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History > 20th century > Cold War / холодная война > USA > McCarthyism, Joseph R. McCarthy    1908-1957

 

 

 

Senate Investigation Sub-Committee

Sen. Mccarthy [ bottom left ],

Senate Office Bldg.

 

Date taken: 1953

 

Photograph: George Skadding

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Walter Bernstein    1919-2021

 

blacklisted Hollywood screenwriter

 

A second world war

correspondent for the military

who also had been published

in The New Yorker,

Bernstein was at the start

of what seemed

a promising film career

when the cold war

and anti-communist paranoia

led to his being blacklisted in 1950,

a fate which ruined

the lives of many of his peers

and led some to suicide.

 

(...)

 

Unwilling to provide

the House Un-American Activities

Committee

names of suspected communists,

the way director Elia Kazan and others

had been spared from banishment,

Bernstein found employment

through the use of “fronts,”

people willing to lend their names

for scripts he had written.

 

While many were blacklisted

just for supporting left-wing causes,

Bernstein actually was a member

of the American Communist party

and remained so until 1956.

 

Bernstein would remember

his decision with “relief”

over no longer abiding Soviet dogma

and “sadness” for the people

who were fellow idealists.

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/jan/24/
walter-bernstein-blacklisted-hollywood-screenwriter-dies-at-101

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/jan/24/
walter-bernstein-blacklisted-hollywood-screenwriter-dies-at-101

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/23/
movies/walter-bernstein-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch)    1916-2020

 

He decided not only

to hire Dalton Trumbo

— who had been blacklisted

during the McCarthy era

on suspicion

of Communist sympathies —

to write the screenplay,

but also to put

Mr. Trumbo’s name in the credits

rather than one of the pseudonyms

he had been using.

 

“We all had been employing

the blacklisted writers,”

Mr. Douglas

wrote in a 2012 memoir,

“I Am Spartacus!:

Making a Film,

Breaking the Blacklist.”

 

“It was an open secret

and an act of hypocrisy,

as well as a way to get

the best talent at bargain prices.

I hated

being part of such a system.”

 

(Mr. Douglas’s role

in Trumbo’s redemption

— although some people say

he overstated it —

was dramatized in the 2015

biographical film “Trumbo,”

a film he praised,

telling The Telegraph of London

that “its spirit is true

to the man I admired.”

Dean O’Gorman played Mr. Douglas.)

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/05/
movies/kirk-douglas-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/kirkdouglas

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2020/feb/06/
kirk-douglas-a-career-in-clips

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2020/feb/06/
kirk-douglas-dead-film-peter-bradshaw-handsome

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2020/feb/06/
kirk-douglas-hollywood-legend-and-star-of-spartacus-dies-aged-103

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/02/05/
156511592/kirk-douglas-hollywood-tough-guy-and-spartacus-superstar-dies-at-103

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/05/
movies/kirk-douglas-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lauren Bacall    1924-2014

 

 

 

In 1947,

as the House Un-American Activities Committee

investigated Americans suspected of Communism,

Ms. Bacall and Bogart flew to Washington

as part of a group known

as the Committee for the First Amendment.

 

Photograph: Associated Press

 

Lauren Bacall Dies at 89;

in a Bygone Hollywood, She Purred Every Word

NYT

12 August 2014

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/
movies/lauren-bacall-sultry-movie-star-dies-at-89.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

actress

whose provocative glamour

elevated her to stardom

in Hollywood’s golden age

and whose lasting mystique

put her on a plateau

in American culture

that few stars reach

 

(...)

 

With an insinuating pose

and a seductive, throaty voice

— her simplest remark

sounded like a jungle mating call,

one critic said —

Ms. Bacall shot to fame in 1944

with her first movie,

Howard Hawks’s adaptation

of the Ernest Hemingway

novel “To Have and Have Not,”

playing opposite Humphrey Bogart,

who became her lover

on the set and later her husband.

 

(...)

 

In 1947,

as the House Un-American

Activities Committee investigated

Americans suspected of Communism,

Ms. Bacall and Bogart

were among 500

Hollywood personalities

to sign a petition protesting

what they called

the committee’s attempt

“to smear the motion picture industry.”

 

Investigating

individual political beliefs,

the petition said, violated

the basic principles

of American democracy.

 

The couple flew to Washington

as part of a group

known as the Committee

for the First Amendment,

which also included

Danny Kaye, John Garfield,

Gene Kelly, John Huston,

Ira Gershwin and Jane Wyatt.

