Les anglonautes

About | Search | Grammar | Vocapedia | Learning | News podcasts | Videos | History | Arts | Science | Translate and listen

 Previous Home Up Next

 

History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > Timeline in pictures > 20th century

 

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (L)

meets with Martin Luther King, Jr. (R)

in the White House Cabinet Room

 

Date: 03/18/1966

 

Source:

Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.

Image Serial Number:

A2134-2A.

http://photolab.lbjlib.utexas.edu/detail.asp?id=18256

Author:

Yoichi R. Okamoto

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Martin_Luther_King%2C_Jr._and_Lyndon_Johnson_2.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Alfred Wright / Bill Wright    1936-2021

 

first Black competitor to win

a United States Golf Association event

in an era when African-Americans

were not welcome

either in segregated country clubs

or in the top amateur

and professional ranks,

 

(...)

 

Wright was attending

the Western Washington

College of Education

(now Western Washington University)

in 1959 when he won

the U.S.G.A. Amateur Public Links

Championship in Denver.

 

After barely qualifying

for match play,

he had little trouble

in the tournament.

 

His skill on the greens led

The Spokesman-Review of Spokane

to call him a “slender putting wizard.”

 

Wright’s immediate reaction

to being the first Black golfer

to win a national championship

was to hang up the phone

on the reporter

who had asked how that felt.

 

“I wasn’t mad,”

he said in an interview

with the U.S.G.A. in 2009.

 

“I wanted to be Black.

I wanted to be the winner.

I wanted to be all those things.”

 

But he was struck

by how quickly

his victory was viewed

as one for his race.

 

As he saw it, he said,

“I was just playing golf.”

 

Wright’s victory

was a singular moment

for Black golfers at a time

when the P.G.A. of America’s bylaws

still had a “Caucasians-only” clause

(which would be abolished in 1961).

 

A Black man did not win

a PGA Tour event until 1964,

when Pete Brown finished first

at the Waco Turner Open in Texas.

 

The next two African-American winners

of U.S.G.A. tournaments

were Alton Duhon

(the 1982 U.S. Senior Amateur)

and Tiger Woods

(the 1991 to 1993 U.S. Junior Amateurs).

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/25/
sports/golf/bill-wright-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edgar Ray Killen    1925-2017

 

former Klansman who was sentenced

to a 60-year prison term in 2005

for arranging the murders

of three young civil rights workers

outside Philadelphia, Miss., in 1964

during the Freedom Summer drive

to register Southern black voters

 

(...)

 

Mr. Killen was convicted

of state manslaughter charges

41 years to the day

after James Earl Chaney, 21,

a black man from Meridian, Miss.,

and two white New Yorkers,

Andrew Goodman, 20,

and Michael Schwerner, 24,

disappeared in a death trap

set by a local deputy sheriff

and a gang of his fellow

Ku Klux Klansmen.

 

He was prosecuted

in one of the South’s

major “atonement” trials,

in which the Mississippi authorities

revisited civil rights-era atrocities.

 

He was convicted

of a crime that galvanized

the civil rights movement,

stamped the town of Philadelphia

as an outpost of terror

and inspired the 1988

Hollywood movie

“Mississippi Burning,”

 

Mr. Killen

was a founding member of the Klan

in the Philadelphia area

and its chief recruiter,

according to the F.B.I.

 

He had been among

18 men tried in 1967

on federal charges

of conspiring to violate

the civil rights of Mr. Chaney,

Mr. Goodman

and Mr. Schwerner.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/12/
obituaries/edgar-ray-killen-convicted-in-64-killings-of-rights-worker-dies-at-92.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/12/
obituaries/edgar-ray-killen-convicted-in-64-killings-of-rights-worker-dies-at-92.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/01/12/
577664811/edgar-ray-killen-dies-klansman-behind-civil-rights-workers-murders-in-1964

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2005

 

40 years on,

Mississippi Burning case

finally reaches trial

 

 

Forty years after three

civil rights workers

were killed on a dirt road

in Mississippi on a night

that came to symbolise

the racial hate

of the American south,

an elderly leader

of the Ku Klux Klan

appeared in court yesterday

to be formally charged

with their murder.

 

In proceedings interrupted

by a bomb threat,

Edgar Ray Killen,

appeared handcuffed

and in an orange prison jump suit

to plead not guilty

to three counts of murder.

 

(...)

 

Killen was a preacher

and a local Klan leader

in Neshoba County, Mississippi

when the killings

took place in 1964.

 

The FBI identified him

as the ringleader of the gang

that ran the three civil rights workers

off of a lonely road,

killed them, and hid their corpses

in an earthen dam.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/08/usa.
suzannegoldenberg

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/01/12/
577664811/edgar-ray-killen-dies-klansman-behind-civil-rights-workers-murders-in-1964

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/us/
marcus-d-gordon-judge-in-mississippi-burning-case-dies-at-84.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/us/
former-klansman-guilty-of-manslaughter-in-1964-deaths.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/08/
usa.suzannegoldenberg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenneth Clark    1914-2005

 

US psychologist

whose work helped end

school segregation

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/may/06/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/may/06/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

National Black Political Convention        Gary, Indiana        March 10-12, 1972

 

 

 

The writer, 79, was one of the major forces

in the Black Arts movement of the 1960s and ’70s.

 

Above, Mr. Baraka

at the National Black Political Convention in 1972.

 

Photograph:Gary Settle/The New York Times

 

Amiri Baraka, Polarizing Poet and Playwright, Dies at 79

NYT

Jan. 9, 2014

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/
arts/amiri-baraka-polarizing-poet-and-playwright-dies-at-79.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The National Black Political Convention,

or the Gary Convention,

was held on March 10–12, 1972

in Gary, Indiana

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Black_Political_Convention

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
National_Black_Political_Convention

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/
arts/amiri-baraka-polarizing-poet-and-playwright-dies-at-79.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Arts movement

of the 1960s and ’70s

 

(...)

 

sought to duplicate in fiction,

poetry, drama and other mediums

the aims of the black power movement

in the political arena.

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/
arts/amiri-baraka-polarizing-poet-and-playwright-dies-at-79.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/
arts/amiri-baraka-polarizing-poet-and-playwright-dies-at-79.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 14, 1970

 

Jackson, Mississippi

 

Jackson State Massacre

 

The police fires into a crowd

at the historically black college,

killing two.

 

 

On Feb. 3, 1964,

a white driver slammed into

a Jackson State student

named Mamie Ballard,

sending her to the hospital.

 

This incident began

a yearslong push

to close Lynch Street to traffic,

which in turn helped propel

the already potent local

civil rights movement.

 

Jackson State

may have been majority black,

but it was in the capital of a state

dominated by white supremacists,

who governed the college.

 

Informed by the civil rights

and Black Power movements,

students naturally saw

the fight to close Lynch Street

as a cornerstone of their broader push

for justice and equality in Mississippi.

 

With an increasingly aggressive tenor,

the ensuing student demonstrations,

which peaked each spring,

demanded justice for Ms. Ballard,

who survived,

and that Lynch Street be closed.

 

On May 14, 1970, someone set fire

to a dump truck parked

in the middle of Lynch Street

a few blocks from campus.

 

While there was no evidence

that student protesters had been involved,

white authorities cited the vandalism

to justify the use of force.

 

Late that evening officers

from the Jackson Police Department

and the Mississippi Highway Patrol

marched onto campus, accompanied by

the so-called Thompson Tank,

an armored personnel carrier

that Mayor Allen Thompson,

the city’s segregationist mayor,

had purchased in 1964,

ahead of what he termed

the civil rights “invasion”

of Freedom Summer.

 

That same year

the Mississippi Legislature

gave the Highway Patrol

broad authority

to intervene in protests,

even if local authorities

hadn’t requested them.

 

The patrol still held

that power in 1970.

 

The phalanx of officers

proceeded to Alexander Hall,

a women’s dormitory,

arriving close to midnight.

 

But instead of facing

a mass of angry protesters,

they found scores of students

enjoying a Thursday evening

relaxing outside

as graduation neared.

 

Later asserting

that a sniper had shot at them

from a window in Alexander Hall

— an absurd claim with no evidence —

the police fired more than

400 rounds of ammunition

over 28 seconds in every direction.

 

In the chaos that spilled

into the early morning hours of May 15,

two men, Phillip Lafayette Gibbs

and James Earl Green, were left dead;

a dozen other young people

were wounded in the gunfire.

