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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > School desegregation    1950s-1960s

 

 

 

TITLE: Integration at Ole Miss[issippi] Univ[ersity]

SUMMARY: Photograph shows James Meredith walking to class

accompanied by U.S. marshals.

MEDIUM: 1 negative : film.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1962 Oct. 1.

CREATOR: Trikosko, Marion S., photographer.

 

REPOSITORY:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (digital file from original) ppmsca 04292

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.04292

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/ils:@field(NUMBER+@band(ppmsca+04292)):displayType=1:m856sd=ppmsca:m856sf=04292

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@1(ppmsca+04292))

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/084_civil.html

The Civil Rights Era in the U.S. News & World Report Photographs Collection

Selected Images from the Collections of the Library of Congress

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 9, 1961

 

the University of Georgia

accepts its first two black students

-- Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter.

https://www.npr.org/2011/01/07/
132712913/a-pioneer-looks-back-50-years-after-making-history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/02/
us/vernon-jordan-dead.html

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlayne_Hunter-Gault

 

https://www.npr.org/2011/01/07/
132712913/a-pioneer-looks-back-50-years-after-making-history

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1995/10/28/
us/hamilton-e-holmes-dies-at-54-helped-integrate-u-of-georgia.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Meredith

 

 

 

Oxford, Mi

African-Amer. student James Meredith

accompanied by two US Marshalls,

surrounded by jeering white students

after registering for entry at Univ. of Mississippi.

 

Location: Oxford, MS, US

Date taken: September 1962

 

Photographer: Francis Miller

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=0fd8329c2e729067

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two people (were) killed

and at least 75 injured in rioting

at the University of Mississippi

campus in Oxford.

 

Hundreds of extra troops

(were) brought in

to join Federal forces

already stationed

in the nearby town of Oxford

as the violence spread

to its streets.

 

The protesters

(were) angry

at the admission

of James Meredith,

a black American,

to the university.

 

Rioting erupted

(...)

as President Kennedy

addressed the nation

in a televised broadcast

urging a peaceful settlement

to the dispute

over racial segregation.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/newsid_2538000/2538169.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/
newsid_2538000/2538169.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/6/
newsid_3009000/3009967.stm

 

 

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/01/
james-meredith-ole-miss-integration_n_1929306.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betty Jean Reed (L)

walking into newly desegregated Granby high school

as white students line the wall to watch.

 

Location: Norfolk, VA, US

Date taken: 1959

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/b62ee54d9f6d351c.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An African American student eating lunch alone

after being newly integrated into a high school.

 

Location: Norfolk, VA, US

Date taken: 1959

 

Photographer: Ed Clark

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/d792a7cde9cad58e.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lewis Cousins (R)

only African American student

in newly desegregated Maury high school

standing alone.

 

Location: Norfolk, VA, US

Date taken: 1959

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/3e3c06f571ac69b4.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martha Ann Potts (L) and Lisa Cary (C)

stopping to chat with African American boy Lewis Cousins (R)

to help make him feel more at ease

in newly desegregated school.

 

Location: Norfolk, VA, US

Date taken: 1959

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/b563bbe742f46495.html - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Segregation Hearings, Virginia

 


 

 

Segregation Hearings, Virginia

 

Spectators

packed into gallery draped w. confederate flags

during Virginia legislature hearings of bills

introduced by Gov. Thomas Stanley

in defiance of Supreme Court decision

decreeing racial integration in public schools.

 

Location: Richmond, VA, US

Date taken: 1956

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1957        Little Rock Nine        Little Rock, Arkansas

 

 

 

Elizabeth Eckford ignores

the hostile screams and stares of fellow students

on her first day of school.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann/Bettmann Archive

 

Little Rock Nine:

the day young students shattered racial segregation

 

Sixty years ago,

nine teens braved violent protests

to attend school

after the supreme court outlawed segregation

– but racial separation is not over in the US

G

Sun 24 Sep 2017    12.00 BST

Last modified on Sat 25 Nov 2017    02.03 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/24/
little-rock-arkansas-school-segregation-racism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nine teens

braved violent protests

to attend school

after the supreme court

outlawed segregation

– but racial separation

is not over in the US

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/24/
little-rock-arkansas-school-segregation-racism

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/24
/little-rock-arkansas-school-segregation-racism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1957

 

Charlotte, North Carolina

 

Dorothy Counts endures a taunting mob

to integrate a North Carolina school.