 

“I am an outraged

and angry citizen who feels

that my basic civil liberties

are being taken away from me,”

Bogart said in a statement.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/
movies/lauren-bacall-sultry-movie-star-dies-at-89.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/
movies/lauren-bacall-sultry-movie-star-dies-at-89.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murrey Marder    1919-2013

 

In nearly 40 years

at The Washington Post,

he embodied the role

of public watchdog,

becoming

an emblem of meticulous,

thorough news gathering

when his persistence

in laying bare

the lies and exaggerations

of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy’s

anti-Communist crusade

helped bring McCarthy to ruin.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/20/us/
murrey-marder-reporter-who-took-on-joe-mccarthy-dies-at-93.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/20/us/
murrey-marder-reporter-who-took-on-joe-mccarthy-dies-at-93.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arthur Miller    1915-2005

 

one of the great

American playwrights,

whose work exposed

the flaws in the fabric

of the American dream

 

(...)

 

The author

of "Death of a Salesman,"

a landmark of 20th-century drama,

Mr. Miller grappled

with the weightiest matters

of social conscience in his plays

and in them often

reflected or reinterpreted

the stormy and very public

elements of his own life

- including a brief

and rocky marriage

to Marilyn Monroe

and his staunch refusal

to cooperate with the red-baiting

House Un-American Activities Committee.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/11/theater/newsandfeatures/11cnd-miller.html

 

 

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/ref/theater/
newsandfeatures/MILLER-REF.html 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/11/
theater/newsandfeatures/arthur-miller-moral-voice-of-american-stage-dies-at.html 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/stage/2015/feb/23/
theatre-archive-roy-hattersley-meets-arthur-miller

http://www.theguardian.com/stage/2014/apr/13/
view-from-the-bridge-young-vic-review-mark-strong

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/feb/12/guardianobituaries.artsobituaries

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2005/feb/11/usa.theatre 

https://www.theguardian.com/arts/pictures/0,8542,1411158,00.html  

https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2005/feb/12/theatre.arthurmiller 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/12/arts.filmnews1 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/11/theater/newsandfeatures/11cnd-miller.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2004/jan/24/biography.cuba

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2003/jul/26/theatre.artsfeatures 

https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2003/jul/16/theatre.samanthaellis 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/stage/1949/jul/30/theatre.artsfeatures

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/ref/
theater/newsandfeatures/MILLER-REF.html

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/7/
newsid_2946000/2946420.stm - 7 August 1958

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elia Kazan    1909-2003

 

immigrant child

of a Greek rug merchant

who became

one of the most honored

and influential directors

in Broadway

and Hollywood history

 

(...)

 

Mr. Kazan

also received an Oscar

for lifetime achievement in 1999.

 

The lifetime achievement award

was controversial

because in 1952

Mr. Kazan angered

many of his friends and colleagues

when he acknowledged

before the House Un-American

Activities Committee

that he had been a member

of the Communist Party

from 1934 to 1936

and gave the committee

the names of eight

other party members.

 

He had previously

refused to do so,

and his naming of names

prompted many people in the arts,

including those

who had never been Communists,

to excoriate him for decades.

 

Asked why he had identified others,

he cited a ''specious reasoning

which has silenced many liberals''

that ran like this:

''You may hate the Communists,

but you must not attack

them or expose them,

because if you do

you are attacking the right to hold

unpopular opinions.''

https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/29/
movies/elia-kazan-influential-director-is-dead-at-94.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/29/
movies/elia-kazan-influential-director-is-dead-at-94.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/29/
movies/elia-kazan-influential-director-is-dead-at-94.html

https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/
elia-kazan-about-elia-kazan/642/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/17/
books/the-selected-letters-of-elia-kazan.html

 

http://video.nytimes.com/video/2011/01/10/
movies/1248069532182/critics-picks-east-of-eden.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/29/
movies/elia-kazan-influential-director-is-dead-at-94.html

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/sep/29/
guardianobituaries.film

 

1988 - https://www.npr.org/2017/08/28/
546714298/celebrating-30-years-of-fresh-air-filmmaker-and-theater-legend-elia-kazan

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1972/02/03/
archives/the-visitors-portrays-ordeal-of-a-threatened-gi.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham Polonsky    1910-1999

 

director and screenwriter

who was an early Hollywood

master of film noir

and who worked

under many disguises

after being blacklisted

in the McCarthy era

 

(...)