 

Hundreds of others bear

physical and psychological scars

to this day.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/14/
opinion/Jackson-state-shooting-police.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/14/
opinion/Jackson-state-shooting-police.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 11-12, 1970

 

Augusta, Georgia

 

Civil rights riot / uprising

 

Black power movement

 

 

For two days, starting on May 11,

1,000 Black residents

rebelled against the city's

systemic oppression.

 

More than 100 blocks

of neighborhoods and businesses

— about 7 miles —

were ransacked and vandalized.

 

Police killed six Black men.

https://www.npr.org/2020/10/01/
918414307/remembering-the-augusta-civil-rights-riot-50-years-later

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/10/01/
918414307/remembering-the-augusta-civil-rights-riot-50-years-later

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A 1969 fall fashion show

at a women’s retailer,

Tenenbaum’s of Greenville,

in the Mississippi Delta.

 

Photograph: Doy Gorton

 

Photographing the White South in the Turbulence of the 1960s

Doy Gorton, a son of the Mississippi Delta

who joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee,

returned to Mississippi to embark on a project

photographing his fellow white Southerners.

NYT

Sept. 13, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/13/
lens/photographing-the-white-south-in-the-turbulence-of-the-1960s.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Children protest outside the YMCA, Jackson, Mississippi,

late 1960s

 

‘This is about segregation of the different facilities.

The black YMCA in Jackson had no swimming pool,

and these children were really mad about that,

so they took it into their own hands to protest it.

 

You found a lot of black kids,

especially in the cities, couldn’t go swimming.

 

And many black children died

because they didn’t know how to swim.’

 

Through the lens of civil rights photographer Doris Derby – in pictures

The activist, photographer and former academic Doris Derby

lived and worked in the southern US at the height of the civil rights era.

Her images capture not the protests of the 60s

but the everyday realities of black lives at that time.

Here she talks us through some of her photographs

G

Sat 1 Feb 2020    16.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2020/feb/01/
civil-rights-photographer-doris-derby-we-will-walk-turner-contemporary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poor people campaign / march    1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 11, 1968

 

President Lyndon Johnson signs

the Civil Rights Act of 1968 / Fair Housing Act,

prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental,

and financing of housing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fair-housing-act

https://www.justice.gov/crt/fair-housing-act-2

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/04/11/
601419987/50-years-ago-president-johnson-signed-the-fair-housing-act

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 4, 1968

 

Martin Luther King (1929-1968)

is shot dead

by James Earl Ray (1928-1998)

in Memphis, Tennessee


 

 

 

 

1968 King Assassination Report        Video        CBS News

 

Walter Cronkite

had almost finished broadcasting the "CBS Evening News"

when he received word of Martin Luther King's assassination.

 

His report detailed the shooting

and the nation's reaction to the tragedy.

(CBSNews.com)

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmOBbxgxKvo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/10/
newsid_2516000/2516725.stm  - 10 March 1969

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/4/
newsid_2453000/2453987.stm
- 4 April 1968

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/20/
opinion/20Lafayette.html

http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/
remembering-martin-luther-king-as-a-man-not-a-saint/2011/04/01/
AFvQjTXC_story.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/24/us/
24kershaw.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/06/
opinion/06branch.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/30/
race.usa

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/23/
newsid_2914000/2914267.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Memphis sanitation strike    1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More than 20 civil rights cases

have been successfully

prosecuted since 1994,

including the 2005 conviction

of Edgar Ray Killen, 85,

one of the Klansmen

responsible for the 1964 deaths

of three civil rights workers,

James Chaney,

Andrew Goodman

and Michael Schwerner

- 2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/24rights.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/21/us/mississippi-
ends-inquiry-into-1964-killing-of-3-civil-rights-workers.html

 

http://www.ago.state.ms.us/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/
DOJ-Report-to-Mississippi-Attorney-General-Jim-Hood.pdf

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/us/
marcus-d-gordon-judge-in-mississippi-burning-case-dies-at-84.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/
24rights.html

 

http://movies.nytimes.com/2010/08/13/
movies/13neshoba.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/us/
former-klansman-guilty-of-manslaughter-in-1964-deaths.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 12, 1967

 

The Supreme Court

said no state could prohibit

mixed-race marriages because

“marriage is one

of the ‘basic civil rights of man.’ ”

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/10/
opinion/president-obamas-moment.html

 

 

 

U.S. Supreme Court

LOVING v. VIRGINIA, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)

388 U.S. 1

LOVING ET UX. v. VIRGINIA.

APPEAL FROM THE SUPREME COURT

OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA.

No. 395.

Argued April 10, 1967.

Decided June 12, 1967.

 

 

Virginia'sstatutory scheme

to prevent marriages

between persons solely

on the basis of racial classifications

held to violate the Equal Protection

and Due Process Clauses

of the Fourteenth Amendment.

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=388&invol=1

 

 

https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/388/1.html 

https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/388/1

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/10/
opinion/president-obamas-moment.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sammy Davis Jr. (born Samuel George Davis, Jr.)        1925-1990

 

 

 

RatPac Press & Running Press (The Perseus Books Group)

 

Rat Pack's Sammy Davis Jr. Lives On Through Daughter's Stories

NPR

May 08, 2014        12:57 PM ET

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-storie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In his own words, Sammy Davis, Jr.

was "the only black, Puerto Rican,

one-eyed, Jewish entertainer

in the world."

 

His daughter, Tracey Davis,

shares memories and details

of his life in her new book,

Sammy Davis Jr.:

A Personal Journey

with My Father.

 

It's based on conversations

Davis had with her father

as he battled throat cancer

near the end of his life.

 

He described his start

in vaudeville at 3 years old

where he was billed

as an adult midget.

 

"He didn't have

the traditional family life,"

Davis tells NPR's

Celeste Headlee.

 

"He was always

working, working, working,

and trying to become famous."

 

She says that even after making it,

"he was scared that it could

be taken away at any minute."

 

Sammy Davis Jr. was frank about

the racial prejudice

that he suffered both

during his army service

and his time in show business.

 

It also shadowed his family life.

 

He married

Swede May Britt Wilkens in 1960

— a time when interracial marriage

was forbidden by law in 31 states.

 

They both converted to Judaism.

 

As his daughter grew up,

she remembers

"there [were] times

that a swastika

was painted somewhere

or the N-word

was written on a car."

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-stories

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-stories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1967

 

Racial tensions in Cambridge, Maryland

 

 

The small town

of Cambridge, Md.,

went up in flames

(...)

this summer.

 

A speech by black activist

H. Rap Brown

helped incite unrest there.

 

But the town's problems

were rooted

in a painful history

of racial discrimination.

 

(...)

 

In the summer of 1967,

the racial tensions

that had been

simmering for years

boiled over

in a paroxysm of violence

across the country.

 

While there had been riots

in African-American

neighborhoods before

— most notably

in the Watts section

of Los Angeles in 1965 —

the long, hot summer of 1967

saw fire-bombings, looting

and confrontations with police

in more than 150 cities and towns,

from Hartford to Tampa

and Cincinnati to Buffalo.

 

The worst of the unrest

was in Detroit and Newark, N.J.

— big cities where African-Americans

set fires and looted businesses

in their own neighborhoods,

traded gunfire with police

and otherwise

vented their frustration

at the slow pace of social change

three years after passage

of the Civil Rights Act.

 

Less well-remembered

are the many small cities

and rural towns

that were swept up

in the strife,

places like Plainfield, N.J.,

and Cambridge, Md.

 

Cambridge, 90 miles

from the nation's capital,

quickly drew the attention

of federal authorities

at the highest level.

 

It became a place

where small-town life,

small-town attitudes

and small-town troubles

intersected

with national politics.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12420016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12420016 -
Updated August 1, 2007     Published July 29, 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1967

 

Race riots engulf Detroit and Milwaukee,

after similar disturbances

in Los Angeles, Newark and Chicago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Meredith        March Against Fear        June 1966

 

 

 

We Shall Overcome (the James Meredith March Against Fear),

June 1966

 

‘After civil rights activist James Meredith was shot on 6 June 1966

– the second day of his March Against Fear

from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi –

Martin Luther King Jr took up the march and was joined

by fellow civil rights leaders John Lewis and Ralph Abernathy.

 

Thousands followed.

 

As we marched, with helicopters flying overhead,

the unwavering King, flanked by Lewis (in light raincoat) and Abernathy,

sang We Shall Overcome, which became the anthem of the civil rights movement.’

