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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > Timeline in pictures > Malcolm X    1925-1965

 

 

 

warning : graphic / distressing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Since Malcolm X’s death,

scholars and historians have cast doubt

on the government’s theory of the case.

 

Photograph:

Don Hogan Charles/The New York Times

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions/the-exoneration-leaves-larger-questions-unanswered

 

 

Related:

The funeral for Malcolm X in 1965,

at what was then known

as the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ.

 

The church hosted the ceremony

after other local houses of worship declined.

 

Photograph:

Don Hogan Charles/The New York Times

 

Harlem Church Where Malcolm X Was Eulogized Faces Its Own Final Days

NYT

MARCH 30, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/31/nyregion/harlem-
church-where-malcolm-x-was-eulogized-faces-its-own-final-days.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Betty Shabazz and Percy Sutton at Malcolm’s Funeral,” 1965.

 

Photograph:

Adger Cowans and Whitney Museum of American Art

 

Uncropped version.

 

Black Art Matters

At the Whitney Museum,

the enduring legacy of the Kamoinge photography collective

— 14 distinctive talents finally in the spotlight.

NYT

Jan. 13, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/13/
arts/design/black-kamoinge-photographer-whitney.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Betty Shabazz at the funeral for her husband, Malcom X.

Harlem, N.Y., 1965.

 

Photograph: Adger Cowans

Cropped version.

 

Celebrating the Grace of Black Women

NYT

May 29, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/29/
lens/celebrating-the-grace-of-black-women.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crowds lined up to attend Malcolm X’s funeral in 1965.

 

Photograph:

Orlando Fernandez/World Telegram & Sun,

via Library of Congress

 

Five things to know about the exonerations in Malcolm X’s murder.

NYT

November 18, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions/five-things-to-know-about-the-exonerations-in-malcolm-xs-murder

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viewing Malcolm X’s body

at a Harlem funeral home in February 1965.

 

Photograph: Associated Press

 

These are the people scholars believe really killed Malcolm X.

NYT

November 17, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/who-killed-malcolm-x.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The killing of Malcolm X

was one of the most notorious murders of the civil rights era.

There were long-held doubts about who was actually responsible.

 

Photograph:

Marty Lederhandler/Associated Press

 

2 Men Convicted of Killing Malcolm X Will Be Exonerated Decades Later

The 1966 convictions of the two men

are expected to be thrown out after a lengthy investigation,

validating long-held doubts about who killed the civil rights leader.

NYT

Nov. 17, 2021    Updated 12:37 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X in Rochester, New York, 1965.

 

Photograph:

Michael Ochs Archives/Michael Ochs Archives

 

Malcolm X assassination:

50 years on, mystery still clouds details of the case

The Guardian

Saturday 21 February 2015    18.43 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/feb/21/
malcolm-x-assassination-records-nypd-investigation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TITLE: [Martin Luther King and Malcolm X waiting for press conference]

MEDIUM: 1 photographic print.

 

CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1964 March 26]

 

CREATOR:

Trikosko, Marion S., photographer.

 

NOTES: U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection.

SUBJECTS: King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968--

Public appearances. X, Malcolm, 1925-1965--Public appearances.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3d01847

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3d01847

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?ils:16:./temp/~pp_eCKB::

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/p?pp/ils:@field(CALL+@band(usn+job))::SortBy=CALL

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/129_usn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description: MALCOLM X,

head and shoulders, seated,

leaning with right hand to head,

waiting for press conference.

 

1964 March 26.

 

Photograph by Marion S. Trikosko,

 

Location of Original:

U.S. News and World Report Collection: LC-U9-11695

Reproduction Number: LC-U9-11695-frame #5

Digital ID: ppmsc 01274

Source: digital file from original

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-ppmsc-01274 (digital file from original negative)

Images of 20th Century African American Activists: A Select List

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

https://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/083_afr.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description: Malcolm X

Source: Library of Congress.

New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection.

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c11166

 

Date: 1964

 

Photograph:

Ed Ford, World Telegram staff photographer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Malcolm_X_NYWTS_2.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Malcolm X

 

Photograph: Associated Press

 

What Would Malcolm X Think?

By ILYASAH SHABAZZ

NYT

FEB. 20, 2015

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/21/
opinion/ilyasah-shabazz-what-would-malcolm-x-think.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X on June 29, 1963.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann Archive, via Getty Images

 

Who Really Killed Malcolm X?