 

His movies included

''Force of Evil,''

a 1948 film

about racketeering

in which he directed

the actor John Garfield.

 

In 1996

Stephen Holden,

the New York Times film critic,

describing that performance

and others, wrote that

''you can still feel

the dangerous

urban-realist kick''

although the work

came from ''a time

when Hollywood films

still aspired to a genteel,

upper-middle-class

sense of values.''

 

The previous year,

Mr. Polonsky had won

an Oscar nomination

for writing the screenplay

for ''Body and Soul,''

in which Garfield played

a money-mad boxer.

 

In the early 1950's,

Mr. Polonsky

refused to testify about

his Communist Party

affiliations or name

party members.

 

His refusal prompted

20th Century Fox

to fire him.

 

He was then

unable to find work

under his own name

for nearly two decades;

he had only nine films

to his credit.

http://www.nytimes.com/1999/10/29/
movies/abraham-polonsky-88-dies-director-damaged-by-blacklist.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/
movies/the-blacklist-at-lincoln-center-and-anthology-film-archives.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1999/10/29/
movies/abraham-polonsky-88-dies-director-damaged-by-blacklist.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dalton Trumbo        1905-1976

 

 

 

Blacklisted film-industry players,

with their lawyers at a Hollywood hearing

in 1948.

 

Front row, from left,

Herbert Biberman;

the attorney Martin Popper;

the attorney Robert Kenny;

Albert Maltz;

and Lester Cole.

 

Back row, from left,

Dalton Trumbo;

John Howard Lawson;

Alvah Bessie;

Samuel Ornitz;

Ring Lardner Jr.;

Edward Dmytryk;

and Adrian Scott.

 

Photograph:

Bruce Hoertel/The New York Times

 

‘Trumbo’ Recalls the Hunters and the Hunted of Hollywood

NYT

NOV. 4, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/08/
movies/trumbo-recalls-the-hunters-and-the-hunted-of-hollywood.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trumbo

(...)

was one of 10 filmmakers

– the so-called Hollywood Ten –

who were cited

for contempt of Congress in 1947

when they refused

to testify about

their political beliefs before

the House Un-American

Activities Committee;

 

he served 11 months in prison

and was effectively

unable to continue working

in the film industry.

http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/20/
dalton-trumbos-screenwriting-credit-restored-to-roman-holiday/

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2017/08/28/
546730779/celebrating-30-years-of-fresh-air-the-kirk-douglas-interview

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/08/
movies/trumbo-recalls-the-hunters-and-the-hunted-of-hollywood.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2015/11/06/
454996142/bryan-cranston-becomes-blacklisted-screenwriter-dalton-trumbo-in-new-biopic

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/06/
movies/review-bryan-cranston-in-trumbo-as-a-screenwriter-in-a-hollywood-under-siege.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2015/11/05/
453960594/in-trumbo-bryan-cranston-brings-a-long-uncredited-writer-to-life

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/11/05/
453960594/in-trumbo-bryan-cranston-brings-a-long-uncredited-writer-to-life

 

 

 

 

http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/20/
dalton-trumbos-screenwriting-credit-restored-to-roman-holiday/

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=91576667 - June 17, 2008

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2005/aug/09/
features.features11

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2004/jun/11/
johnpatterson

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/18/
movies/spartacus-a-classic-restored.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1973/12/17/
archives/the-screen-papillonescapist-film-stars-mcqueen-hoffman.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1971/08/05/
archives/pacifist-strategy-of-johnny-got-his-gun.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/video/
american-masters-dalton-trumbo-huac-testimony/
-  October 28, 1947

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

McCarthyism

 

anti-Communist witch hunts

 

Joseph R. McCarthy    1908-1957

 

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 50S

TIME cover: 03-22-1954

lawyers Roy Cohn and David Schine.

 

Date taken: March 22, 1954

 

Photographer: John Phillips

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=dd711e9cde046c7b - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/
joseph-r-mccarthy

https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/
arthur-miller-mccarthyism/484/ 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/19/
books/demagogue-joseph-mccarthy-larry-tye-interview.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/18/business/media/18wershba.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/11/
mccarthyism-us-second-world-war

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/2/newsid_3205000/3205423.stm

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/books/first/h/
herman-mccarthy.html - undated

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1996/06/21/
us/crash-kills-g-david-schine-69-mccarthy-era-figure.html 

 

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/library/
national/science/aids/080386sci-aids.html - August 3, 1986

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 April 1954

 

McCarthy Army hearings begin

 

 

Senator Joseph McCarthy

begins hearings

investigating

the United States Army,

which he charges

with being “soft”

on communism.