 

Photograph: Harry Benson/Aperture

 

Station to station: imaginative works from Magnum's print sale – in pictures

From the disappearance of Andy Warhol to the march of Martin Luther King Jr,

these ‘works of imagination’ are up for sale for just $100

G

Mon 19 Oct 2020    14.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2020/oct/19/
station-to-station-imaginative-works-from-magnum-print-sale-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_Against_Fear

https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/black-power/sncc/march-against-fear

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/content/dam/books/pdfs/The-March-Against-Fear-Ed-Guide.pdf

https://time.com/4356404/james-meredith-50th-anniversary-march-against-fear/ 

https://exhibits.stanford.edu/fitch/browse/meredith-march-against-fear-june-1966

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2020/oct/19/
station-to-station-imaginative-works-from-magnum-print-sale-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr.

traveled to Chicago

with a mission to expand

the Civil Rights Movement

from the South to the North.

 

King led what became known

as the Chicago Freedom Movement,

focusing on racial discrimination in housing

as well as discriminatory practices

by employers.

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/14/
481794431/the-chicago-freedom-movement-then-and-now

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/18/
481456509/when-king-came-to-chicago-see-the-rare-images-of-his-campaign-in-color

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/14/
481794431/the-chicago-freedom-movement-then-and-now

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/07/07/
888184490/the-long-hot-summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Watts riots, LA    15 March 1966 / August 11-16, 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1965

 

The Negro Family:

The Case For National Action,

also known as the Moynihan Report,

named after future U.S. Senator

Daniel Patrick Moynihan

- released March 1965

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/29/
opinion/29Patterson.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Queen killing        Fayette, Miss.        Aug. 8, 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In August 1965,

the civil rights movement

was changing the country.

 

Just two days

before Queen was shot,

President Lyndon Johnson

signed the Voting Rights Act

into law.

 

Still, in Jefferson County,

where Fayette is located,

blacks outnumbered whites

3 to 1.

 

But only one black person

was registered to vote,

according to a report

by the U.S. Justice Department.

http://www.npr.org/2013/05/03/
172594513/justice-in-the-segregated-south-a-new-look-at-an-old-killing

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2013/05/03/
172594513/justice-in-the-segregated-south-a-new-look-at-an-old-killing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 14, 1965

 

Jackson, Miss.

 

demonstratation

against a special legislative meeting

called by the governor

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/13/
opinion/remembering-a-moment-of-terror-in-mississippi.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/13/
opinion/remembering-a-moment-of-terror-in-mississippi.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Racial killings

 

Civil rights activist

Jimmy Lee Jackson

(1938-1965)

 

 

On the night of 18 February 1965,

an Alabama state trooper

shot Jimmie Lee Jackson

in the stomach

as he tried to protect his mother

from being beaten at Mack’s Café.

 

Jackson, along with several

other African Americans,

had taken refuge there

from troopers breaking up

a night march

protesting the arrest of James Orange,

a field secretary

for the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

in Marion, Alabama.

 

Jackson died

from his wounds eight days later.

 

Speaking at his funeral,

King called Jackson,

“a martyred hero of a holy crusade

for freedom and human dignity”

(King, 3 March 1965).

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/jackson-jimmie-lee

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
jackson-jimmie-lee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Nazi Picketing White House Arrival Of Martin Luther King


 

 

 

Nazi Picketing White House Arrival Of Martin Luther King

Date taken: 1965

 

Photographer: Francis Miller

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voting Rights Act    6 August 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

Alabama

Selma marches

March from Selma to Montgomery /

"Bloody Sunday"    7 March 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 21, 1965

 

Malcolm X is shot dead in Harlem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From June of 1964 to January of '65,

just six months,

K.K.K. nightriders burned

31 black churches across Mississippi,

according to F.B.I. records.

https://www.nytimes.com/1988/12/04/
movies/film-fact-vs-fiction-in-mississippi.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1988/12/04/
movies/film-fact-vs-fiction-in-mississippi.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Community Relations Service (CRS)

 

Dubbed “America’s Peacemaker,”

the Community Relations Service

was established in 1964

as civil rights protesters

across the South

came under attack.

 

(...)

 

The history of the CRS

begins with Lyndon Johnson,

who as a U.S. senator in the late 1950s

envisioned a mediation service

that would seek to quell disputes

between racial and ethnic groups.

 

 

Years later, as president,

Johnson signed

the Civil Rights Act of 1964,

the landmark law

that banned racial discrimination

in housing, employment, voting education

and so-called public accommodations

— retail businesses, restaurants,

hotels and the like.

 

Included in the sweeping

and transformative legislation

were a few brief paragraphs

establishing the CRS.

 

Those paragraphs

instructed the new agency

to “provide assistance …

in resolving disputes,

disagreements, or difficulties

relating to discriminatory practices

based on race, color,

or national origin.”

 

For Johnson,

the creation of the CRS

“reflected his conviction

that most conflict

could be negotiated,”

according to a forthcoming

history of the agency

written by Lum

and another former CRS leader,

Bertram Levine.

 

It also reflected

an uncomfortable truth:

The Justice Department

didn’t have nearly enough lawyers

to sue every business

or local government agency

that refused to comply

with the Civil Rights Act

and its prohibition

on racial segregation.

 

Required by law to keep most

of its activities confidential,

the new agency played a quiet,

behind-the-scenes role

throughout the second half

of the 1960s

as civil rights activism

swept across the country.

 

In 1965, CRS staffers

were on the ground

in Selma, Alabama,

the site of some

of the ugliest episodes

of the era.

 

After police killed

protester Jimmie Lee Jackson

and brutalized marchers

as they crossed

the Edmund Pettus Bridge

— a horrific event that would come

to be known as “Bloody Sunday” —

CRS leaders convinced local authorities

not to attack subsequent marches

led by King and others.

https://www.propublica.org/article/
how-a-key-federal-civil-rights-agency-was-sidelined-as-historic-protests-erupted - July 9, 2020

 

 

https://www.propublica.org/article/
how-a-key-federal-civil-rights-agency-was-sidelined-as-historic-protests-erupted - July 9, 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 July 1964

 

Civil Rights Act of 1964

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A demonstrator clashed with a policeman

during a civil rights protest in Nashville in 1964.

 

Photograph: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

 

Waiting for a Perfect Protest?

NYT

SEPT. 1, 2017

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/01/
opinion/civil-rights-protest-resistance.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Clifford Vaughs, SNCC photographer,

is arrested by the National Guard.” 1964.

 

The Menil Collection, Houston,

gift of Edmund Carpenter and Adelaide de Menil.

 

Photograph: Danny Lyon/Magnum Photos

 

Houston’s Young Curators Look at Culture and Environment

By Jonathan Blaustein        NYT        May. 17, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/
menil-root-shift-houstons-young-curators-look-at-culture-and-environment/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Freedom Summer

 

Although the Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

had labored for civil rights

in rural Mississippi since 1961,

the organization found

that intense and often violent

resistance by segregationists

in rural areas of Mississippi

would not allow for the kind

of direct action campaigns

that been successful in urban areas

such as Montgomery and Birmingham.

 

The 1964

Freedom Summer project

was designed to draw

the nation’s attention

to the violent oppression

experienced by Mississippi blacks

who attempted to exercise

their constitutional rights,

and to develop a grassroots

freedom movement

that could be sustained long after

student activists left Mississippi.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_freedom_summer_1964/

 

 

 

(the) SNC

(popularly pronounced snick)

[ Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee ]

was sending hundreds

of black and white volunteers

to the South to teach, set up clinics

and register disenfranchised

black Southerners.

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/16/us/
stokely-carmichael-rights-leader-who-coined-black-power-dies-at-57.html

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/freedom-summer 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/16/us/
stokely-carmichael-rights-leader-who-coined-black-power-dies-at-57.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nation of Islam        Black separatist movement

 

Elijah Muhammad

 

 

Muhammad,

the Nation of Islam leader,

preached that integration

and intermarriage were wrong

and that white people

were devils.

 

It was an idea Ali defended

in a 1971 TV interview.

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/04/
171025748/boxer-muhammad-ali-the-greatest-of-all-time-dies-at-74

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/04/
171025748/boxer-muhammad-ali-the-greatest-of-all-time-dies-at-74

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White supremacist violence

during the civil rights era

 

 

Former Ku Klux Klansman

James Ford Seale

[ 1934 or 1935 – 2011 ]

was convicted

on federal kidnapping charges

more than 40 years

after the abduction,

torture and drowning

of two black teenagers

near the Mississippi-

Louisiana border in 1964

 

[ ... ]

 

Mr. Moore, a sawmill worker,

and Mr. Dee, a college student,

were 19 when they disappeared

on May 2, 1964,

last seen hitchhiking

on a highway

near Meadville, Miss.

