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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > Martin Luther King Jr.    1929-1968

 

 

 

 

MLK50: Honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.        Video

 

To honor the 50th anniversary

of Martin Luther King Jr’s death,

President Obama and Congressman John Lewis

participated in a My Brother’s Keeper Alliance roundtable

with students

from Ron Brown College Preparatory High School

in Washington, D.C.

 

President Obama,

Congressman Lewis,

and the students

discussed Dr. King’s legacy

and how his mission remains relevant

in today’s world.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=M3ZrBunSPsQ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. James E. Groppi, center,

at a demonstration in Milwaukee in 1968.

 

The city

is one of the most segregated in America.

 

Photograph:

Paul Shane/Associated Press

 

Racial Violence in Milwaukee Was Decades in the Making,

Residents Say

NYT

August 14, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/15/us/
racial-violence-in-milwaukee-was-decades-in-the-making-residents-say.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1960s

 

FBI’s Cointelpro program

 

 

The FBI used

similar tactics to disrupt,

discredit and neutralize leaders

of the civil rights

and anti-war movements

of the 1960s.

 

The FBI’s Cointelpro program

targeting civil rights leaders

like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

and Stokely Carmichael

was specifically designed

to “[p]revent

the rise of a ‘messiah’

who could unify and electrify

the militant black

nationalist movement”

rather than to prevent

any violent acts

they might perpetrate.

 

The methods included

informant-driven

disinformation campaigns

designed to spark conflict

within the movement,

discourage donors

and supporters,

and even break up marriages.

 

Overt investigative activity

was also used,

as one stated goal

of the Cointelpro program

was to inspire fear

among activists

by convincing them

that an FBI agent

lurked behind every mailbox.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/26/
fbi-black-activism-protests-history

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/26/
fbi-black-activism-protests-history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Earl Ray    1928-1998

Martin Luther King killer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr.    1951-1995

 

(Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr.)

killed the mother

of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

at a Sunday service

in Ebenezer Baptist Church

in Atlanta in 1974

 

(...)

 

Mr. Chenault, the son

of a middle-class black family

in Dayton, Ohio,

had just been welcomed

to the church

for a morning service

when he rose from his seat

in the front pew,

drew two pistols

and started firing.

 

Alberta King, 70,

was fatally struck

at the church's new organ

as she was playing

"The Lord's Prayer."

 

(...)

 

One woman among

the 400 worshippers

was wounded.

 

At his arraignment,

Mr. Chenault told a magistrate

that he had come to Atlanta

"on a mission,"

and said

he decided months earlier

that black ministers

were a menace to black people

and must be killed.

 

He also told the police

that his mission was to kill

the Rev. Martin Luther King Sr.,

but he shot Mrs. King instead

because she was close to him.

 

Their son Dr. King,

the civil rights leader,

was assassinated

by an escaped convict,

James Earl Ray,

in Memphis on April 4, 1968.

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/22/
obituaries/m-w-chenault-44-gunman-who-killed-mother-of-dr-king.html

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
king-alberta-williams
 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/22/
obituaries/m-w-chenault-44-gunman-who-killed-mother-of-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1979/10/04/
archives/georgia-court-bars-mercy-plea-for-slayer-of-dr-kings-mother.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1975/04/11/
archives/chenault-sentence-upheld.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/11/10/
archives/new-hearing-for-chenault.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/09/13/
archives/chenault-sentenced-to-die-nov-8-in-church-murder-of-mrs-king.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/08/
archives/chenaults-road-to-atlanta-and-tragedy-is-linked-to-a-bizarre.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/03/
archives/suspects-friend-hunted-in-slaying-of-mrs-king-friend-of-youth.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/02/
archives/youth-in-mrs-king-slaying-says-he-came-on-mission-youth-in-slaying.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/10/
archives/chenault-indicted-in-mrs-king-slaying.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/04/
archives/hints-of-conspiracy-in-slaying-of-mrs-king-reported-fading.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/04/
archives/a-spiritual-teacher-asserts-chenault-was-an-avid-student-little.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/01/
archives/reports-conflict-on-killers-past-some-recall-him-as-bright-and.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther (Michael) King, Sr.    1897-1984

 

In a speech

expressing his views on

‘‘the true mission of the Church’’

Martin Luther King, Sr.

told his fellow clergymen

that they must not forget

the words of God:

 

‘‘The spirit of the Lord

is upon me, because

he hath anointed me

to preach the Gospel

to the poor.…

 

In this we find

we are to do something

about the brokenhearted,

poor, unemployed,

the captive, the blind,

and the bruised’’

(King, Sr., 17 October 1940).

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.

credited his father

with influencing his decision

to join the ministry, saying:

‘‘He set forth a noble example

that I didn’t [mind] following’’

(Papers 1:363).

 

King, Sr.

was born Michael King

on 19 December 1897,

in Stockbridge, Georgia.

 

The eldest son

of James and Delia King,

King, Sr. attended school

from three

to five months a year

at the Stockbridge

Colored School.

 

‘‘We had no books,

no materials to write with,

and no blackboard,’’

he wrote,

‘‘But I loved going’’

(King, Sr., 37).

 

King experienced

a number of brutal incidents

while growing up

in the rural South,

including witnessing

the lynching of a black man.

 

On another occasion

he had to subdue

his drunken father

who was assaulting

his mother.

 

His mother took the children

to Floyd Chapel Baptist Church

to ‘‘ease the harsh tone of farm life’’

according to King

(King, Sr., 26).

 

Michael grew to respect

the few black preachers

who were willing

to speak out against

racial injustices,

despite the risk

of violent white retaliation.

 

He gradually developed

an interest in preaching,

initially practicing eulogies

on the family’s chickens.

 

By the end of 1917,

he had decided

to become a minister.

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
king-martin-luther-sr

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
king-martin-luther-sr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta Williams King    1903-1974

 

Alberta Williams King,

mother

of Martin Luther King, Jr.,

was born in Atlanta in 1903,

the only surviving child

of Jennie Celeste Williams

and Adam Daniel Williams,

pastor of Atlanta’s

Ebenezer Baptist Church.

