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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > Freedom riders    1961

 

 

 

Freedom Riders

 

(L-R) Freedom Riders Julia Aaron & David Dennis

sitting on board interstate bus

as they & 25 others (bkgrd. & unseen)

are escorted by 2 MS Natl. Guardsmen holding bayonets,

on way fr. Montgomery, AL to Jackson, MS.

 

Location: US

Date taken: May 1961

 

Photograph: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=51c800f48f732301 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom Riders

 

Date taken: 1961

 

Photograph: Joe Scherschel

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=03d0ea10f3afe675 - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Lewis, top left,

was among the Freedom Riders

who were arrested in Jackson, Miss., in May 1961,

and hastily convicted of breach of peace.

 

Photograph:

Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

Who Were the Freedom Riders?

Representative John Lewis was among the 13 original Freedom Riders,

who encountered violence and resistance as they rode buses across the South,

challenging the nationís segregation laws.

NYT

July 18, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/18/
us/politics/freedom-riders-john-lewis-work.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Margaret Leonard from New Orleans, at age 19.

 

Photograph:

Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippiís Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories

of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

NYT

May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carol Silver, from New York, at age 22.

 

Photograph:

Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippiís Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories

of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

NYT

May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. LeRoy Glenn Wright from Nashville, at age 19.

 

Photograph:

Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippiís Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories

of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

NYT

May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, bottom center,

one of the organizers of the Freedom Rides,

and other activists at the Greyhound Bus Terminal

in Birmingham, Ala., in May 1961.

 

Photograph:

The Birmingham News, via Associated Press

 

Who Were the Freedom Riders?

Representative John Lewis was among the 13 original Freedom Riders,

who encountered violence and resistance as they rode buses across the South,

challenging the nationís segregation laws.

NYT

Published July 18, 2020

Updated July 19, 2020, 11:03 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/18/
us/politics/freedom-riders-john-lewis-work.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hezekiah Watkins, from Jackson, Miss., at age 13.

 

Photograph:

Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippiís Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories

of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

NYT

May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom Riders

were a racially mixed group,

mostly college students,

who were riding buses

through the South to test

the Supreme Courtís

recent ban on segregation

in waiting rooms and restaurants

that served interstate travelers

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/20/opinion/20Lafayette.html

 

 

https://swap.stanford.edu/20141218223008/

https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/364/454.html

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/freedomriders/

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/meet-players-freedom-riders/

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/meet-players-us-federal-government/

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/meet-players-freedom-riders/#people_header 

https://www.pbs.org/video/
american-experience-from-the-film-freedom-riders-the-media-part-2/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/18/
us/politics/freedom-riders-john-lewis-work.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2020/02/29/
809740346/the-cruel-story-behind-the-reverse-freedom-rides

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/01/
civil-rights-america-1960s-activists-voting-rights-vietnam

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/21/us/
george-houser-freedom-rides-pioneer-dies-at-99.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/us/
claude-sitton-times-reporter-who-covered-south-in-civil-rights-era-dies-at-89.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/us/
claude-sitton-excerpt-an-eyewitness-account.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/06/04/
318858249/the-modest-bus-station-at-the-center-of-a-world-changing-confrontation

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/20/
opinion/20Lafayette.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/16/
opinion/16mon4.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/15/
arts/television/for-stanley-nelson-the-prize-is-documentary-filmmaking.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/ablogsupreme/2011/05/05/
135920869/instruments-of-change-music-of-the-freedom-riders-50-years-later

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/05/05/
136025553/freedom-riders-risked-their-lives-for-equality

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/05/04/
135985034/freedom-riders-reflect-on-50th-anniversary

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/04/29/
135836458/a-freedom-ride-organizer-on-non-violent-resistance

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/04/07/
135096701/ahead-of-anniversary-freedom-riders-remember

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2006/01/12/
5149667/get-on-the-bus-the-freedom-riders-of-1961

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=4280225 - January 12, 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Congress of Racial Equality    CORE

 

The Freedom Rides

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/
aopart9b.html  

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/21/us/
george-houser-freedom-rides-pioneer-dies-at-99.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On July 16, 1944,

Irene Morgan was arrested

by the sheriff

of Middlesex County, Virginia,

after refusing

to give up her seat

on a Greyhound bus

while traveling home

from Baltimore, MD.

 

The legal staff

of the National Association

for the Advancement

of Colored People (NAACP)

took up her case,

and on June 3, 1946,

the U.S Supreme Court

ruled in her favor,

striking down racial segregation

on interstate buses

as a violation of the interstate

commerce clause.

 

In December 1960,

Boynton v. Virginia

expanded the Morgan decision,

outlawing segregated

waiting rooms, lunch counters,

and restroom facilities

for interstate passengers.

 

However, both rulings

were largely ignored

in the Deep South.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/issues/freedom-to-travel

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/
freedom-riders-freedom-travel/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Forman    1928-2005

 

civil rights pioneer who brought

a fiercely revolutionary vision

and masterly organizational skills

to virtually every major

civil rights battleground in the 1960's

 

(...)

 

As executive secretary

of the Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee

from 1961 to 1966,

Mr. Forman was at the barricades

of the civil rights movement

from Selma to Birmingham

to the Mississippi Delta

to the March on Washington.

 

Few outside the movement

knew the extent

to which he choreographed

the now-legendary demonstrations

and campaigns.

 

Known by its initials SNCC,

pronounced "snick,"

the group viewed itself

as the shock troops

of the civil rights movement.

 

In many Southern towns,

its field organizers

were the first professional

civil rights workers to arrive.

 

Mr. Forman's job was to keep

a haphazard organization

of idealistic young leftists

functioning.

 

He raised money, paid the bills,

mapped strategy

and insisted on keeping records.

 

Mr. Forman set up

a research department

and a print shop

in the group's office

and made the decision

to move the office

to Jackson, Miss.,

in the summer of 1964,

the "freedom summer"

when volunteers

went to Mississippi

to campaign

for voting rights for blacks.

 

He and Bob Moses,

another SNCC organizer,

were the principal organizers

of the operation.

https://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/12/
obituaries/james-forman-dies-at-76-was-pioneer-in-civil-rights.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=4280225 - January 12, 2005

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/12/
obituaries/james-forman-dies-at-76-was-pioneer-in-civil-rights.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

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