 

Two months later, on July 12,

a fisherman spotted

Mr. Moore’s body

in a Mississippi River backwater

called the Old River.

 

Mr. Dee was found

the next day.

 

[ ... ]

 

According to F.B.I. reports,

the Klan believed

that Mr. Moore and Mr. Dee

were Black Muslims

plotting an armed uprising.

 

The two were taken deep into

the nearby Homochitto

National Forest,

where they were tied to trees

and whipped.

 

They were then driven

across the state line

to Louisiana,

where they were tied

to an engine block

and thrown into the river

with tape over their mouths.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/05/us/05seale.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/05/us/05seale.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/sep/11/
race.usa 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/25/us/25klan.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


March 1964

 

Racial killings

 

Jacksonville, Fla

 

Johnnie Mae Chappell is shot dead

 

 

On the evening of March 23, 1964,

Chappell, a mother of 10,

had walked to buy ice cream

for her children in Jacksonville, Fla.

 

When she got home,

she realized she’d dropped

her pocketbook.

 

With the help of friends,

she retraced her steps

along New Kings Road.

 

A carload of white men

drove by with a gun

on the front seat.

 

One of them

had earlier declared,

“Let’s get a n—–.”

 

J.W. Rich picked up the gun

and fired out the window,

hitting Chappell.

 

“I’ve been shot,”

Chappell cried out

to those around her.

 

She died on the way

to the hospital.

http://blogs.clarionledger.com/jmitchell/tag/johnnie-mae-chappell/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/24rights.html 

 

https://www.bardofthesouth.com/
the-murder-of-johnnie-mae-chappell-a-forgotten-civil-rights-story/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Racial killings

 

 

Frank Morris,

a black shopkeeper,

is burnt to death

in Louisiana

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/nov/30/
ku-klux-klan-linked-murder 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/
24rights.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 10, 1964

 

 

Martin Luther King's

Acceptance Speech,

on the occasion of the award

of the Nobel Peace Prize

in Oslo

 

 

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1964/king/acceptance-speech/  

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1014.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Lyndon Baines Johnson    1908-1973

 

36th President of the United States    1963-1969

 

 

President Lyndon Johnson

enacts the Civil Rights Bill

in the United States,

officially ending segregation

in the South - July 2 1964

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/04/opinion/04rich.html

http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-11-17-lbj-tapes_x.htm

https://www.archives.gov/research/civil-rights    

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/2/newsid_3787000/3787809.stm

https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=97 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/04/11/
301820334/lbj-carried-cotulla-with-him-in-civil-rights-fight

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/30/
opinion/sunday/dignity-is-a-constitutional-principle.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/us/
politics/robert-l-hardesty-speechwriter-for-johnson-dies-at-82.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/
sunday-review/at-gettysburg-johnson-marked-memorial-day-and-the-future.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1964/jul/03/usa.fromthearchive

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10816FD39581B7A93C6A9178CD85F408685F9

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0F1EF93B5F147A93C1A9178CD85F408685F9

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00E11F93B5F147A93C1A9178CD85F408685F9

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0910FA3B5B1B728DDDA00994DE405B848AF1D3

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10C13FA3B5B1B728DDDA00994DE405B848AF1D3

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30B15F9345E147A93C3A8178DD85F408685F9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 21, 1964

 

civil rights workers

James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner

are murdered by Ku Klux Klan members

in Philadelphia, Mississippi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 January 1964

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973)

meets with Civil Rights leaders

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.  (1929-1968)

 

Whitney Young (1921-1971)

 

James Farmer (1920-1999)

 

 

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson

meets with Civil Rights leaders

Martin Luther King, Jr., Whitney Young, James Farmer

 

L to R:

Martin Luther King, Jr.,

President Lyndon B. Johnson,

Whitney Young,

James Farmer

 

Date 18 January 1964 (1964-01-18)

 

Source: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.

Image Serial Number: W425-21.

http://photolab.lbjlib.utexas.edu/detail.asp?id=9853

 

Photograph: Yoichi R. Okamoto

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lyndon_Johnson_meeting_with_civil_rights_leaders.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement_(1955%E2%80%931968)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alabama

Birmingham campaign

16th Street Baptist church bombing    1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 28, 1963

 

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

Martin Luther King Jr. > "I have a dream"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23 June 1963

 

Martin Luther King

 

Speech

at the Great March on Detroit

 

 

Two months

before the March on Washington,

King stood before a throng

of 25,000 people

at Cobo Hall in Detroit

to expound upon making

“the American Dream a reality”.

 

King repeatedly exclaimed,

“I have a dream this afternoon”.

 

He articulated the words

of the prophets Amos and Isaiah,

declaring that

“justice will roll down like waters,

and righteousness

like a mighty stream,”

for “every valley shall be exalted,

and every hill and mountain

shall be made low”.

 

As he had done numerous times

in the previous two years,

King concluded his message

imagining the day

“when all of God’s children,

black men and white men,

Jews and Gentiles,

Protestants and Catholics,

will be able to join hands

and sing with the Negroes

in the spiritual of old:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty,

we are free at last!”.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/
documentsentry/doc_speech_at_the_great_march_on_detroit/
- broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 12, 1963

 

NAACP leader Medgar Evers

is murdered in Jackson, Mississippi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 11,1963


Movie stars

Paul Newman and Marlon Brando

support members of a group

that marched from Berkeley

to urge the California Legislature

to act on a housing bill.

 

The actors,

pictured on the steps

of the State Capitol,

flew to Sacramento

to urge passage

of Gov. Brown’s proposal

to ban discrimination

in private housing.

 

 

 

 

Marlon Brando and Paul Newman

appeared in front of the California state Capitol

in Sacramento in 1963

to support a sit-in for fair housing.

 

Photograph: Bill Ray

 

LIFE Magazine photographer Bill Ray’s most iconic pictures

— and raunchy Steve McQueen confession

NYP

January 18, 2020 | 6:40pm

https://nypost.com/2020/01/18
/life-magazine-photographer-bill-rays-most-iconic-pictures-and-raunchy-steve-mcqueen-confession/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 June 1963

 

Kennedy’s civil rights speech

 

 

An epochal moment

for civil rights in a single day

 

three seminal events

– a standoff

with Alabama's governor,

a presidential speech

and the murder of Medgar Evers –

left an indelible mark

on American history

 

(...)

 

In the early morning of 11 June 1963,

Attorney General Robert Kennedy

examined maps of the University

of Alabama's Tuscaloosa campus

as his three young children

played by his feet.

 

Within 18 hours,

his brother, the president,

had given an impromptu

national address on civil rights,

the Alabama governor

had confronted

the federal authorities

on national television and blinked,

and one of the movement's

most prominent leaders

had been gunned down

outside his home.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

 

 

 

June 11, 1963,

may not be a widely

recognized date these days,

but it might have been

the single most important day

in civil rights history.

 

That morning,

Gov. George Wallace,

in an effort to block the integration

of the University of Alabama,

made his futile

“stand at the schoolhouse door.”

 

That evening,

Boston N.A.A.C.P. leaders engaged in

their first public confrontation

with Louise Day Hicks,

the chairwoman

of the Boston School Committee,

over de facto public school segregation,

beginning a decade-long struggle

that would boil over

into spectacular violence

during the early 1970s.

 

And just after midnight

in Jackson, Miss.,

a white segregationist murdered

the civil rights leader Medgar Evers.

 

But the most important event

was one that almost didn’t happen:

a hastily arranged speech

that evening by President

John F. Kennedy.

 

Kennedy had dabbled

with the idea of going on TV

should the Alabama crisis drag out,

so when it ended, his staff assumed

the plan was off.

 

But that afternoon he surprised them

by calling the three networks

and personally

requesting airtime at 8 p.m.

 

He told his speechwriter

Theodore Sorensen

to start drafting the text,

but shortly before he went on air

the president was still editing it.

 

The president

had been routinely criticized

by black leaders

for being timid on civil rights,

and no one knew just what to expect

when the cameras started filming.

 

Kennedy began slowly

and in a matter-of-fact manner,

with an announcement

that the National Guard

had peacefully enrolled

two black students

at the University of Alabama

over Wallace’s vociferously

racist objections.

 

But he quickly spun that news

into a plea for national unity

behind what he, for the first time,

called a “moral issue.”