 

King often spoke

of the positive influence

his mother had

on his moral development,

deeming her

‘‘the best mother in the world’’

(Papers 1:161).

 

In a piece he wrote as a student

at Crozer Theological Seminary,

he described his mother as being

‘‘behind the scene setting forth

those motherly cares,

the lack of which leaves

a missing link in life’’

(Papers 1:360).

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/king-alberta-williams

 

 

 

She was shot and killed

in the Ebenezer Baptist Church,

Atlanta, Georgia,

by Marcus Wayne Chenault

six years after the assassination

of Martin Luther King, Jr.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberta_Williams_King

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr._National_Historical_Park

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
king-alberta-williams

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/22/
obituaries/m-w-chenault-44-gunman-who-killed-mother-of-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1979/10/04/
archives/georgia-court-bars-mercy-plea-for-slayer-of-dr-kings-mother.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1975/04/11/
archives/chenault-sentence-upheld.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/11/10/
archives/new-hearing-for-chenault.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/09/13/
archives/chenault-sentenced-to-die-nov-8-in-church-murder-of-mrs-king.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/08/
archives/chenaults-road-to-atlanta-and-tragedy-is-linked-to-a-bizarre.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/03/
archives/suspects-friend-hunted-in-slaying-of-mrs-king-friend-of-youth.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/02/
archives/youth-in-mrs-king-slaying-says-he-came-on-mission-youth-in-slaying.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/10/
archives/chenault-indicted-in-mrs-king-slaying.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/04/
archives/hints-of-conspiracy-in-slaying-of-mrs-king-reported-fading.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/04/
archives/a-spiritual-teacher-asserts-chenault-was-an-avid-student-little.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/01/
archives/reports-conflict-on-killers-past-some-recall-him-as-bright-and.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alfred Daniel Williams King    1930-1969

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MLK's funeral    April 9, 1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 4, 1968

 

Memphis, Tennessee

 

Martin Luther King Jr., 39,

is shot to death in Memphis

by an escaped convict,

James Earl Ray (1928-1998)
 

 

 

News of Dr. King’s death

soon spread throughout

the nation.

 

At a campaign rally,

Senator Robert F. Kennedy,

a strong supporter of civil rights

and a Democrat

running for president,

commemorated Dr. King

in an address.

 

“What we need

in the United States

is not division;

 

what we need

in the United States

is not hatred;

 

what we need

in the United States

is not violence

or lawlessness;

 

but love and wisdom,

and compassion

toward one another,

and a feeling of justice

toward those who still suffer

within our country,

whether they be white

or they be black,”

he said.

[ https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=BCrx_u3825g
]

 

(Just more than two months later,

Mr. Kennedy would also be killed

by an assassin’s bullet

after a campaign appearance

in California.)

 

Riots broke out in many cities

after the fatal shooting of Dr. King.

 

The Times said that in Memphis,

the “tragedy had been followed

by incidents that included

sporadic shooting,

fires, bricks and bottles

thrown at policemen,

and looting that started

in Negro districts

and then spread over the city.”

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/april-4-1968-the-assassination-of-martin-luther-king/ - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RFK's Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination Speech    April 1968

 

 

 

 

Robert F. Kennedy's Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination Speech        Video        April 1968

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCrx_u3825g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
assassination-martin-luther-king-jr

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-resources/
major-king-events-chronology-1929-1968

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/james-earl-ray 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
assassination-martin-luther-king-jr

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=BCrx_u3825g

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/15/
956537033/i-may-not-get-there-with-you-an-eyewitness-account-of-mlks-final-days

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/16/
trump-nixon-1968-law-and-order-america

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/
arts/john-shearer-dead.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/04/04/
599192221/an-exhausted-martin-luther-king-jr-s-final-31-hours

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/04/
us/king-rfk-speech.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/24/
business/media/jack-rosenthal-dead-new-york-times-editor.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2013/apr/05/james-early-ray-video

 

https://register.shelby.tn.us/james_earl_ray/main.php 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/04/
opinion/my-dinner-with-martin-luther-king-jr.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2012/apr/06/
archive-1968-martin-luther-king-non-violence

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/22/books/22book.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/16/us/
museum-gives-voice-to-doubts-on-dr-king-s-killer.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/05/us/
a-minister-says-his-father-now-dead-killed-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/17/nyregion/
consensus-king-s-life-if-not-his-death-conspiracy-verdict-splits-some-but-his.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1999/12/09/us/memphis-
jury-sees-conspiracy-in-martin-luther-king-s-killing.html

 

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/topics/MLK/shooting.pdf

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,106511,00.html 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,106509,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The New York Times reporter Earl Caldwell

and Martin Luther King Jr.

at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis

shortly before the assassination

on April 4, 1968.

 

Photograph:

Barney Sellers/Memphis Commercial Appeal

 

The Lone Journalist on the Scene

When King Was Shot and the Newsroom He Rallied

NYT

April 3, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl Caldwell (standing next to police officer)

on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel

as Martin Luther King Jr. lies mortally wounded.

 

Caldwell’s room was one floor below.

 

He raced up after he heard the shot.