Fifty-five years later, the case may be reopened.

NYT

Published Feb. 6, 2020    Updated Feb. 7, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/06/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-case-reopened.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X holding up a Black Muslim newspaper.

Chicago. 1963.

 

Photograph:

Courtesy of the Gordon Parks Foundation

 

Photographing Civil Rights, Up North and Beyond Dixie

NYT

Oct. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/
photographing-civil-rights-north-beyond-south-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X, speaking at a Harlem rally around 1962.

 

“It is hard not to want Malcolm back,

because his charisma is undeniable,”

Michael P. Jeffries writes

in his review of “The Dead Are Arising.”

 

“His heroism grew from his courage,

but also from his delight in his Blackness and his cause.”

 

Photograph: O'Neal L. Abel

 

A New Life of Malcolm X Brimming With Detail, Insight and Feeling

NYT

Oct. 19, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/19/
books/review/the-dead-are-arising-les-payne-tamara-payne.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X speaking at a rally

in front of Lewis Micheaux's

National Memorial African Bookstore

in Harlem in 1960

 

Museum Review

'Malcolm X: A Search for Truth'

The Personal Evolution of a Civil Rights Giant

NYT

May 19, 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Mustafa Shabazz

formerly known as William Bradley        ? - 2018

 

 

 

Years after the assassination,

scholars suggested William Bradley,

an enforcer for a Nation of Islam mosque in Newark,

was likely the man who fired the fatal shotgun blast.

 

Photograph:

East Orange Police Department

 

2 Men Convicted of Killing Malcolm X Will Be Exonerated Decades Later

The 1966 convictions of the two men

are expected to be thrown out after a lengthy investigation,

validating long-held doubts about who killed the civil rights leader.

NYT

Nov. 17, 2021    Updated 12:37 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For decades,

the killing of Malcolm X

has captivated

the attention of scholars

with a critical question:

Were the wrong men

convicted of the crime?

 

One of three men,

Mujahid Abdul Halim,

confessed

at the 1966 murder trial.

 

But he also testified

that his co-defendants

— Muhammad A. Aziz

and Khalil Islam —

were innocent

and that he knew,

but would not name,

the actual assassins.

 

A decade later,

Mr. Halim

gave two sworn affidavits

as part of

an unsuccessful appeal

by Mr. Aziz and Mr. Islam.

 

In the documents,

he named four other men

who he said took part

in the assassination,

all members

of a Nation of Islam mosque

in Newark.

 

He gave

only partial names.

 

The review

by the Manhattan

district attorney’s office

did not pin the crime

on any other suspects.

 

But scholars have formed

their own conclusions

about the identities and roles

of the four men

identified by Mr. Halim,

who previously went

by the name Talmadge Hayer.

 

It is widely believed

among experts

on the assassination

that William Bradley,

a member of the Newark mosque

who once served time in prison

on charges that included

threatening to kill three people,

fired the first shotgun blast.

 

Mr. Halim identified

the man with the shotgun

as William X.

 

Mr. Bradley

denied any involvement

and died in 2018.

 

The historian

Manning Marable,

who wrote

a Pulitzer Prize-winning

biography of Malcolm X

in 2011,

suspected that Mr. Bradley

was probably pulled

into the assassination plot

by two other members

of the Newark mosque

whom Mr. Halim identified:

Leon Davis

and Benjamin Thomas.

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 18, 2021

 

Muhammad Aziz and Khalil Islam,

convicted of killing Malcolm X,

are exonerated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1966,

three men were convicted

of the murder of civil rights leader

Malcolm X.

 

Two of them,

Muhammad Aziz and Khalil Islam,

insisted throughout the years

that they were innocent.

 

(...)

 

more than a half-century later,

these two men have been exonerated.

 

Their lawyers called their convictions,

quote, "a serious and unacceptable

violation of the law."

https://www.npr.org/2021/11/18/
1056987479/2-men-convicted-of-killing-malcolm-x-more-than-5-decades-ago-are-exonerated

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/11/20/
1057684536/lawyers-for-men-exonerated-in-malcom-x-killing-discuss-wrongful-convictions

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/11/18/
1056987479/2-men-convicted-of-killing-malcolm-x-more-than-5-decades-ago-are-exonerated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1985 and 1987
 

 

Muhammad Abdul Aziz

and Khalil Islam

are granted parole

two years apart.