 

It seems obvious today

that civil rights

should be spoken of

in universal terms,

but at the time

many white Americans

still saw it as a regional,

largely political question.

 

And yet here

was the leader of the country,

asking “every American,

regardless of where he lives,”

to “stop and examine

his conscience.”

 

Then he went further.

 

Speaking

during the centennial

of the Emancipation Proclamation

— an anniversary

he had assiduously

avoided commemorating,

earlier that year —

Kennedy eloquently

linked the fate

of African-American citizenship

to the larger question

of national identity and freedom.

 

America,

“for all its hopes and all its boasts,”

observed Kennedy,

“will not be fully free

until all its citizens are free.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/
opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/
civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 30, 1963

 

Remarks of Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson

 

Memorial Day, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

 

 

On Memorial Day in 1963,

Vice President

Lyndon B. Johnson

gave a speech

in Gettysburg, Pa.,

that foreshadowed

profound changes

that would be achieved

in only 13 months

 

(...)

 

“One hundred years ago,

the slave was freed,”

Johnson said at the cemetery

in a ceremony marking

the 100th anniversary

of the Battle of Gettysburg.

 

“One hundred years later,

the Negro remains in bondage

to the color of his skin.”

 

With those two sentences,

Johnson accomplished two things.

 

He answered King’s

Letter From Birmingham Jail.”

[ April 16, 1963 ]

 

And he signaled

where the later Johnson

administration might lead,

which was to the legislation

now known

as the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/
sunday-review/at-gettysburg-johnson-marked-memorial-day-and-the-future.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/
sunday-review/at-gettysburg-johnson-marked-memorial-day-and-the-future.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Franklin Lewis        1909-1963

 

 

 

Lewis, right,

was known for his sharp dress and gregarious personality

as he worked his way up in the Democratic machine.

 

Photography: Collection of the Chicago History Museum

 

The Murder Chicago Didn’t Want to Solve

ProPublica

Feb. 25, 2021    5 a.m. EST

https://www.propublica.org/article/ben-lewis-murder

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American politician

who served as alderman

of Chicago's 24th ward from 1958

until he was murdered

in his ward office in 1963.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_F._Lewis - 26 February 2021

 

 

https://www.propublica.org/article/ben-lewis-murder - 25 February 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On February 9 1963,

William Zantzinger, a rich young farmer,

struck Hattie Carroll, a black barmaid,

with his cane.

 

She died that night;

he got six months.

 

Her story lives on in Bob Dylan's

brilliant protest song

- but where is Zantzinger now?

 

And did

The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll

really change anything?

https://www.theguardian.com/music/2005/feb/25/
bobdylan

 

https://www.theguardian.com/music/2005/feb/25/
bobdylan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Savannah, Ga. 1963.

 

Photograph: Fred Baldwin

 

At 90, Photographer Fred Baldwin Still Has ‘So Much Work Left to Do’

Having documented Sami herders and the civil rights movement,

and having just published a memoir,

the photographer says his life’s work is far from complete.

NYT

May 29, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/29/
lens/fred-baldwin-photography.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Students registering to vote,

Chatham County Courthouse in Savannah, Ga., 1963.

 

Photograph: Fred Baldwin

 

Why Did Racial Progress Stall in America?

The answer may show us the path out of our fractured and polarized present.

NYT

Dec. 4, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/04/
opinion/race-american-history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Big” Lester Hankerson

during a voter registration push

outside the Longshoreman’s Hall, Savannah, Ga., 1963.

 

Photograph: Fred Baldwin

 

Why Did Racial Progress Stall in America?

The answer may show us the path out of our fractured and polarized present.

NYT

Dec. 4, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/04/
opinion/race-american-history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1962

 

'Reverse Freedom Rides'

 

 

 

The Reverse Freedom Riders

Eddie Rose, Almer Payton and Willie Ramsey

are shown with Citizens Council director George Singlemann.

 

Photograph: Jim Bourdier / AP

 

 The Cruel Story Behind The 'Reverse Freedom Rides'

WBAA

29 February 2020

https://www.wbaa.org/post/cruel-story-behind-reverse-freedom-rides

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fuming over

the civil rights movement,

Southern segregationists

had concocted a way

to retaliate against Northern liberals.

 

In 1962, they tricked

about 200 African Americans

from the South into moving north.

 

The idea was simple:

When large numbers

of African Americans

showed up on Northern doorsteps,

Northerners would not be able

to accommodate them.

 

They would not want them,

and their hypocrisy

would be exposed.

 

The Reverse Freedom Rides

have largely disappeared

from the country's collective memory.

 

The scheme almost never appears

in history books and is little-known

even in Hyannis,

the primary target of the ploy.

 

But some hear echoes

of that segregationist past

in America's present.

 

And for the families

that came to the North based on a lie,

the journey has cast an enduring shadow

on their lives.

 

(...)

 

In the summer of 1961,

black and white activists,

who became known

as the Freedom Riders,

boarded Greyhound buses

and crisscrossed the South

with the goal of integrating

interstate buses

and bus terminals.

 

When the buses

pulled into Southern cities,

they were greeted by mobs

armed with bats and firebombs.

 

Southern segregationists,

who were still furious

over the school desegregation fights

that dominated the 1950s,

saw the Freedom Riders

as sanctimonious provocateurs.

 

In a television interview

from the time,

Ned Touchstone of Louisiana

—a spokesperson

for a local segregationist group—

said the North was

"sending down busloads

of people here

with the express purpose

of violating our laws,

fomenting confusion,

trying to destroy 100 years

of workable tradition

and good relations

between the races."

 

Touchstone

and other segregationists

thought there was no way

the Freedom Riders

or their fellow Northern liberals

actually cared about

integrating interstate transit

or advancing civil rights.

 

Instead,

they were convinced

it was a strategy

to embarrass the South

and capture black votes

for the Democratic party.

 

The segregationists

decided to answer

the Freedom Rides with the

"Reverse Freedom Rides."

 

They would use

the same weapon

—Greyhound buses—

and send African Americans

to Northern cities.

 

"For many years,

certain politicians, educators

and certain religious leaders

have used

the white people of the South

as a whipping boy,

to put it mildly,

to further their own ends

and their political campaigns,"

said Amis Guthridge,

a lawyer from Arkansas

who helped spearhead

the Reverse Freedom Rides.

 

"We're going to find out

if people like Ted Kennedy

... and the Kennedys,

all of them,

really do have an interest

in the Negro people,

really do have a love

for the Negro."

 

The segregationists

tapped into a network

of local groups

called Citizens' Councils.

 

Despite the sanitized name,

the councils were essentially

"the Ku Klux Klan

without the hoods

and the masks,"

said historian Clive Webb.

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2020/02/29/
809740346/the-cruel-story-behind-the-reverse-freedom-rides

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2020/02/29/
809740346/the-cruel-story-behind-the-reverse-freedom-rides

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1962/10/09/
archives/three-more-reverse-riders-in-hyannis-from-arkansas.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 1962

 

Cpl. Roman Ducksworth Jr.

is killed in Taylorsville, Miss.

 

 

On April 9, 1962,

Cpl. Roman Ducksworth, Jr.,

a military police officer,

was killed

by Police Officer William Kelly.

 

Ducksworth

was traveling to Mississippi

on an interstate bus

from Forth Ritchie, Maryland

to visit his wife

who was expecting

their sixth child.

 

There are two different accounts

about the events leading up

to Ducksworth’s death.

 

The NAACP took on the case,

reporting that Kelly shot Ducksworth

after he refused Officer Kelly’s order

to move to the back of the bus.

 

Ducksworth insisted

that he had a right to sit

where he chose on the bus.

 

Ducksworth’s brother

gave a different account

of the events.

 

According to

Ducksworth’s brother,

when the bus arrived

in Taylorsville, Mississippi,

Ducksworth’s hometown,

Kelly came aboard the bus

and awoke Ducksworth

by hitting him.

 

Officer Kelly

ordered Ducksworth

off the bus to beat him.

 

Officer Kelly then shot

Ducksworth in the heart.

 

According to this account,

Kelly may have mistaken

Ducksworth

for a “freedom rider

because the bus traveled

on the same roads

as the Freedom Riders,

who were hated in the area

for testing bus

desegregation laws.

http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/roman-duckworth-jr/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/
us/24rights.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom riders        1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1960

 

Boynton v. Virginia

 

 

U.S. Supreme Court

Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960)

Boynton v. Virginia

Decided December 5, 1960

CERTIORARI

TO THE SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA

 

Syllabus

 

For refusing to leave

the section reserved for white people

in a restaurant in a bus terminal,

petitioner,

a Negro interstate bus passenger,

was convicted in Virginia courts

of violating a state statute

making it a misdemeanor

for any person

"without authority of law"

to remain upon

the premises of another

after having been forbidden

to do so.