 

Photograph:

Joseph Louw/The LIFE Images Collection,

via Getty Images

 

The Lone Journalist on the Scene

When King Was Shot and the Newsroom He Rallied

NYT

April 3, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.    1929 - April 4,1968

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/martin-luther-king-jr 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/martin-luther-king

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/ 

http://projects.seattletimes.com/mlk/ 

https://time.com/4720779/mlk-anniversary/ 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html#09a

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html#09b

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html

https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/january-15/

https://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/jan03/kingjr.html

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/memphis-v-mlk

 

 

 

2022

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2022/jan/17/
mlk-is-revered-today-but-the-real-king-would-make-white-people-uncomfortable

 

https://www.npr.org/2022/01/16/
1073219153/israel-dresner-rabbi-freedom-riders-martin-luther-king-dies

 

 

 

 

2021

 

https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/gallery/2021/dec/01/
black-ivy-a-style-revolution-in-pictures

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2021/aug/31/
picasso-afghanistan-and-me-the-wild-adventures-of-fred-baldwin-in-pictures

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/17/
957911606/warnock-calls-for-equity-and-integrity-in-sermon-at-ebenezer-baptist-ahead-of-ml

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/18/
956827920/poetry-challenge-honor-mlk-by-describing-how-you-dream-a-world

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/18/
956741992/documentary-exposes-how-the-fbi-tried-to-destroy-mlk-with-wiretaps-blackmail

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/17/
opinion/martin-luther-king-jr-youth-movement.html

 

https://theconversation.com/
how-the-ebenezer-baptist-church-
has-been-a-seat-of-black-power-for-generations-in-atlanta-152804 - Jan. 15, 2021

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/15/
movies/sam-pollard-mlk-fbi.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/14/
movies/mlk-fbi-review.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/jan/16/
mlkfbi-review-martin-luther-king-j-edgar-hoover-documentary-sam-pollard

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/14/
arts/television/mlk-day-events-online.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/15/
956537033/i-may-not-get-there-with-you-an-eyewitness-account-of-mlks-final-days

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/15/
956434450/mlk-fbi-humanizes-a-civil-rights-icons-legacy

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/jan/14/
mlk-fbi-review-martin-luther-king-documentary-j-edgar-hoover

 

 

 

 

2020

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/24
/books/review/what-the-year-1968-can-teach-us-about-todays-divisions-jon-meacham.html
 

https://www.npr.org/2020/08/12/
901632573/black-power-scholar-illustrates-how-mlk-and-malcolm-x-influenced-each-other

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/17/
us/ct-vivian-dead.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/26/
fbi-black-activism-protests-history

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/19/
opinion/martin-luther-king.html

 

 

 

 

2019

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/19/
us/jack-odell-dead.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/04/
arts/king-fbi-tapes-david-garrow.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/29/
lens/fred-baldwin-photography.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2019/02/20/
691298594/the-power-of-martin-luther-king-jr-s-anger

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/21/
martin-luther-king-jr-day-legacy-radical

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/20/
opinion/martin-luther-king-new-york.html

 

 

 

 

2018

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2018/11/02/
417513631/when-boys-cant-be-boys

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/14/
obituaries/dorothy-cotton-rights-champion-and-close-aide-to-king-dies-at-88.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=M3ZrBunSPsQ - Obama Foundation - 4 April 2018

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/04/04/
599484639/barack-obama-and-john-lewis-remember-the-work-of-martin-luther-king-jr

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/04/04/
599253766/atlanta-struggles-to-fulfill-mlks-legacy-in-health-care

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/04/
arts/design/king-kennedy-assassination-new-york-historical-society.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-
when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/04/03/
us/mlk-assassination-anniversary.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/apr/04/
martin-luther-king-his-life-and-legacy-in-pictures

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/31/
opinion/sunday/martin-luther-king-faith.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/30/
lens/dr-kings-complex-relationship-with-the-camera.html

 

 

 

 

2017

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/22/
opinion/martin-luther-king-christmas.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/sep/03/
martin-luther-king-newcastle-university-degree-1967-freedom-city-exhibition

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/16/
opinion/which-martin-luther-king-are-we-celebrating-today.html

 

 

 

 

2016

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/08/05/
1966-rock-hits-dr-king-in-chicago-riot/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/
arts/bob-fitch-photojournalist-of-civil-rights-era-dies-at-76.html

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/02/22/
lee-friedlanders-civil-rights-photos/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/01/17/
obituaries/martin-luther-king-day-black-leaders-rosa-parks.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/15/
463042309/the-accidental-wheelman-of-martin-luther-king-jr

 

 

 

 

2015

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
1965-martin-luther-king-jr-leads-walk-in-selma/

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/03/13/
392091406/a-king-speech-youve-never-heard-plus-
your-chance-to-do-archive-sleuthing

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/02/
us/sculptor-removes-phrase-from-memorial-to-Martin-Luther-King-Jr.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/16/
opinion/dr-kings-righteous-fury.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2012/aug/24/
martin-luther-king-audio-interview-video

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/24/
martin-luther-king-tape-discovered

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/17/
opinion/kings-forgotten-manifesto.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/jan/14/
martin-luther-king-race

 

 

 

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/elements/2008/03/31/
in_depth_us/timeline3982827_0_content.shtml

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/
americas/us-race-relations-the-enduring-legacy-
of-martin-luther-king-804009.html

 

http://commentisfree.guardian.co.uk/jonathan_david_farley/2008/04/
preventing_the_rise_of_a_messi.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/mar/31/usa.
race

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/jun/28/
highereducation.usa 

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=5164803 - January 20, 2006

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/audioslideshow/2012/jan/16/
gil-scott-heron-holiday-martin-luther-king-day

 

http://www.cagle.com/news/civil-rights-2012/

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/17/us/
memorial-of-martin-luther-king-jr-dedicated-in-washington.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/16/
martin-luther-king-honoured-washington

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/us/
23mlk.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/series/
great-speeches-martin-luther-king 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/dec/24/
arts.usa

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1968/apr/05/usa.
fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1963/aug/29/usa.
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr. [ second from right ]

marching in Memphis, March 28, 1968.

 

[ right: Ralph Abernathy ]

 

Photograph:

Jack Thornell/Associated Press

 

What the Tumultuous Year 1968 Can Teach Us About Today

Oct. 24, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/24/
books/review/what-the-year-1968-can-teach-us-about-todays-divisions-jon-meacham.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King at the reception

after the W.E.B. Du Bois Centennial Tribute

at Carnegie Hall,

where he gave the keynote speech.

1968.

 

Photograph: Builder Levy

 

What Martin Luther King Jr. Meant to New York

NYT

Jan. 11, 2018

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/11/
what-martin-luther-king-jr-meant-to-new-york/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (L)

and Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (R)

 

Date 03/18/1966

 

Source: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.