 

 

 

Dorothy Counts, 15,

attempts to become the first black student

to attend Harding high school in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Dr Edwin Tompkins, a family friend, escorts her.

 

Photograph: Douglas Martin/AP

 

This picture signaled an end to segregation.

Why has so little changed?

In 1957,

Dorothy Counts endured

a taunting mob to integrate a North Carolina school.

Sixty-one years later, her work is being undone

G

Mon 17 Sep 2018        10.00 BST

Last modified on Mon 17 Sep 2018        10.02 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/sep/17/
dorothy-counts-north-carolina-school-segregation-racism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/sep/17/
dorothy-counts-north-carolina-school-segregation-racism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1956

 

Bills are introduced

by Gov. Thomas Stanley (1890-1970)

- gov. 1954-1958 -

in defiance

of Supreme Court decision

decreeing racial integration

in public schools

Richmond, VA, US

 

 

http://news.google.com/newspapers?
nid=2206&dat=19580821&id=pCYzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=r-oFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1902,1840044
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1956

 

Browder v. Gayle, 352 U.S. 903

 

 

Basing its decision

on Brown v. Board of Education,

the Supreme Court says

the Montgomery bus

segregation rule

violates the constitution.

 

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

- and the bus system's

segregation, end - Dec. 21, 1956

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
browder-v-gayle-352-us-903

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jack Greenberg    1924-2016

 

lawyer who became

one of the nation’s

most effective champions

of the civil rights struggle,

leading the NAACP

Legal Defense

and Educational Fund Inc.

for 23 years

and using the law as a weapon

in its fight for racial justice

before the United States

Supreme Court

 

(...)

 

Mr. Greenberg was the last

surviving member

of a legendary civil rights

legal team assembled by

Thurgood Marshall,

the founding director-counsel

of the legal defense fund

and later

the first African-American

Supreme Court justice.

 

When Mr. Marshall hired him

as an assistant counsel in 1949,

Mr. Greenberg was just 24

and the civil rights movement, too,

was taking wing.

 

A son of Jewish immigrants

and a product of New York City,

he had developed

an abiding intolerance of injustice

— some of it witnessed in the Navy —

that propelled him into law

and into Mr. Marshall’s sights.

 

Mr. Greenberg

joined a team that, like him,

was idealistic yet pragmatic,

deliberate yet unafraid.

 

Besides Mr. Marshall

there were Robert L. Carter,

Constance Baker Motley,

Spottswood W. Robinson III

and others.

 

Mr. Greenberg

was neither the first white

nor the first Jew

to work for the civil rights

of blacks.

 

But he was one

of the most powerful white figures

in the movement

in the 1960s and ’70s,

a distinction that led to friction

with both blacks and Jews.

 

Still, Mr. Greenberg helped achieve

through the courts

what the political system

had denied Southern blacks:

 

voting rights,

equal pay for equal work,

impartial juries,

equal access to medical care,

equal access to schools

and other benefits of citizenship

broadly enjoyed by whites.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/13/us/jack-greenberg-dead.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/13/us/
jack-greenberg-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1955

 

first Black students

to integrate public schools in Tennessee

 

(...)



The Black students enrolled

in Oak Ridge's

previously whites-only schools in 1955,

just one year after the Supreme Court

declared segregated public schools

to be unconstitutional in its landmark

Brown v. Board of Education decision.

 

But the integration push

in Oak Ridge

didn't trigger the public furor

or sensation of other early efforts,

because unlike in Clinton, Tenn.,

or Little Rock, Ark.,

the move to educate

children of different races

alongside each other

didn't involve a legal battle.