 

After Mr. Aziz’s attempts

to be released on parole

had been twice denied,

his application was approved

in 1985,

and he was released

after 20 years in prison,

when he was 46 years old.
 

 

Two years later,

Mr. Islam

was also granted parole.

 

He died in 2009.

 

Mr. Halim

was released in 2010.

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1977 to 1978

 

Mujahid Abdul Halim

files two affidavits

implicating four other people

in the murder.

 

Mr. Halim filed two affidavits

between 1977 and 1978

that detailed

the logistics of the killing

and reasserted his claim

that his two co-defendants

were innocent.

 

He gave partial names

of four members

of a Nation of Islam mosque

in Newark, N.J.,

saying they had been

his partners

in the assassination.

 

A defense lawyer

moved for the case

to be reopened

in light of new evidence,

but a judge denied the motion.

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 28, 1966

 

Mujahid Abdul Halim

confesses and says

the other two men

are innocent.

 

The trial

over Malcolm X’s killing

began on Jan. 22,

and all three men

took the witness stand

to deny the accusations.

 

But several weeks later,

Mr. Halim

testified a second time,

telling jurors

that he had been involved

in the murder

and that his two co-defendants

were innocent.

 

He declined

to name the real killers.

 

Still,

the jury convicted all three men,

and they were later sentenced

to 20 years to life in prison.

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad A. Aziz, then known as Norman 3X Butler

 

 

Muhammad Aziz

NYT

November 2021

caption and full source in next edition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad Aziz, second from left,

shook hands with the civil rights lawyer Barry Scheck

after the court hearing on Thursday.

 

Photograph:

Pool photo by Curtis Means

 

Exoneration Is ‘Bittersweet’ for Men Cleared in Malcolm X’s Murder

An emotional crowd burst into applause in a packed Manhattan courtroom Thursday

after the judge threw out the convictions of Muhammad Aziz and Khalil Islam.

NYT

Nov. 18, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad A. Aziz stood up

in a New York City courtroom

on Thursday,  55 years after he

and two other men

were found guilty

of murdering Malcolm X,

and began to speak.

 

Minutes later,

he would walk out

of the courtroom

an innocent man

in the eyes of the law,

his conviction

in the assassination

of one of the most influential

Black leaders

of the civil rights era

overturned by a judge.

 

But first

he addressed a silent room.

 

“I do not need this court,

these prosecutors

or a piece of paper

to tell me I am innocent,”

he said in a stern voice

that did not shake or falter.

 

“I am an 83-year-old man

who was victimized

by the criminal justice system.”

 

Mr. Aziz

and his co-defendant,

Khalil Islam,

were exonerated on Thursday

after a review initiated

by the Manhattan district attorney,

Cyrus R. Vance Jr.,

found that they had not received

a fair trial.

 

The investigation found

that evidence pointing

toward their innocence

had been withheld

by some of the country’s

most prominent

law enforcement agencies,

and that at least some information

was suppressed on the order

of the longtime director

of the Federal Bureau of Investigation,

J. Edgar Hoover.

 

But Mr. Aziz, his lawyers

and two of Mr. Islam’s sons

made it clear on Thursday

that they did not think

it was a day for celebration,

but a moment that reflected

a profound injustice administered

a half-century earlier

in the same courthouse.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

 

 

Representatives

for the two exonerated men

said that the moment

meant a lot to Mr. Aziz,

and to Mr. Islam’s family.

 

But Mr. Shanies,

one of the civil rights lawyer

representing them,

said their convictions had

a “horrific, torturous

and unconscionable” effect

that cannot be undone.

 

The two men spent

a combined 42 years in prison,

with years in solitary confinement

between them.

 

They were held

in some of New York’s

worst maximum security prisons

in the 1970s,

a decade that bore witness

to the Attica uprisings.

 

Mr. Aziz had six children

at the time he was convicted;

Mr. Islam had three.

 

Both men

saw their marriages fall apart

and spent the primes

of their lives behind bars.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-death-investigation.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/video/us/
100000008083381/malcolm-x-assassination-wrongful-conviction.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Aziz

[ Muhammad A. Aziz, then known as Norman 3X Butler ]

in 1965.