Image Serial Number: A2133-10.

http://photolab.lbjlib.utexas.edu/detail.asp?id=1083

 

Author:

Yoichi R. Okamoto, White House Press Office (WHPO)

 

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Martin_Luther_King%2C_Jr._and_Lyndon_Johnson.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., his wife, Coretta, John Lewis,

and other activists march for voting rights, 1965

 

Gelatin silver print; printed later

 

20 x 24 inches

From an Edition of 15

 

Photograph: Steve Schapiro

 

STEVE SCHAPIRO: HEROIC TIMES
HGG2
DECEMBER 14, 2017 – JANUARY 27, 2018

https://www.howardgreenberg.com/exhibitions/
steve-schapiro-heroic-times

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taking a knee

 

Martin Luther King and other activists

[ second from left: Ralph Abernathy ]

take a knee for a moment’s prayer

before going to jail in Selma’ Alabama, 1965,

after they were arrested on charges of parading

without a permit.

 

More than 250 were arrested

as they marched to the Dallas County courthouse.

 

Ivy League clothing was an intentional counterpoint

to the revolutionary agenda

and the dangers the civil rights activists faced every day.

 

It’s this form of peaceful protest that would later

inspire football quarterback Colin Keapernik.

 

Photograph: Bh/AP/Shutterstock

 

Black Ivy: A Style Revolution – in pictures

Black Ivy looks back at a period in American history

when Black men across the country adopted clothing

seen by many as the preserve of a privileged elite

and made it subversive, edgy and cool.

 

From Miles Davis to Sidney Poitier,

it was an era when a generation of people

struggled for racial quality and civil rights

G

Wed 1 Dec 2021    09.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/gallery/2021/dec/01/
black-ivy-a-style-revolution-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr leads singing marchers

[ first from right: John Lewis ]

towards Montgomery, Alabama, on 21 March 1965.

 

John Lewis, then the chairman of the SNCC,

is on the right.

 

Photographer: Matt Herron

 

Matt Herron, chronicler of the US civil rights movement – in pictures

The photographer,

who covered protesters and volunteers across the south,

has died at 89.

His shot of a policeman assaulting a child won him a World Press Photo award.

Images courtesy of Take Stock/Topfoto

G

Fri 21 Aug 2020    11.42 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2020/aug/21/
matt-herron-chronicler-of-the-us-civil-rights-movement-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 April 1968

 

Memphis, Tennessee

 

Martin Lurther King

delivers his last speech

"I've Been to the Mountaintop"

 

 https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
ive-been-mountaintop

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oehry1JC9Rk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike

 

 

 

 

How Dr. King Changed a Sanitation Worker’s Life        Video        Times Documentaries        NYT        April 4, 2018

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=yHrfi__nGEY&index=9&list=PL4CGYNsoW2iDMMRQRGO02ZDfhEiIUxy9G&t=0s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The night before

his assassination in April 1968,

Martin Luther King told a group

of striking sanitation workers

in Memphis, Tennessee:

 

“We’ve got to give ourselves

to this struggle until the end.

 

Nothing would be more tragic

than to stop at this point

in Memphis.

 

We’ve got to see it through”

(King,

“I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,

217).

 

King believed

the struggle in Memphis

exposed the need

for economic equality

and social justice

that he hoped

his Poor People’s Campaign

would highlight nationally.

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
memphis-sanitation-workers-strike

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
memphis-sanitation-workers-strike

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=yHrfi__nGEY&index=9&list=
PL4CGYNsoW2iDMMRQRGO02ZDfhEiIUxy9G&t=0s - April 4, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

MLK's Poor People Campaign - King died before it started

 

 

 

 

In 1968, Poor Americans Came to D.C. To Protest, Some By Mule        Video

 

Fifty years ago photographer and folklorist Roland Freeman

hitched his hopes to a humble caravan of mule-driven wagons.

 

He hadn't gone to school for photography,

but Freeman was inspired

by the courage of the civil rights activists

on the journey from Mississippi to Washington, D.C.

 

His photo project

would be the beginning of a long career

documenting the African American community.

 

Video by Ben de la Cruz, Walter Ray Watson,

Nicole Werbeck, Pearl Mak and Keith Jenkins/NPR

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=XO_Oj5tP6dA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We're coming to Washington

in a poor people's campaign,"

King announced

at the National Cathedral

in Washington, D.C.,

on March 31, 1968.

 

"I was in Marks, Miss.,

the other day, which is

in Quitman County,

the poorest county

in the United States.

 

And I tell you I saw hundreds

of black boys and black girls

walking the streets

with no shoes to wear."

https://www.npr.org/2018/05/13/
610097454/how-a-mule-train-from-marks-miss-kicked-off-mlks-poor-people-campaign

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/19/
lens/photographing-ordinary-life-in-passing.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/pictureshow/2018/06/15/
617364245/in-1968-poor-americans-came-to-d-c-to-protest-some-by-mule

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=XO_Oj5tP6dA - NPR - 15 June 2018

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/05/13/
610097454/how-a-mule-train-from-marks-miss-kicked-off-mlks-poor-people-campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 February 1968

 

Atlanta, Georgia

 

Ebenezer Baptist Church

 

 

King's

"Drum Major Instinct" sermon,

(...)

was an adaptation

of the 1952 homily

‘‘Drum-Major Instincts’’

by J. Wallace Hamilton,

a well-known, liberal,

white Methodist preacher.

 

King

encouraged his congregation

to seek greatness, but to do so

through service and love.

 

King concluded the sermon

by imagining his own funeral,

downplaying

his famous achievements

and emphasizing

his heart to do right.

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/drum-major-instinct 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
drum-major-instinct

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/02/
us/sculptor-removes-phrase-from-memorial-to-Martin-Luther-King-Jr.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King surrounded by a crowd before his speech

at the United Nations on April 15, 1967.