 

These televised hearings

gave the American public

their first view

of McCarthy in action,

and his recklessness,

indignant bluster,

and bullying tactics

quickly resulted in his fall

from prominence.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mccarthy-army-hearings-begin

 

 

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/
mccarthy-army-hearings-begin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

McCarthy era

 

House Committee

on Un-American Activities

 

 

While the House Un-American

Activities Committee

had been formed in 1938

as an anti-Communist organ,

McCarthy’s accusations heightened

the political tensions of the times.

 

Known as McCarthyism,

the paranoid hunt

for infiltrators

was notoriously difficult

on writers and entertainers,

many of whom were labeled

communist sympathizers

and were unable

to continue working.

 

Some had

their passports taken away,

while others were jailed

for refusing to give

the names of other communists.

 

The trials,

which were well publicized,

could often destroy a career

with a single unsubstantiated

accusation.

 

Among

those well-known artists

accused of communist sympathies

or called before the committee

were Dashiell Hammett,

Waldo Salt,

Lillian Hellman,

Lena Horne,

Paul Robeson,

Elia Kazan,

Arthur Miller,

Aaron Copland,

Leonard Bernstein,

Charlie Chaplin

and Group Theatre members

Clifford Odets,

Elia Kazan,

and Stella Adler.

 

In all,

three hundred and twenty artists

were blacklisted,

and for many of them this meant

the end of exceptional

and promising careers.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/arthur-miller/mccarthyism/484/

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/
elia-kazan-about-elia-kazan/642/ 

https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/
arthur-miller-mccarthyism/484/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2005/aug/09/features.features11 

https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2005/feb/12/theatre.arthurmiller

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/12/arts.filmnews1 

https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2005/feb/19/theatre.stage

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/oct/26/biography.stage

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/sep/29/arts.film

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/sep/29/guardianobituaries.film

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1986/05/24/
obituaries/sterling-hayden-dead-at-70-an-actor-writer-and-sailor.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Hollywood 10 / the Hollywood blacklist

 

 

 

The screenwriters Dalton Trumbo, left,

and John Howard Lawson,

hoisted aloft by supporters in June 1950,

before serving time for contempt of Congress.

 

Photograph:

Marty Lederhandler/Associated Press

 

Screen Voices, Banished but Not Silenced

The Blacklist, at Lincoln Center and Anthology Film Archives

NYT

AUG. 7, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/
movies/the-blacklist-at-lincoln-center-and-anthology-film-archives.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/02/21/
516427212/what-a-classic-50s-western-can-teach-us-about-the-hollywood-blacklist

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/
movies/the-blacklist-at-lincoln-center-and-anthology-film-archives.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/mar/16/betsy-blair-obituary

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2005/aug/09/features.features11

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2004/jun/11/johnpatterson 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2000/nov/04/guardianobituaries.filmnews

 

http://edition.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/9710/28/blacklist.remembered/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts > Movies

 

Elia Kazan (GRE / USA, 1909-2003)

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > History > 20th century

 

Cold War > USA > Vietnam War    1962-1975

 

Cold War / холодная война

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts

 

films / movies

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia > Arts

 

pictures / films / movies / cinema

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

Secret files from 70s

reveal Trident strike needed 'to kill 10m Russians'

 

Whitehall documents written in 1970s

and marked 'personal and top secret'

show logic of British Cold War deterrent

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2010/dec/26/
secret-files-70s-trident-russians  

 

 

 

 

Dagmar Searchinger        1916-2011

 

founder of Women Strike for Peace,

a cold war movement that helped organize

demonstrations around the world

calling for nuclear disarmament

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/24/us/24wilson.html

 

 

 

 

Roy Richard Rubottom Jr.        1912-2010

 

a diplomat

who influenced and helped hone

United States policy

toward Latin America in the late 1950s,

a time of economic and political tumult

that culminated in Fidel Castro’s

takeover in Cuba

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/
world/americas/20rubottom.html  

 

 

 

 

The National Security Archive / The George Washington University

The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962

https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu//nsa/cuba_mis_cri/index.htm 

https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu//nsa/cuba_mis_cri/photos.htm  

 

 

 

 

Cold War

The global superpower stand-off

that brought the world to the brink of destruction.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/

 

 

 

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