 

On appeal, he contended

that his conviction violated

the Interstate Commerce Act

and the Equal Protection,

Due Process and Commerce Clauses

of the Federal Constitution;

but his conviction was sustained

by the State Supreme Court.

 

On petition for certiorari to this Court,

he raised only the constitutional questions.

http://supreme.justia.com/us/364/454/case.html

 

 

https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/364/454/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1960

 

LIFE and Civil Rights:

Anatomy of a Protest, Virginia

 

 

LIFE.com presents

a gallery of photos

— many of which never ran

in LIFE magazine —

from a series of protests

and sit-ins

in Petersburg, Virgina,

in May 1960,

and from a broader-themed

planning conference

sponsored by

Martin Luther King Jr.

and the Southern Christian

leadership Council

at Atlanta University

earlier that month.

 

The pictures,

by LIFE’s Howard Sochurek

— a Princeton grad,

Neiman Fellow at Harvard

and WWII Army vet —

capture one small

but significant exemplar

of the sit-in phenomenon,

as well as some

of the unusual training methods

that potential sitters-in

endured before taking to the streets

and to the seats.

 

In notes sent to LIFE’s

editors in New York

from the magazine’s

Washington, DC, bureau

in May 1960,

the sit-in movement’s

activities in Virginia

were dubbed

the “Second Siege of Petersburg”

— a tongue-in-cheek reference

to the famous siege of the town

and nearby Richmond

between June 1864 and April 1865

during the Civil War.

http://life.time.com/history/civil-rights-photos-from-sit-ins-and-protest-training-sessions-1960/#1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A view of African-American integrationists attending a meeting.

 

Location: Petersburg, VA, US

Date taken: 1960

 

Photograph: Howard Sochurek

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/60d7b207414d6513.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“We Shall Overcome”        freedom anthem        early 1960s

 

 

 

The folk singer Guy Carawan (1927-2015)

and the Rev. Wyatt T. Walker

led a group of civil rights protesters

singing “We Shall Overcome”

at Virginia State University in 1960.

 

Photograph: Eve Arnold/Magnum Photos

 

Birth of a Freedom Anthem

NYT

MARCH 14, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/opinion/sunday/birth-of-a-freedom-anthem.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/08/
us/guy-carawan-dies-at-87-taught-a-generation-to-overcome-in-song.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
opinion/sunday/birth-of-a-freedom-anthem.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February and March 1959

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King

and his wife, Coretta Scott King,

travel throughout India

 

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=99480326 - January. 16, 2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Little Rock Nine, Arkansas - late 1950s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

School desegregation - 1950s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 17, 1957

 

 

Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom        Washington, DC

 

“Give Us the Ballot”

Address

at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

 

 

On 17 May 1957,

nearly 25,000 demonstrators

gathered at the Lincoln Memorial

in Washington, D.C.,

for a Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom,

featuring three hours

of spirituals, songs, and speeches

that urged

the federal government to fulfill

the three-year-old Brown

v. Board of Education decision.

 

The last speech of the day

was reserved

for Martin Luther King’s

‘‘Give Us the Ballot'' oration,

which captured public attention

and placed him

in the national spotlight

as a major leader

of the civil rights movement.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/
index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_prayer_pilgrimage_for_freedom_1957/
- broken link

 

 


 

 

[ Martin Luther King ]

Prayer Pilgrimage

 

Date taken: 1957

 

Photograph: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=61d08c0f68bb9bb8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

[ Martin Luther King ]

Prayer Pilgrimage

 

Date taken: 1957

 

Photograph: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=07a8dcf061d28528

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prayer Pilgrimage

 

Date taken: 1957

 

Photograph: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=1af2f534de61149c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
prayer-pilgrimage-freedom

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
king-delivers-give-us-ballot-prayer-pilgrimage-freedom-washington-dc-presented-key

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Browder v. Gayle        Montgomery, Alabama        1956

 

 

 

Mr. Gray used a diagram of a bus

to help illustrate his case in Browder v. Gayle,

brought on behalf of Black Americans in Montgomery in 1956.

 

Photograph:

Don Cravens/The LIFE Images Collection

via Getty Images/Getty Images

 

For a Civil Rights Hero, 90, a New Battle Unfolds on His Childhood Street

Before he defended Rosa Parks and became a leading legal force,

Fred Gray grew up on an avenue named for Jefferson Davis in Montgomery, Ala.

Now a push is underway for a new name for the street: Mr. Gray’s.

NYT

Dec. 25, 2020    1:40 p.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/25/
us/politics/fred-gray-rosa-parks-montgomery.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Browder v. Gayle, 352 U.S. 903

 

Basing its decision

on Brown v. Board of Education,

the Supreme Court says

the Montgomery bus segregation rule

violates the constitution.

 

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

- and the bus system's segregation,

end (on) Dec. 21, 1956

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
browder-v-gayle-352-us-903

 

 

 

 

Browder v. Gayle, 142 F. Supp. 707 (1956)

was a case heard

before a three-judge panel

of the United States District Court

for the Middle District of Alabama

on Montgomery and Alabama

state bus segregation laws.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Browder_v._Gayle

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Browder_v._Gayle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/25/
us/politics/fred-gray-rosa-parks-montgomery.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montgomery, Alabama        382-day Montgomery Bus Boycott        1955-1956


 

 

Montgomery Bus Boycott

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

Undated

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f39dd2741830a2c0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Montgomery buses,

the first four rows

were reserved for whites.

 

The rear was for blacks,

who made up more than 75 percent

of the bus system's riders.

 

Blacks could sit

in the middle rows

until those seats

were needed by whites.

 

Then blacks had to move

to seats in the rear, stand or,

if there was no room, leave the bus.

 

Even getting on

presented hurdles:

If whites were already

sitting in the front,

blacks could board

to pay the fare

but then had to disembark

and re-enter through the rear door.

 

The boycott lasted 381 days,

and in that period

many blacks were harassed

and arrested on flimsy excuses.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/25/world/americas/25iht-obit.html

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
montgomery-bus-boycott

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/25/
us/politics/fred-gray-rosa-parks-montgomery.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/09/22/
915508981/robert-graetz-only-white-pastor-to-back-montgomery-bus-boycott-dies-at-92

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/20/
obituaries/robert-graetz-dead.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/09/13/
760527109/juanita-abernathy-cornerstone-of-montgomery-bus-boycott-dies-at-87

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/13/
us/juanita-abernathy-dead.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/11/12/
455670897/60-years-after-the-boycott-progress-stalls-for-montgomery-buses

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/28/us/
thelma-glass-organizer-of-alabama-bus-protests-dies-at-96.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/26/us/
26carr.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/25/
world/americas/25iht-obit.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An Atlanta trolley in 1956,

before the Supreme Court decision

outlawing segregation on all public buses.

 

Photograph:

Horace Cort/Associated Press

 

FEATURE

America’s Enduring Caste System

Our founding ideals promise liberty and equality for all.

Our reality is an enduring racial hierarchy

that has persisted for centuries.

NYT

July 1, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/01/
magazine/isabel-wilkerson-caste.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dec. 1, 1955

 

Rosa Parks is arrested

in Montgomery, Alabama,

for refusing to relinquish

her seat to a white man

and move to the "negro" section

near the back of the city bus

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/
arrest-record-rosa-parks

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
rosa-parks-arrested-montgomery-and-released-bail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 28, 1955

 

 

Racial killings

 

Emmett Louis "Bobo" Till    July 25, 1941 - August 28, 1955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racial killing

 

Lamar Smith    1892 - August 13, 1955

 

Lamar Smith, a 63 year old farmer

and World War II veteran

was a voting rights activist

and a member of the Regional Counsel

of Negro Leadership.

 

On August 2,

he had voted in the primary

and helped get others out to vote.

 

There was a run-off primary

scheduled for August 23,

and, on August 13,

Smith was at the courthouse

seeking to assist black voters

to fill out absentee ballots

so they could vote

in the run-off election.

 

He was shot to death

in the front of the courthouse

in Brookhaven, Lincoln County,

at about 10 am.

 

(...)

 

Three men were arrested

in connection

with the Smith murder.

 

On September 13, 1955,

an all white Brookhaven grand jury

failed to return any indictments.