 

Photograph:

Benedict J. Fernandez/Museum of the City of New York

 

What Martin Luther King Jr. Meant to New York

NYT

Jan. 11, 2018

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/11/
what-martin-luther-king-jr-meant-to-new-york/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MLK's “Beyond Vietnam” speech    1967

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Civil rights leaders

Floyd B. McKissick,

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

and Stokely Carmichael

participate

in voter registration march

after originator

James H. Meredith

was shot

 

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/
fdce1583fcdb2d6a.html 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/
newsid_2538000/2538169.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Ernest Avants

and two fellow Ku Klux Klansman

abduct and kill Ben Chester White,

a black farmhand,

in the hope that the heinousness

of the crime would lure

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

to Natchez, Miss.

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/
us/21kornblum.html 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/17/us/
ernest-avants-72-plotter-against-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 9, 1966

 

Martin L. King on voting--outtakes

 

 

In 1966,

King turned his sights

toward another kind of march,

a more personal movement

that called on people

in an individual and private way.

 

Standing at a podium

on a damp Sunday

— Mother's Day —

in Kingstree, S.C.,

King told a crowd of local people

that their struggle wasn't over.

 

Though Congress

had passed legislation

assuring everyone the right

to vote without interference,

he said,

they were only beginning

the battle.

 

King said that people

must make sure

all of their friends and family

register to vote and,

after getting people registered,

must take on "another,

even greater responsibility.

 

And that is to go out

and vote."

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/04/02/
396859918/after-selma-kings-march-on-ballot-boxes

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/04/02/
396859918/after-selma-kings-march-on-ballot-boxes

 

https://mirc.sc.edu/islandora/object/usc:1157 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King playing pool in Chicago in 1966.

 

Photograph: Bob Fitch,

via Department of Special Collections,

Stanford University Libraries

 

Bob Fitch, Photojournalist of Civil Rights Era, Dies at 76

NYT

MAY 3, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/
arts/bob-fitch-photojournalist-of-civil-rights-era-dies-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 4, 1965

 

King preaches “The American Dream”

 

 

King delivers the sermon

"The American Dream"

to his home congregation

in Atlanta.

 

He tells the people

at Ebenezer Baptist Church

that he has a dream that one day

the promise of the Declaration

of Independence will be fulfilled.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1965_07_04/

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
american-dream-sermon-delivered-ebenezer-baptist-church

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 25, 1965

 

Montgomery, Alabama

 

 

On the steps

of the State Capitol building,

Martin Luther King delivers

his "How Long, Not Long" speech

to 25,000 people

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TAYITODNvlM

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/nov/18/
selma-marches-lee-daniels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ferry: A Civil Rights Story        NYT        23 May 2015

 

 

 

 

The Ferry: A Civil Rights Story        Video        Retro Report        8 March 2015

 

Weeks before Selma's Bloody Sunday in 1965,

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

urged residents of Gee's Bend, Ala., to vote,

and fed a continuing fight

over a small ferry that would last for decades.

 

Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/1A92k6g

Visit Retro Report's website: http://www.RetroReport.org

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AIup5K3J5vc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racial killings

 

February 1965

 

Civil rights activist

Jimmy Lee Jackson

(1938-1965)

 

 

On the night

of 18 February 1965,

an Alabama state trooper

shot Jimmie Lee Jackson

in the stomach as he tried

to protect his mother

from being beaten

at Mack’s Café.

 

Jackson,

along with several

other African Americans,

had taken refuge there

from troopers breaking up

a night march

protesting the arrest

of James Orange,

a field secretary

for the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

in Marion, Alabama.

 

Jackson

died from his wounds

eight days later.

 

Speaking at his funeral,

King called Jackson,

“a martyred hero of a holy crusade

for freedom and human dignity”

(King, 3 March 1965).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
jackson-jimmie-lee

 

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/indictment-in-landmark-civil-rights-slay/ 

 

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Washington, DC

 

Nazi Picketing White House Arrival

Of Martin Luther King

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 10, 1964

 

Martin Luther King's

Acceptance Speech,

on the occasion of the award

of the Nobel Peace Prize

in Oslo

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
acceptance-address-nobel-peace-prize

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.

leaving the office of J. Edgar Hoover,

director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation,

in December 1964.

 

The F.B.I. conducted extensive surveillance

of Dr. King’s private life.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann, via Getty Images

 

His Martin Luther King Biography Was a Classic.

His Latest King Piece Is Causing a Furor.

David Garrow found F.B.I. documents

alleging King stood by during a rape.

 

But some scholars question whether to trust records

created as part of a smear campaign.

NYT

June 4, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/04/
arts/king-fbi-tapes-david-garrow.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King in London        December 1964

 

 

 

In the pulpit …

Martin Luther King at St Paul’s Cathedral,

London, 6 December 1964.

 

Photograph:

Terry Disney/Getty Images

 

Martin Luther King in London, 1964:

reflections on a landmark visit

G

Tuesday 2 December 2014    18.52 GMT

Last modified on Wednesday 3 December 2014    00.05 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

on 6 December,

as he travelled

from the US to Oslo to collect

the 1964 Nobel peace prize

for his leadership

of the civil rights movement,

King broke his trip

to preach a scholarly sermon

in front of a 3,000-strong

congregation

at St Paul’s Cathedral.

 

His evensong address,

The Three Dimensions

of a Complete Life,

is not one of the speeches

best known

by the wider public,

but it underpinned

his theological career.

 

It was the sermon

he first preached

as his trial address

at the Dexter Avenue

Baptist Church

in Montgomery in 1954.

 

He subsequently gave versions

of that sermon every year

until his assassination in 1968.

 

St Paul’s,

grand and imposing,

seemed an unlikely

stopping point for a man

of establishment-shaking politics,

but it was the perfect

London platform

for King’s sermon.

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr Martin Luther King, Jr speaks at the Civic Auditorium,

Savannah, Georgia, 1964

 

Photograph: Fred Baldwin

 

‘In January 1964,

Martin Luther King Jr came to Savannah

to speak at the Civic Auditorium.

 

I had been working as a volunteer photographer

for the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC),

recording the inside of the movement

since returning from Europe in 1963.