 

Photograph: Associated Press

 

Exoneration Is ‘Bittersweet’ for Men Cleared in Malcolm X’s Murder

An emotional crowd burst into applause in a packed Manhattan courtroom Thursday

after the judge threw out the convictions of Muhammad Aziz and Khalil Islam.

NYT

Published Nov. 18, 2021

Updated Nov. 19, 2021, 8:15 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khalil Islam, also known as Thomas 15X Johnson        ? - 2009

 

 

 

A judge overturned the convictions

of two men found guilty of murder in the assassination of Malcolm X.

 

One of them, Khalil Islam,

is shown in this 1965 photo.

 

Photograph:

Associated PressPhotograph: Associated Press

 

Exoneration Is ‘Bittersweet’ for Men Cleared in Malcolm X’s Murder

An emotional crowd burst into applause in a packed Manhattan courtroom Thursday

after the judge threw out the convictions of Muhammad Aziz and Khalil Islam.

NYT

Published Nov. 18, 2021

Updated Nov. 19, 2021, 8:15 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khalil Islam, left, and Muhammad A. Aziz, right,

were escorted by the police after their arrests.

 

Photograph:

Harvey Lippman/Associated Press, Bettmann Archive,

via Getty Images

 

Who are Muhammad Aziz and Khalil Islam, the exonerated men?

NYT

November 17, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-muhammad-aziz-khalil-islam.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman 3X Butler, left,

[ Muhammad A. Aziz, then known as Norman 3X Butler ]

and Thomas 15X Johnson, right,

maintained their innocence,

but were convicted in Malcolm X’s killing

on the testimony of several eyewitnesses,

who told conflicting stories.

There was no physical evidence against them.

 

Undated Photographs by Associated Press

 

2 Men Convicted of Killing Malcolm X Will Be Exonerated Decades Later

The 1966 convictions of the two men

are expected to be thrown out after a lengthy investigation,

validating long-held doubts about who killed the civil rights leader.

NYT

Nov. 17, 2021    Updated 12:37 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 10, 1965

 

3 Nation of Islam members

are indicted in the killing.

Mujahid Abdul Halim,

a member of the Nation of Islam,

was arrested

as he fled the ballroom.

(He was known

as Talmadge Hayer

at the time and later

as Thomas Hagan.)

 

Within two weeks,

two other men were arrested

and later indicted in the killing:

Muhammad Abdul Aziz

(formerly Norman 3X Butler)

and Khalil Islam

(also known as

Thomas 15X Johnson).

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The stage of the Audubon Ballroom

was riddled with bullet holes after the assassination.

 

Photograph:

Al Burleigh/Associated Press

 

2 Men Convicted of Killing Malcolm X Will Be Exonerated Decades Later

The 1966 convictions of the two men

are expected to be thrown out after a lengthy investigation,

validating long-held doubts about who killed the civil rights leader.

NYT

Nov. 17, 2021    Updated 12:37 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Talmadge Hayer (who later changed his name to Mujahid Abdul Halim)        Malcolm X’s confessed killer

 

 

 

Mujahid Abdul Halim,

also known as Talmadge Hayer,

was shot in the leg after the assassination.

He later confessed to the killing.

 

Photograph:

John Lent/Associated Press

 

2 Men Convicted of Killing Malcolm X Will Be Exonerated Decades Later

The 1966 convictions of the two men

are expected to be thrown out after a lengthy investigation,

validating long-held doubts about who killed the civil rights leader.

NYT

Nov. 17, 2021    Updated 12:37 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mujahid Abdul Halim,

then named Talmadge Hayer,

struggled with police outside the ballroom

where Malcolm X was shot and killed.

 

Photograph:

WCBS-TV NEWS, via Associated Press

 

56 Years Ago, He Shot Malcolm X. Now He Lives Quietly in Brooklyn.

Mujahid Abdul Halim is the one man who confessed to his role in the assassination.

He long insisted that the two men convicted with him were innocent.

NYT

Nov. 22, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/22/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-halim-hayer.html



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Feb. 21, 1965,

Mr. Halim, who was then 23,

was apprehended

after being shot in the thigh

in the aftermath

of Malcolm X’s assassination.