 

The District Attorney reported

that the Sheriff, Carnie E. Smith,

refused to make an immediate arrest

“although he knew everything I know.”

 

The District Attorney

further reported

that the sheriff told him

he saw Noah Smith,

one of the accused,

“leave the scene

with blood all over him.

It was his duty

to take that man into custody

regardless of who he was,

but he did not do it.”

http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/lamar-smith/

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamar_Smith_%28activist%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 17, 1954

 

School desegregation

 

Brown

v.

Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

 

U.S. Supreme Court Justice

Earl Warren

delivers the unanimous ruling

in the landmark civil rights case

 

SUPREME COURT

OF THE UNITED STATES 347 U.S. 483

Argued December 9, 1952

Reargued December 8, 1953

Decided May 17, 1954

APPEAL

FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

FOR THE DISTRICT OF KANSAS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html

https://nationalcenter.org/ncppr/2001/11/06/
brown-v-board-of-education-347-u-s-483-1954-ussc/

https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/347/483  

https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-segregation.html 

https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-aftermath.html 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-v-board 

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-case-order/

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/davis-case

https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/may-17/

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/08/20/
544735978/racial-issues-have-often-been-a-test-for-u-s-presidents-with-conflicted-feelings

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/
harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

www.nytimes.com/2014/05/17/us/
mrs-obama-cites-view-of-growing-segregation.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/weekinreview/10liptak.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harry Briggs Jr.    1941-2016

 

 

 

 From left,

Linda Brown Smith,

Harry Briggs Jr.,

Ethel Louise Belton Brown

and Spottswood Bolling Jr.

at a news conference in 1964.

 

Mr. Briggs’s parents originated the lawsuit

that put an end to public school segregation.

 

Photograph:

Al Ravenna/New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection,

via Library of Congress

 

Harry Briggs Jr., a Catalyst for Brown v. Board of Education, Dies at 75

NYT

AUG. 17, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/
harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harry Briggs Jr. ('s) parents

originated the pivotal lawsuit

that struck down

public school segregation in 1954,

but whose name was relegated by fate

to a forgotten legal footnote

 

(...)

 

Mr. Briggs’s parents

were furious

that 8-year-old Harry

and his fellow black students

in Clarendon County, S.C.,

were forced to walk as far

as 10 miles to attend classes

while whites were bused

at public expense

to their own segregated school.

 

With Harry Briggs Sr.

listed alphabetically

as the lead plaintiff,

the local chapter of the N.A.A.C.P.

filed suit in 1949

against the school district

in a case argued

by Thurgood Marshall,

who would become

the first black justice

of the United States Supreme Court.

 

When it reached the Supreme Court,

Briggs v. Elliott was merged

with four similar cases

and became known collectively as

Brown

v.

Board of Education of Topeka, Kan.

 

The N.A.A.C.P. lawyers

argued that segregation itself,

and the concept

of “separate but equal” schools

for blacks and whites,

violated the 14th Amendment’s

“equal protection” guarantee.

 

Why did Brown

— the Rev. Oliver L. Brown,

who stood in

for his daughter Linda,

a third grader,

on the legal papers —

instead of Briggs

wind up being immortalized

as a benchmark

in civil rights jurisprudence?

 

Historians have attributed

the naming convention

to a scheduling quirk

involving the five lawsuits,

although there has been

some speculation

that Tom C. Clark,

a Supreme Court justice from Texas,

gave Brown prominence,

figuring that advancing

a case from Kansas,

instead of one from South Carolina,

would make it appear less

like the court

was singling out the South.

 

Reversing the court’s 1896 decision

in Plessy v. Ferguson,

the justices ruled unanimously

on May 14, 1954,

that “in the field of public education

the doctrine of ‘separate, but equal’

has no place” because

“separate educational facilities

are inherently unequal.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/
harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/
us/harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Corley Wallace Jr.    1919-1998


 

 

Time Covers - The 60S

Time cover: 09-27-1963 of Gov. George Wallace.

 

Date taken: September 27, 1963

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://archives.alabama.gov/govs_list/g_wallac.html  

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/wallace/ 

https://www.npr.org/2003/06/11/
1294680/wallace-in-the-schoolhouse-door

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/
civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl Francis Lloyd    1928-2015

 

Earl Lloyd (...) became

the first black player

to appear in an N.B.A. game

when he took the court

for the Washington Capitols

in October 1950,

three and a half years

after Jackie Robinson

broke modern major league

baseball’s color barrier

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/28/
sports/basketball/earl-lloyd-nbas-first-black-player-dies-at-86.html 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/28/
sports/basketball/earl-lloyd-nbas-first-black-player-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A man viewing a large sign

announcing a restrictive policy at Sunset Gardens,

a housing development limited to whites.

Los Angeles. September 1950.

 

Photograph:

Irving C. Smith,

via Southern California Library

for Social Studies and Research

 

Photographing Civil Rights, Up North and Beyond Dixie

NYT

Oct. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/
photographing-civil-rights-north-beyond-south-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More African-American men,

women and children were hanged, burned

and dismembered per capita

in Mississippi

between the Civil War and World War II

than in any other Southern state.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/25/
opinion/confederate-memorial-mississippi-lynchings.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/25/
opinion/confederate-memorial-mississippi-lynchings.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Groveland Four        Florida        1949

 

 

 

Reuben Hatcher, the jailer at left,

stood with Charles Greenlee,

Samuel Shepherd

and Walter Irvin,

three of the four men

known as the Groveland Four,

in August 1949.

 

At right is Sheriff Willis McCall,

who later shot Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Irvin.

 

Photograph via Gary Corsair

 

Florida Pardons the Groveland Four,

70 Years After Jim Crow-Era Rape Case

NYT

Jan. 11, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/11/
us/groveland-four-pardon-desantis.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Groveland Four

(or the Groveland Boys)

were four young African-American men,

Earnest Thomas, Charles Greenlee

(then a minor at age 16),

Samuel Shepherd and Walter Irvin,

who in 1949 were accused of raping

a 17-year-old white woman

and assaulting her husband

in Lake County, Florida.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groveland_Four

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/show/groveland-four/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/11/
us/groveland-four-pardon-desantis.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/01/11/
684540515/accused-of-florida-rape-70-years-ago-4-black-men-get-posthumous-pardons

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jan/11/
groveland-four-case-pardons-ron-desantis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isaac Woodard (1919-1992)

is blinded by police officers in Batesburg, S.C.    Feb.1946

 

 

 

Joe Louis, the heavyweight champion, left,

helps guide Isaac Woodard up the stairs,

along with Neil Scott,

the author of “Joe Louis: A Picture Story of His Life.”

 

They met at a benefit in Harlem.

 

Photograph:

Ossie LeViness/NY Daily News Archive, via Getty Images

 

A South Carolina Judge Writes a Book About a Predecessor,

an Unsung Giant of Civil Rights Law

NYT

Jan. 19, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/19/
books/richard-gergel-unexampled-courage-j-waties-waring-isaac-woodard-truman-martin-luther-king.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Feb. 12, 1946,

Army sergeant Isaac Woodard, 26,

discharged with a chest of medals

after three years of fighting

in the Pacific in a segregated unit,

boarded a Greyhound bus

from Camp Gordon in Augusta, Ga.,

en route to home in Winnsboro, S.C.

 

There were conflicting accounts

of what happened on that bus.

 

Joyous soldiers, black and white,

may have been sharing

a celebratory bottle of whiskey.

 

Woodard and the driver

argued about restroom breaks

and Greyhound’s rules

requiring a driver to accommodate

passengers’s needs.

 

When the bus stopped in Batesburg,

a small town about 30 miles

from Columbia, the state capital,

the driver summoned

the town’s two police officers,

Chief Lynwood Shull and his deputy,

Elliot Long,

and Woodard was ordered off the bus.

 

Shull admitted

using his blackjack on the sergeant.

 

When Woodard wrested it away,

Long, gun drawn,

ordered him to drop it.

 

Then,

by the Gergel book’s account,

Shull rained blows on Woodard

so ferociously the blackjack broke.

 

Woodard was left sightless,

both eyes gouged out,

and thrown in jail,

igniting a racial fuse

that would burn its way

across America to Waring,

the White House

and eventually the Supreme Court.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/19/
books/richard-gergel-unexampled-courage-j-waties-waring-isaac-woodard-truman-martin-luther-king.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/19/
books/richard-gergel-unexampled-courage-j-waties-waring-isaac-woodard-
truman-martin-luther-king.html

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/
story/story.php?storyId=129995444 - September 20, 2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 16, 1944

 

Morgan v. Virginia

 

 

In the spring of 1946,

Irene Morgan, a black woman,

boarded a bus in Virginia

to go to Baltimore, Maryland.