 

I was given free access to Dr King,

as well as Andrew Young

and many leaders and participants in the marches,

demonstrations and planning during that time.’

 

Picasso, Afghanistan and me: the wild adventures of Fred Baldwin – in pictures

A new photographic memoir takes in Arctic fishing trips, civil rights marches

… and a terrifying night spent with the far right

G

Tue 31 Aug 2021    07.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2021/aug/31/
picasso-afghanistan-and-me-the-wild-adventures-of-fred-baldwin-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Baldwin photographed the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

in Savannah, Ga., in 1964.

 

Photograph: Fred Baldwin

 

Frederick Baldwin, Whose Photography Told Stories, Dies at 92

He saw the camera as “a passport to the world”

that helped him document nature,

the civil rights movement and life in rural America.

NYT

Dec. 22, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/22/
arts/frederick-baldwin-dead.html

 

 

Related

The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Ga. January 1964.

 

Photograph: Fred Baldwin

 

At 90, Photographer Fred Baldwin Still Has ‘So Much Work Left to Do’

Having documented Sami herders and the civil rights movement,

and having just published a memoir,

the photographer says his life’s work is far from complete.

NYT

May 29, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/29/
lens/fred-baldwin-photography.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 January 1964

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973)

meets with Civil Rights leaders

 

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.  (1929-1968)

 

 

Whitney Young (1921-1971)

 

 

James Farmer (1920-1999)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March on Washington

for Jobs and Freedom >

Martin Luther King >

"I have a dream" - August 28, 1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Birmingham, Alabama        "Letter from Birmingham Jail"        August 1963

 

 

 

Ms. Abernathy, right,

with Ms. King

and a fellow civil rights activist, Fred L. Shuttlesworth, in 1963

as they left the Birmingham jail after visiting Dr. King there.

 

Photograph: Associated Press

 

Juanita Abernathy,

a Force in the Civil Rights Movement, Dies at 88

The wife of the Rev. Dr. Ralph Abernathy,

she was an activist in her own right in the struggle

to end segregation and to secure the vote.

NYT

Sept. 13, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/13/
us/juanita-abernathy-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
letter-birmingham-jail 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/letter-birmingham-jail 

https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/13/
us/juanita-abernathy-dead.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/08/
books/harvey-shapiro-poet-of-new-york-and-beyond-dies-at-88.html

 

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/30/
arthur-shores-gentle-giant-of-dynamite-hill-excerpt_n_1837322.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/13/us/
13woods.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King        Speech at the Great March on Detroit        23 June 1963

 

 

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.

speaks to a crowd in Detroit on June 23, 1963.

 

Photograph: AP

 

Deconstructing Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Dream

by Allison Keyes

 

June 23, 2013    9:00 AM

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/06/23/
194271303/deconstructing-martin-luther-king-jr-s-dream

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two months before

the March on Washington,

King stood before a throng

of 25,000 people

at Cobo Hall in Detroit

to expound upon making

“the American Dream a reality”.

 

King repeatedly exclaimed,

“I have a dream this afternoon”.

 

He articulated the words

of the prophets

Amos and Isaiah,

declaring that “justice

will roll down like waters,

and righteousness

like a mighty stream,”

for “every valley

shall be exalted,

and every hill and mountain

shall be made low”.

 

As he had done

numerous times

in the previous two years,

King concluded his message

imagining the day

“when all of God’s children,

black men and white men,

Jews and Gentiles,

Protestants and Catholics,

will be able to join hands

and sing with the Negroes

in the spiritual of old:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty,

we are free at last!”.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_speech_at_the_great_march_on_detroit/

 

 

 

 

Parts of King's Detroit speech

may sound familiar to those

who have heard the address

he gave

at the March on Washington.

 

But the Detroit speech

was tailored especially

for a city with a long history

of Civil Rights activism.

 

(...)

 

King gave his Detroit speech

just two weeks after NAACP

field secretary Medgar Evers

was assassinated.

 

His speech also came

on the heels of protests

in Birmingham, Ala.,

where police chief

Bull Connor

ordered police to use

fire hoses and dogs

to break up demonstrations.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/06/23/
194271303/deconstructing-martin-luther-king-jr-s-dream

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
address-freedom-rally-cobo-hall

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/06/23/
194271303/deconstructing-martin-luther-king-jr-s-dream

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Q3fosthiFU 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 2–5, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

Children’s Crusade

 

 

The 1963 campaign

to desegregate

Birmingham, Alabama,

generated national publicity

and federal action because

of the violent response

by local authorities

and the decision

by Martin Luther King, Jr.

and the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference

(SCLC)

to recruit children

for demonstrations.

 

The “Children’s Crusade”

added a new dynamic

to the struggle in Birmingham

and was a major factor

in the success of the campaign.

 

Aware that support

for protests in Birmingham

was waning during April 1963,

King and the SCLC looked

for ways to jumpstart

the campaign.

 

When the arrest and jailing of King

did little to attract more protestors,

SCLC staff member James Bevel

proposed recruiting local students,

arguing that while many adults

may be reluctant to participate

in demonstrations for fear

of losing their jobs, their children

had less to lose.

 

King initially had reservations,

but after deliberation he agreed,

hoping for the action

to “subpoena the conscience

of the nation

to the judgment seat of morality.”

 

SCLC

and the Alabama Christian Movement

for Human Rights (ACMHR) members

immediately canvassed colleges

and high schools for volunteers

and began training them

on the tactics of nonviolent

direct action.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_childrens_crusade/

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children's_Crusade_(1963)

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Moore_%28photographer%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 26, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

 

Martin Luther King

is found guilty,

speaks at mass meeting

 

 

King is found guilty

of criminal contempt.

 

He later speaks

at the evening mass meeting,

urging the crowd

to continue the boycott

and the campaign

to integrate worship services.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_26/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/
chronologyentry/1963_04_26/
- broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 12, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

 

On Good Friday,

12 April,

King was arrested

in Birmingham

after violating

the anti-protest injunction

and was kept

in solitary confinement.