 

News photographers

captured the chaotic scene

as he was carried on a gurney

into the emergency room

in his underwear,

hands covering his face,

surrounded by police officers.

 

Mr. Aziz,

then known as

Norman 3X Butler,

was arrested five days later,

and Mr. Islam,

known as

Thomas 15X Johnson,

another five days after that.

 

Within a week,

the three Nation of Islam loyalists

had been charged with murder.

 

But while Mr. Halim confessed

on the witness stand to taking part

in one of the most consequential

and confounding

political assassinations

in U.S. history,

he swore his fellow defendants

were innocent.

 

Mr. Halim

(...),

who was born Thomas Hagan,

served more than

four decades in prison

for Malcolm X’s murder,

earning bachelor’s

and master’s degrees

behind bars.

 

He was granted

work-release in 1988

and was employed

as a counselor

for young people

and the homeless

in New York City.

 

He was paroled in 2010

after being rejected 16 times

and moved in with his family

in Brooklyn.


In a 1977 affidavit,

Mr. Halim said

he and four other men

with ties to a mosque

in Newark, N.J.,

had decided to kill Malcolm X

because he was a “hypocrite”

who had “gone against

the leader of the Nation of Islam,”

Elijah Muhammad.

 

He said

Mr. Aziz and Mr. Islam

were not involved.
 

 

Mr. Halim said

that after one man shot Malcolm X

in the chest with a shotgun,

he and another man

fired several more rounds at him

with handguns.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/mujahid-halim-malcolm-x.html

 

 

 

One man

— Talmadge Hayer,

who later changed his name

to Mujahid Abdul Halim —

was wounded and arrested

at the ballroom,

and within 10 days,

two other men

had been arrested:

 

Mr. Aziz and Mr. Islam,

then known

as Norman 3X Butler

and Thomas 15X Johnson,

two members

of the Nation of Islam’s

Harlem mosque.

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/22/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-halim-hayer.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/mujahid-halim-malcolm-x.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X is shot dead in Harlem        February 21, 1965

 

 

 

Malcolm X was assassinated

at the Audubon Ballroom on Feb. 21, 1965.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann Archive, via Getty Images

 

Who Really Killed Malcolm X?

Fifty-five years later, the case may be reopened.

The New York Times

Published Feb. 6, 2020        Updated Feb. 7, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/06/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-case-reopened.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X was shot at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem,

where he was set to give a speech, on Feb. 21, 1965.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann Archive, via Getty Images

 

2 Men Convicted of Killing Malcolm X Will Be Exonerated Decades Later

The 1966 convictions of the two men

are expected to be thrown out after a lengthy investigation,

validating long-held doubts about who killed the civil rights leader.

NYT

Nov. 17, 2021    Updated 12:37 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X was killed

as he addressed

a crowd of roughly 400 people

at the Audubon Ballroom

at Broadway and 165th Street

in Washington Heights.

 

He was pronounced dead

later that day.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/timeline-malcolm-x-case.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-death-investigation.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/timeline-malcolm-x-case.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/feb/21/
malcolm-x-assassination-records-nypd-investigation

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/
Story/0,6051,105659,00.html

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/21/
newsid_2752000/2752637.stm

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1965/02/22/
archives/police-save-suspect-from-the-crowd.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

A week before the assassination, Malcolm X’s home in Queens was firebombed.

 

 

 

A week before the assassination,

Malcolm X’s home in Queens was firebombed.

 

Photograph:

Stanley Wolfson/World Telegram & Sun,

via Library of Congress

 

Who Really Killed Malcolm X?

Fifty-five years later, the case may be reopened.

The New York Times

Published Feb. 6, 2020        Updated Feb. 7, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/06/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-case-reopened.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X was sleeping

when firebombs crashed

through his living room windows

shortly before 3 a.m.

 

He rushed his wife

and four young daughters

out into the cold before fire

engulfed their modest house

in Queens.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
national/unpublished-black-history

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
national/unpublished-black-history

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/06/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-case-reopened.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1964, (Malcolm X)

broke with the Nation

after bitter disagreement

 with its leader,

Elijah Muhammad,

prompting

a host of death threats.

 

A week

before the assassination,

Malcolm X’s house

was firebombed

as his wife and daughters

slept inside.