 

She was ordered to sit

in the back of the bus,

as Virginia state law required.

 

She objected,

saying that since the bus

was an interstate bus,

the Virginia law did not apply.

 

Morgan was arrested

and fined ten dollars.

 

Thurgood Marshall

and the NAACP took on

the case.

 

They argued that since an 1877

Supreme Court decision

ruled that it was illegal

for a state to forbid segregation,

then it was likewise illegal

for a state to require it.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_morgan.html

 

 

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_morgan.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/13/us/
13kirkaldy.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wartime race riots between blacks and whites        Detroit, MI        June 1943


 

 

African American men rounded up

after wartime race riots between blacks and whites

which swept the city and required the use of Army troops

and martial law to quell.

 

Location: Detroit, MI, US

Date taken: June 20, 1943

 

Photograph: Gordon Coster

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A flag flying outside the N.A.A.C.P. offices on Fifth Avenue,

announcing that another lynching had taken place

in America. New York. 1936.

 

Photographer Unknown,

via Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

 

Photographing Civil Rights, Up North and Beyond Dixie

NYT

Oct. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/
photographing-civil-rights-north-beyond-south-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Route 66’s legacy of racial segregation

 

The Negro Motorist Green Book,

published 1936-1964,

was more than a guide book;

 

it was a lifesaver

in the racist world

of southern and western US states,

featuring motels and businesses

that extended their services

to black travellers before

the civil rights movement

helped bring about change

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/27/
green-book-south-west-usa-route-66-civil-rights

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/27/
green-book-south-west-usa-route-66-civil-rights

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1930s

 

Alabama

 

The Scottsboro Boys

 

 ATLANTA — [ 2013 ]

 

More than 80 years

after they were falsely accused

and wrongly convicted in the rapes

of a pair of white women

in north Alabama,

three black men received

posthumous pardons on Thursday,

essentially absolving the last

of the “Scottsboro Boys”

of criminal misconduct

and closing one

of the most notorious chapters

of the South’s racial history.

 

The Alabama Board

of Pardons and Paroles

voted unanimously

during a hearing in Montgomery

to issue the pardons

to Haywood Patterson,

Charles Weems and Andy Wright,

all of whom were

repeatedly convicted

of the rapes in the 1930s.

 

“The Scottsboro Boys

have finally received justice,”

Gov. Robert J. Bentley

said in a statement.

 

Thursday’s vote

brought to an end to a case

that yielded two landmark

Supreme Court opinions

— one about the inclusion

of blacks on juries

and another about the need

for adequate legal

representation at trial —

but continued

to hang over Alabama

as an enduring mark

of its tainted past.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/
with-last-3-pardons-alabama-hopes-to-put-infamous-scottsboro-boys-case-to-rest.html
 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/
with-last-3-pardons-alabama-hopes-to-put-
infamous-scottsboro-boys-case-to-rest.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/
scottsboro-nine-boys-posthumous-pardons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1924,

the Virginia legislature

passed the Racial Integrity Act,

which outlawed interracial marriage,

in part by reclassifying

American Indians as “colored.”

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 May, 1921

 

Tulsa massacre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1919

 

 a wave of anti-black violence

(...)  roiled the United States in 1919.

https://time.com/5636454/what-is-red-summer/

 

“Red Summer”

 

 

Omaha riot:

how a white mob lynched a Black man and destroyed a city – 360 video    G    9 July 2021

 

 

 

 

Omaha riot: how a white mob lynched a Black man and destroyed a city – 360 video        The Guardian        9 July 2021

 

In 1919,

a white mob stormed into an Omaha courthouse looking for a Black man named Will Brown

whom they believed raped a white woman two days earlier.

 

The newly elected mayor tried to reason with the mob,

only to be nearly hanged before police saved him.

 

The white mob eventually got to Brown,

dragged him out on to the street and lynched him.

 

No one was fully held accountable for these events.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Fw47SNONkY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/series/red-summers

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/jul/09/
omaha-riot-how-white-mobs-360-video

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/08/
opinion/sunday/crazy-blues-mamie-smith.html

 

https://time.com/5636454/what-is-red-summer/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1919

 

Elaine, Arkansas

 

Elaine massacre

 

a shoot-out

between local white law enforcement

and armed African American guards

protecting a sharecroppers' union meeting

triggered a race massacre here.

 

In the following days,

as many as a thousand

white civilians and militia,

fearing a black insurrection,

swarmed the Elaine area,

killing black men, women

and children.

https://www.npr.org/2019/09/29/
765563659/marking-the-centennial-of-arkansas-elaine-massacre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2019/09/30/
the-ghosts-of-elaine-arkansas-1919/

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/09/29/
765563659/marking-the-centennial-of-arkansas-elaine-massacre

 

https://www.nprillinois.org/post/
remembering-elaine-massacre-arkansas-100-years-later#stream/0
- Originally published on September 12, 2019 3:52 pm

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1919/10/02/
archives/nine-killed-in-fight-with-arkansas-posse.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1919

 

Chicago's race riots / red summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Houston Riot of 1917,

or Camp Logan Riot,

was a mutiny by 156

African American soldiers

of the Third Battalion

of the all-black Twenty-fourth

United States Infantry Regiment.

 

It occupied most of one night,

and resulted in the deaths

of four soldiers and sixteen civilians.

 

The rioting soldiers

were tried at three courts-martial.

 

A total of nineteen would be executed,

and forty-one were given life sentences.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston_riot_of_1917 

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston_riot_of_1917 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

circa 1915 - 1970s

 

The great migration

 

 

black Southerners

(...)

fled to cities

in the North and West

during the Great Migration.

 

That mass exodus

of African-Americans

began (circa 1915),

and lasted until the 1970s.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/04/10/398806751/
painting-the-epic-drama-of-the-great-migration-the-work-of-jacob-lawrence

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/04/10/
398806751/painting-the-epic-drama-of-the-great-migration-the-work-of-jacob-lawrence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1896

 

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537

"separate but equal"

 

 

In 1892 Homer Plessy

challenged a 1890 law

by the Louisiana General Assembly

which required white

and nonwhite passengers

to ride in separate railway carriages.

 

Plessy, a light-skinned man,

argued that the law was null and void

because race could not always

be determined by appearances.

 

Plessy was arrested

for violating the statute

and the case was tried

before the Louisiana Supreme Court.

 

The court upheld the law and,

in 1896 Plessy petitioned

for the United States Supreme Court

for a writ of error

which would overturn

the state court's ruling.

 

Justice Brown

for the majority opinion,

however, ruled that the statute

did not violate

the Fourteenth Amendment

to the U.S. Constitution

and that separate accommodations

could be required

as long as they were "equal."

 

Justice Harlan

wrote a dissenting opinion

in which he argued that

any arbitrary separation

of citizens based on race

could never be constitutional

and would only lead

to increased racial tension

in the United States.

http://history.ncsu.edu/projects/cwnc/items/show/366

 

 

https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/163/537 

 

https://cwnc.omeka.chass.ncsu.edu/items/show/366

 

https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/may-18/

 

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html

 

https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/may-18/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 March 1892

 

a white mob in Memphis, Tennessee,

lynched Thomas Moss

and his business partners

Will Stewart and Calvin McDowell.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/19/
tulsa-1921-massacre-trump-violence-legacy

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/19/
tulsa-1921-massacre-trump-violence-legacy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Civil Rights Era

in the U.S. News & World Report

Photographs Collection

 

Selected Images

from the Collections

of the Library of Congress

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/084_civil.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

Photographs

of Signs Enforcing Racial Discrimination:

 

Documentation

by Farm Security Administration-Office

of War Information Photographers
 

 

 

 

Memphis, Tennessee. September 1943.

 

Esther Bubley, photographer.

"People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal."

 

[Sign: "White Waiting Room."]

Location: E-5153

Reproduction Number: LC-USW3-37973-E

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > America, USA

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights > Black power

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

English America, America, USA

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > UK

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations,

racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Fred Baldwin

 

 

Doy Gorton

 

 

Danny Lyon

 

 

Matt Herron    1931-2020

 

 

Don Hogan Charles (born Daniel James Charles)    USA    1938-2017

 

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

 

Leonard Freed    1929-2006

 

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

Ed Clark    1911-2000

 

 

Robert W. Kelley    1920-1991

 

 

 

home Up