/
todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=616

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/
index.html?dod-date=616

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt    1882-1945

 

32nd president of the United States    1933-1945

 

Great Depression        New Deal        1930's

 

 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt,

the 32nd president

of the United States,

held that title longer

than any man in history

and dealt, during his time,

with some

of the greatest problems

internal or external,

which had faced the nation.

 

The internal crisis

which existed

at the time

of his first inauguration,

on March 4, 1933,

when the nation’s

economic system

was faltering

and its financial organism

paralyzed by fear,

was followed

in his third term

by the global war

during which he

and Winston Churchill

emerged as leaders

of the English-speaking

world.

 

The years in between

were packed

with swift and drastic

social and economic

changes

to make Mr. Roosevelt

the most controversial

figure

in American history.

 

Beloved by millions,

hated, admired,

feared and scorned

by countless adversaries,

he did much

to shape the future

of the nation he headed

and the world.

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/r/franklin_delano_roosevelt/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title : Roosevelt or reaction?

Wage earners - your vote is your answer

Date : 1936

Subjects : Democratic Party

United States

1936

General Election

President

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Folder : 1936 - Presidential Elections - Democratic Party

UCLA Online Campaign Literature Archive

http://digital.library.ucla.edu/campaign/librarian?VIEWPDF=1936_006_016_a

http://digital.library.ucla.edu/campaign/librarian?ITEMID=1936_006_016&SIZE=Medium

http://digital.library.ucla.edu/campaign/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/new-deal-1930s 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/franklin-delano-roosevelt

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/04/04/
826909516/in-the-1930s-works-program-spelled-hope-for-millions-of-jobless-americans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wall Street Crash        1929

 

The Great Depression / The New Deal        1930s

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/the-great-depression 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/new-deal-1930s

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/library/financial/index-1929-crash.html  

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3959005.stm  

 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/fsa/

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/galleries/greatdep.html  

https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1029

https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=526

https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=705

https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=616

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/07/21/
893672249/lives-of-the-great-depression

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/04/04/
826909516/in-the-1930s-works-program-spelled-hope-for-millions-of-jobless-americans

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/sep/18/
great-depression-photography-art-exhibition-chicago

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/jul/24/
a-vision-shared-book-review-great-depression-photographers

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/05/26/
409738018/hunger-and-humanity-how-dorothea-lange-taught-us-to-see

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/picture/2014/apr/14/
john-steinbeck-dorothea-lange-photography

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/01/
movies/deanna-durbin-1930s-star-of-universal-pictures-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/dustbowl/

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/26/business/26myers.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=4134779 - October 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1929/oct/26/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1929 Crash and The Great Depression

 

Herbert Hoover    1874-1964

 

Thirty-first President of the United States    1929-1933


 

 

 

[Herbert Hoover,

head-and-shoulders portrait,

facing slightly right]

 

Underwood & Underwood, Washington.

 

CREATED/PUBLISHED [1928(?)]

 

REPRODUCTION NUMBER

LC-USZ62-24155 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)

LC-USZ61-296 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)

DIGITAL ID

(b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a25105

(b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a02089

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3a20000/3a25000/3a25100/3a25105v.jpg
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/presp:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a02089))

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"NEW YORK:

Swamped under an avalanche of selling orders
from every part of the country and from abroad
which had been accumulating over the week-end,
the stock market today continued to sink,
though at a less rapid rate than Saturday.
Before the tumble became a crash, however,
a rally in the final half-hour saved prices
from closing on the lowest levels
and gave rise to hopes
that the market had touched rock bottom.
The wild rush to sell put the ticker more than an hour
behind the actual transactions nearly all day,
and at the close it was still seventy-two minutes behind.
The late rally, however, brought prices back slightly,
and at the close most stocks showed two to five points
above their lowest levels in the course of the session."

 

International Herald Tribune, 1929

http://www.iht.com/articles/2004/10/21/opinion/OLD22.html

 

 

 

 

"NEW YORK:

In a day replete with bankers' meetings,
conferences of Stock Exchange officials,
meetings of brokers and publication of opinions from high and low
in the world of finance, business and all else,
stock prices broke to new low levels
in a volume of trading far in excess of anything hitherto seen.
In five hours' trading, 16,419,000 shares changed hands,
in comparison with 12,894,600
which made the previous record day last Thursday [Oct. 24].
Sales on the Curb market added another 7,096,300 shares to the day's total.
Today [Oct. 29] came the first failure of the present reaction.
It was insignificant compared with the failures during the panics of the past,
but it was seized upon by a hysterical public as an occasion for fresh worry.
The failure was that of the firm of John J. Bell and Company,
members of the Curb Exchange,
whose officials announced its suspension
through the inability to meet its engagements.
Its obligations, it was said, were small.
Today's transactions broke all records,
even those established in Thursday's collapse.
The first three and a half hours
saw 12,652,000 shares change hands,
or within 250,000 of the record for a full five-hour session,
established during Thursday's debacle."

 

International Herald Tribune        1929

http://www.iht.com/articles/2004/10/29/opinion/old30.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/july-08/

 

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=11

 

https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/culture-idees/280720/
dans-le-chaos-des-annees-1930-les-combattants-de-lemancipation-34-paul-mattick-penseur-de-la-crise

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Cohen        USA        1932-2019

 

founding member

of the New Lost

City Ramblers,

the New York-based

string band

at the forefront

of the old-time music

revival of the 1950s

and ’60s

 

(...)

 

Although best known

as a performer,

Mr. Cohen was also

an accomplished

photographer, filmmaker

and musicologist.

 

But virtually all

his artistic pursuits

were centered

on a single goal:

revitalizing

the traditional music

of the rural American South

and building

a movement around it.

 

Established in 1958,

the Ramblers consisted

of Mr. Cohen

on banjo, guitar and vocals;

 

the folklorist Mike Seeger,

also on vocals,

as well as fiddle

and other instruments;

 

and Tom Paley,

who left the trio in 1962,

on banjo, guitar and vocals.

 

Together

the three men introduced

a generation of young urbanites

to the work of Depression-era

rural performers like Dock Boggs,

Elizabeth Cotten

and Blind Alfred Reed.

 

(Tracy Schwarz,

Mr. Paley’s replacement,

played fiddle and guitar

and sang with the group

from 1962

until the early 1970s.)

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/17/
arts/music/john-cohen-dead.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/17/
arts/music/john-cohen-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Margaret Bourke-White    1904-1971

 

Dorothea Lange    1895-1965

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts > Books > 20th century

 

USA > John Steinbeck (1902-1968)

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts > Music > Folk > 20th century

 

Johnny Cash    1932-2003

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia > Economy, Weather, Refugees

 

stock markets

 

 

recovery

 

 

downturn, recession, depression

 

 

economy, cycles, business, markets, prices, taxes > up

 

 

economy, cycles, business, markets, prices, taxes > down

 

 

weather

 

 

natural disasters

 

 

conflicts, wars, poverty, climate > migrants, refugees