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X accorde une interview a un blanc européen

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X accorde une interview a un blanc européen        Video

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_etdn3ZHdLA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malcolm X (born Little)    1925-1965

 

Malcolm X

transformed himself

into a self-taught intellectual

who spurned his past

as a white-hating separatist

and Nation of Islam spokesman

to become an orthodox Muslim

and an international figure.

 

(...)

 

He was born Malcolm Little

on May 19, 1925,

in Omaha, Neb.,

to a West Indian mother

and an American father,

who was a Baptist minister

deeply influenced

by Marcus Aurelius Garvey's

Universal Negro

Improvement Association.

 

Garvey exhorted

African-Americans

to return to Africa

because the United States

would continue to deny them

basic rights.

NYT, Updated: April 7, 2011

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/m/malcolm_x/index.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/malcolm-x  

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/malcolm-x 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/malcolmx/ 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/21/
newsid_2752000/2752637.stm

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/malcolm-x

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/liberation-curriculum/
create-your-own-classroom-activity/king-and-malcolm-x

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
national/unpublished-black-history

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2022/05/06/
1096907447/anna-malaika-tubbs-the-forgotten-mothers-of-civil-rights-history

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/17/
books/review/alex-haley-hamilton-college-autobiography-of-malcolm-x-roots.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/j-edgar-hoover-malcolm-x.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-mystery.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/18/
nyregion/khalil-islam-muhammad-aziz-exonerated.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/17/
nyregion/malcolm-x-killing-exonerated.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/11/17/
1056649430/malcom-x-aziz-islam-exonerated

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/14/
956750160/one-night-in-miami-humanizes-four-icons

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/jan/13/
one-night-in-miami-film-history

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/19/
books/review/the-dead-are-arising-les-payne-tamara-payne.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/sep/09/
blood-brothers-documentary-malcolm-x-muhammad-ali

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/08/12/
901632573/black-power-scholar-illustrates-how-mlk-and-malcolm-x-influenced-each-other

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/02/11/
804933076/malcolm-x-doc-prompts-reexamination-of-iconic-leader-s-assassination-investigati

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/06/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-case-reopened.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/26/
books/malcolm-x-book-auction.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/29/
lens/celebrating-the-grace-of-black-women.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/video/us/
100000004817791/malcolm-x-death-new-york-assassination-360.html - Feb. 2017

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/10/
481523465/in-political-activism-ali-pulled-no-punches-and-paid-a-heavy-price

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/31/nyregion/harlem-
church-where-malcolm-x-was-eulogized-faces-its-own-final-days.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/20/
books/review/blood-brothers-the-fatal-friendship-between-muhammad-ali-and-malcolm-x.html

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/03/11/
1966-verdict-in-malcolm-xs-killing/

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/02/25/
467247668/muhammad-ali-and-malcolm-x-a-broken-friendship-an-enduring-legacy

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2015/dec/11/
harlem-street-photography-louis-draper-new-york

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/02/23/
1965-malcolm-x-dies-shot-4-times-at-new-york-rally/

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/feb/21/
malcolm-x-assassination-records-nypd-investigation

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/21/
opinion/ilyasah-shabazz-what-would-malcolm-x-think.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/feb/20/
ferguson-malcolm-x-racism-assassination-martin-luther-king-ferguson

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/feb/19/
malcolm-x-spike-lee-biopic-black-cinema-selma-the-butler

 

http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/02/19/
new-york-today-remembering-malcolm-x/

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/05/us/
yuri-kochiyama-civil-rights-activist-dies-at-93.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/10/
malcolm-x-diary-publication-lawsuit-family

 

 

 

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/19/
malcolm-x-as-visual-strategist/

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2011/nov/11/
malcolm-x-reel-history

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/19/
books/review/book-review-malcolm-x-by-manning-marable.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/apr/10/
malcolm-x-reinvention-review-manning-marable

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/07/
malcolm-x-man-behind-myth

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/02/
books/malcolm-x-biographer-dies-on-eve-of-publication-of-redefining-work.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/09/nyregion/
09shabazz.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/13/nyregion/
thecity/13disp.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2007/sep/16/
malcolm-x-scaring-white-america

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/may/26/usa.features11 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/may/19/gayrights.usa 

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,,105659,00.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/19/arts/design/19malccut.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/21/nyregion/21malcom.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2002/may/25/mayaangelou 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1294360