 

During this time King penned

the “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

on the margins

of the Birmingham News,

in reaction to a statement

published in that newspaper

by eight Birmingham clergymen

condemning the protests.

 

King’s request to call his wife,

Coretta Scott King,

who was at home in Atlanta

recovering from the birth

of their fourth child,

was denied.

 

After she communicated

her concern

to the Kennedy administration,

Birmingham officials

permitted King to call home.

 

Bail money

was made available,

and he was released

on 20 April 1963.

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/birmingham-campaign

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
birmingham-campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 12, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

 

King and Abernathy

are arrested in Birmingham

 

King

and Ralph Abernathy

are arrested for violating

a state circuit court injunction

against protests,

after having led a march

the same day.

 

King is placed

in solitary confinement

in the Birmingham jail

where he will soon write

"Letter

From Birmingham Jail."

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_12/

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
birmingham-campaign 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In April 1963

King

and the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference

(SCLC)

joined with Birmingham,

Alabama’s

existing local movement,

the Alabama Christian Movement

for Human Rights (ACMHR),

in a massive direct

action campaign

to attack the city’s

segregation system

by putting pressure

on Birmingham’s merchants

during the Easter season,

the second biggest

shopping season of the year.

 

As ACMHR founder

Fred Shuttlesworth

stated in the group’s

‘‘Birmingham Manifesto,’’

the campaign was

‘‘a moral witness

to give our community

a chance to survive’’

(ACMHR, 3 April 1963).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_birmingham_campaign/

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
birmingham-campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and boy, Clarksdale, Mississippi, 1963

Gelatin silver print; printed later

11 x 14 inches

From an Edition of 25

 

Photograph: Steve Schapiro

 

STEVE SCHAPIRO: HEROIC TIMES

HGG2

DECEMBER 14, 2017 – JANUARY 27, 2018

https://www.howardgreenberg.com/exhibitions/steve-schapiro-heroic-times#6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his daughter Yolanda.

Atlanta, 1962.

 

Dr. King and other civil rights leaders

relied on the power of photographs

to persuade and to motivate change

during the Civil Rights Movement.

 

Photograph: James Karales,

courtesy of the estate of James Karales

 

Race, Civil Rights and Photography

NYT

Jan. 18, 2016

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/
race-civil-rights-and-photography/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King talks with police after an assault

at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

in Birmingham, 1962.

 

[ Second from right, behind MLK: Ralph Abernathy ]

 

Photograph:

James Karales,

courtesy of the Estate of James Karales

 

Race, Civil Rights and Photography

NYT

Jan. 18, 2016

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/
race-civil-rights-and-photography/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 November 1962

 

I Have a Dream speech - first version

 

 

King’s 55-minute speech

at a high school gymnasium

in Rocky Mount

on 27 November 1962

 

 

Months before

the Rev Martin Luther King Jr

delivered his famous

I Have a Dream speech

to hundreds of thousands of people

gathered in Washington in 1963,

he fine-tuned

his civil rights message

before a much smaller audience

in North Carolina.

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/aug/11/
martin-luther-king-i-have-a-dream-first-recording

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/aug/11/
martin-luther-king-i-have-a-dream-first-recording

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MLK’s first imprisonment    1960

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

holds his two-year-old son Martin Luther King III

[ born October 23, 1957 ]

as he stands near a burnt cross

in front of his home in Atlanta.

 

Photograph:

Getty Images, via New-York Historical Society

 

Norman Rockwell’s Vision of F.D.R.’s Four Freedoms

NYT

March 8, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/08/
arts/new-york-historical-society-norman-rockwell-four-freedoms.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1959

 

India trip

 

 

From the early days

of the Montgomery bus boycott,

Martin Luther King, Jr.

referred to India’s

Mahatma Gandhi

as ‘‘the guiding light

of our technique

of nonviolent social change’’

(Papers 5:231).

 

Following the success

of the boycott in 1956,

King contemplated

traveling to India

to deepen his understanding

of Gandhian principles.

 

That same year,

Jawaharlal Nehru,

India’s prime minister,

made a short visit

to the United States.

 

Although unable

to arrange a meeting with King,

Nehru made inquiries through

his diplomatic representatives

concerning the possibility

of King visiting India in the future.

 

King secured funds

for his trip to India

from the Christopher Reynolds

Foundation,

the Montgomery Improvement

Association,

the Southern Christian Leadership

Conference,

and Dexter Avenue Baptist

Church.

 

While King made travel plans

from Montgomery,

the co-sponsors of King’s trip,

American Friends Service Committee

and the Gandhi Smarak Nidhi

(Gandhi National Memorial Fund),

headed by Secretary G. Ramachandran,

began arranging

for King to meet with Indian officials

and Gandhian activists during his stay.

 

On 3 February 1959,

King, his wife, Coretta Scott King,

and Lawrence Reddick (1910-1995),

began a five week tour of India.

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/india-trip 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
india-trip

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
my-trip-land-gandhi

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
palm-sunday-sermon-mohandas-k-gandhi-delivered-dexter-avenue-baptist-church

 

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=99480326 - January 16, 2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MLK is stabbed by Izola Ware Curry    1958

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1958

 

Montgomery Alabama

 

 

Anglonautes' note:

these three Life photographs

by Grey Villet

were taken in 1958

(September ?).

 

They may show

Martin Luther King Jr.

in Mongtomery, Alabama,

where his friend

Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990)

was appearing for a trial.

Photos by Charles Moore

seem to confirm this.
 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Trial Montgomery Alabama Integration

 

Undated - no caption

[ September 1958 ]

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/a180faaf02e8542d.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Trial Montgomery Alabama Integration

 

Undated - no caption

[ September 1958 ]

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/b60b79c4fef51607.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Trial Montgomery Alabama Integration

 

Undated - no caption

[ September 1958 ]

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/ecf1d61c3dae2dca.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://everyday-i-show.livejournal.com/136142.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2010/03/
charles_moore.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.

 

Location: US

Date taken: 1957

 

Photographer: Walter Bennett

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 50S

Time cover: 02-18-1957 of Martin Luther King.