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4277833.stm

http://www.npr.org/tags/135209431/malcolm-x

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/19/arts/design/19malccut.html

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/22/usa.comment 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2002/may/25/mayaangelou

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/1999/nov/18/
spikelee.guardianinterviewsatbfisouthbank

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4277833.stm

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/02/21/
opinion/does-anyone-care-who-killed-malcolm-x.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/18/
movies/review-film-malcolm-x-as-complex-as-its-subject.html

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/21/
newsid_2752000/2752637.stm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/
Story/0,6051,105659,00.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1965/02/22/
archives/malcolm-x-lived-in-2-worlds-white-and-black-both-bitter.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1965/02/22/
archives/malcolm-x-shot-to-death-at-rally-here-three-other-negroes-wounded.html

 

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/learning/general/
onthisday/big/0221.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1964/08/23/
archives/malcolm-x-attacks-us.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1964/03/14/
archives/to-arms-with-malcolm-x.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1963/06/05/
archives/malcolm-x-disputes-nonviolence-policy.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 July 1963

 

Letter from Malcolm X to King

 

In this letter

to Martin Luther King, Jr.,

Malcolm X

invites King to speak

at a Muslim outdoor rally

(8/10/63)

and give his analysis

of the race problem.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
letter_from_king_to_malcolm_x/ - broken URL

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/
king-papers/documents/malcolm-x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nation of Islam

 

Black Muslim separatist group

 

 

Malcolm X had spent 12 years

in the Nation of Islam,

rising rapidly to its top ranks

as it expanded.

 

But in 1964,

fissures between him

and the sect’s leader,

Elijah Muhammad,

widened into a messy split.

 

Mr. Muhammad

privately seemed to imply

that he should be executed,

according to

Federal Bureau of Investigation files.

 

And two months before the killing,

Minister Louis Farrakhan wrote

in the Nation’s official newspaper

that Malcolm, his former mentor,

was worthy of death.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/22/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-halim-hayer.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/22/
nyregion/malcolm-x-assassination-halim-hayer.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/11/18/
nyregion/malcolm-x-convictions

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2016/06/10/
481523465/in-political-activism-ali-pulled-no-punches-and-paid-a-heavy-price
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yuri Kochiyama (born Mary Yuriko Nakahara)    1921-2014

 

civil rights activist

who formed an unlikely

friendship with Malcolm X

when he was still promoting

black nationalism

and later cradled

his head in her hands

as he lay dying

from gunshot wounds

in 1965

 

(...)

 

Mrs. Kochiyama,

the child of Japanese immigrants

who settled in Southern California,

knew discrimination well by the time

she was a young woman.

 

During World War II

she spent two years

in an internment camp

for Japanese-Americans

in Arkansas,

a searing experience

that also exposed her

to the racism

of the Jim Crow South.

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/05/
us/yuri-kochiyama-civil-rights-activist-dies-at-93.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/05/
us/yuri-kochiyama-civil-rights-activist-dies-at-93.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

21st century, 20th century > USA > Kennedy dynasty

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

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Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

USA > Negroes

- the accepted word for African-Americans

during segregation

 

 

USA > slavery, racism > lynchings - warning: graphic

 

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights

apartheid

 

 

time > day > state holiday > USA > Juneteenth

on 19 June 1865

enslaved African-Americans in Galveston, Texas,

were told they were free

 

 

boxing > USA

Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. / Muhammad Ali    1942-2016

 

 

gun violence > USA

 

 

gun violence > police shootings > USA

 

 

violence, abuse, prostitution,

sexual violence, rape, harassment,

kidnapping, crime, police,

arrest, investigation, custody,

police misconduct / brutality / violence > USA

 

 

UK, USA > unrest, riots

 

 

courtroom artists / miscarriage of justice > UK, USA

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers >

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

Doy Gorton

 

 

Danny Lyon

 

 

Doris Derby    1939-2022

 

 

Steve Schapiro    1934-2022

 

 

Fred Baldwin    1929-2021

 

 

Matt Herron    1931-2020

 

 

Don Hogan Charles (born Daniel James Charles)    1938-2017

 

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

 

Leonard Freed    1929-2006

 

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

Ed Clark    1911-2000

 

 

Robert W. Kelley    1920-1991

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Books

 

Amiri Baraka    USA    1934-2014

 

 

 

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