Date taken: February 18, 1957

Vol. LXIX No. 7

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/0,9263,7601570218,00.html

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/a0f2ec7dfecb311c.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montgomery Story Comic Book        1 December 1957

 

   

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/the_montgomery_story_comic_book/ - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This comic book was published in 1957

by The Fellowship of the Reconciliation.

http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
documentsentry/the_montgomery_story_comic_book/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 17, 1957

 

Washington, DC

 

Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

 

 

“Give Us the Ballot,”

Address

at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/prayer-pilgrimage-freedom

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/13/arts/ruby-dee-actress-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 4, 1957 - March 12, 1957
 

Ghana trip

 

 

In March 1957,

Martin Luther King, Jr.,

and his wife

Coretta Scott King

traveled to West Africa

to attend Ghana’s

independence ceremony.

 

King’s voyage was symbolic

of a growing global alliance

of oppressed peoples

and was strategically

well timed;

 

his attendance represented

an attempt to broaden the scope

of the civil rights struggle

in the United States

on the heels of the successful

Montgomery bus boycott.

 

King identified

with Ghana’s struggle;

 

furthermore,

he recognized a strong parallel

between resistance against

European colonialism in Africa

and the struggle against

racism in the United States.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_ghana_trip_1957/

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
ghana-trip

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
kwame-nkrumah-0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 30, 1956

 

Martin Luther King's house is bombed

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
kings-home-bombed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 27, 1956

 

Martin Luther King

receives a threatening phone call

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
king-receives-threatening-phone-call-has-spiritual-revelation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1954

 

Martin Luther King becomes pastor

of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church

in Montgomery, Alabama

 

 

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1964/king/biographical/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1944
 

 

“The Negro and the Constitution”

On 13 April 1944,

in his junior year at Atlanta's

Booker T. Washington High School,

King, Jr., won an oratorical contest

sponsored by the black Elks.

 

With the runner-up

at Washington High,

Hiram Kendall,

he won the right

to represent the school

at the statewide contest

held at First Baptist Church

in Dublin, Georgia.

 

Kendall was a runner-up

at the state contest.

 

The theme

of both contests was

"The Negro

and the Constitution."

 

According to later accounts,

during the bus trip

to the contest,

King and his teacher,

Sarah Grace Bradley,

were told by the driver

to surrender their seats

to newly boarding

white passengers.

 

King resisted at first,

but his teacher

finally persuaded him

to leave his seat.

 

They stood for several hours

during the bus ride to Atlanta.

 

King's oration

was published in May 1944

at the end of his junior,

and final, year

at Washington High

in the school annual,

The Cornellian.

 

More polished than other pieces

that King wrote as a teenager,

the essay probably benefited

from adult editing

and from King's awareness

of similar orations.

 

Citing the experiences

of the black opera singer

Marian Anderson as an example,

the oration outlines

the contradictions between

the nation's biblical faith

and constitutional values

and the continuing problem

of racial discrimination.

 

But the conclusion is marked

by a hopeful rhetorical flourish:

 

"My heart throbs anew

in the hope that inspired

by the example of Lincoln,

imbued with the spirit of Christ,

[America] will cast down

the last barrier to perfect freedom,"

said the young King.

 

"And I with my brother of blackest hue

possessing at last my rightful heritage

and holding my head erect,

may stand beside the Saxon--a Negro--

and yet a man!"

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_440500_000/ -  broken link

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
negro-and-constitution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MLK > Uncredited photographs

 

 

Three portraits of Martin Luther King Jr.
 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/community/
bibliography/022003civilrights/viewcrbib.php
- broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.

at a rally held in Selma, Alabama,

during marches to Montgomery.

[right: Ralph Abernathy]

 

Photograph: Flip Schulke/Corbis

 

Forty years after the shot rang out,

race fears still haunt the US

The Observer        Paul Harris        30 March 2008

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/mar/30/
race.uselections2008

Photo: Time        Caption: Observer    30 March 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY FLIP SCHULKE/CORBIS

Time

added 12.2.2005

https://time.com/4720779/mlk-anniversary/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > USA

 

James Earl Ray    1928-1998

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

"I have a dream"    August 28,1963

 

 

Coretta Scott King    1927-2006

 

 

21st, 20th century > Kennedy dynasty

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

English America, America, USA

 

 

British Empire, UK > India > 20th century

 

 

British empire, UK > slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights

apartheid

 

 

religion / faith,

abuse, sexual abuse, violence, extremism,

secularism, atheism

 

 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.)

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers >

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

Doris Derby

 

 

Doy Gorton

 

 

Danny Lyon

 

 

Steve Schapiro    1934-2022

 

 

Fred Baldwin    1929-2021

 

 

Matt Herron    1931-2020

 

 

Don Hogan Charles (born Daniel James Charles)    1938-2017

 

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

 

Leonard Freed    1929-2006

 

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

Ed Clark    1911-2000

 

 

Robert W. Kelley    1920-1991

 

 

 

 

Related

 

New York Times > Disunion: The Civil War

 

Disunion revisits and reconsiders

America’s most perilous period

— using contemporary accounts,

diaries, images

and historical assessments to follow

the Civil War as it unfolded.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/
opinion/disunion.html 

 

 

 

 

New York Times > Civil war timeline

 

This timeline tracks the posts

by contributors to the Disunion series.

Contemporary accounts, diaries, images

and historical assessments

follow the Civil War as it unfolded.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/
opinion/disunion.html 

 

 

 

 

Slavery and the Making of America > Timeline

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/index.html

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

The African American Odyssey:

A Quest for Full Citizenship

http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute

Major King Events Chronology: 1929-1968

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-resources/
major-king-events-chronology-1929-1968 

 

 

 

 

The Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr.

Remembering Key Addresses, Sermons by the Civil Rights Leader

https://www.npr.org/news/specials/march40th/speeches.html

 

 

 

 

Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

https://www.nps.gov/malu/learn/education/otherresources.htm 

 

 

 

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