 

In 1955,

Oak Ridge was managed

by the Atomic Energy Commission,

which later became

the U.S. Department of Energy.

 

That sets it apart from Clinton,

which "may be more prominent

because it was the first

state-run public school

to be desegregated

as a result of Brown v. Board,"

Joe Pagetta

of the Tennessee State Museum

said on Tuesday.

 

Oak Ridge was under federal control

because of its original status

as a "secret city"

– a built-to-order community

that was the home

of the U.S. government's

Manhattan Project.

 

That cleared the way

for administrators

to simply announce

in early 1955 that,

in accordance with

the Supreme Court's decision,

up to 100 students would move

from their school in Scarboro,

the city's Black community,

to Oak Ridge High School

and Robertsville Junior High.

 

The community's

federal leadership

had already been planning

to end segregation

because of a presidential

executive order

to integrate schools

on all military posts.

 

When it arrived,

the federal mandate for Oak Ridge

came with three basic requirements:

students wouldn't be favored

or discriminated  against

because of their skin color;

school district boundarie

 would be followed

without regard to race;

 

and teachers and other personnel

would be hired based on merit

rather than their skin color.

https://www.npr.org/2021/02/23/
970555503/oak-ridge-tenn-will-teach-history-of-its-black-students-who-helped-end-segregati

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/02/23/
970555503/oak-ridge-tenn-will-teach-history-of-its-black-students-who-helped-end-segregati

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

School desegregation

 

U.S. Supreme Court Justice

Earl Warren

delivers the unanimous ruling

in the landmark civil rights case

Brown

v.

Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

- May 17, 1954

 

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 347 U.S. 483

Argued December 9, 1952

Reargued December 8, 1953

Decided May 17, 1954

APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

FOR THE DISTRICT OF KANSAS

 

 

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html

https://nationalcenter.org/ncppr/2001/11/06/
brown-v-board-of-education-347-u-s-483-1954-ussc/

https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/347/483 

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/weekinreview/10liptak.html   

https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/index.html

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-v-board 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-case-order 

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/davis-case

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/08/
obituaries/barbara-johns-overlooked.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/02/
opinion/sunday/white-supremacy-forgot-women.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/10/13/
497841007/jack-greenberg-civil-rights-icon-who-argued-brown-v-board-dies

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/13/us/
jack-greenberg-dead.html

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=1537409 - Dec. 8, 2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbara Rose Johns Powell    1935-1991

 

At 16, Johns led a strike

by the student body

that ultimately became

one of five court cases

consolidated into

Brown

v.

Board of Education.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/08/
obituaries/barbara-johns-overlooked.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/08/
obituaries/barbara-johns-overlooked.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racial Segregation

represented by separating schools for African Americans.

 

Location: VA, US

Date taken: March 1953

 

Photographer: Hank Walker

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Corley Wallace Jr.    1919-1998

 


 

 

Time Covers - The 60S

Time cover: 09-27-1963 of Gov. George Wallace.

 

Date taken: September 27, 1963

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Governor George Wallace

attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama

by "standing in the door"--scene outside Foster Auditorium

 

Tuscaloosa, Alabama, June 11, 1963.

 

Digital ID: ppmsca 04294 Source: digital file from original

Reproduction Number:

LC-U9-9930-20 (b&w film neg.) ,

LC-DIG-ppmsca-04294 (digital file from original)

Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/
i?pp/ils:@field(NUMBER+@band(ppmsca+04294)):displayType=1:m856sd=ppmsca:m856sf=04294

 

The Civil Rights Era in the U.S.

News & World Report Photographs Collection

Selected Images from the Collections of the Library of Congress

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/084_civil.html

TIFF > JPEG: Anglonautes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://archives.alabama.gov/govs_list/g_wallac.html  

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/wallace/ 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2003/06/11/
1294680/wallace-in-the-schoolhouse-door

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

20th century > late 1950s > USA > Little Rock, Arkansas

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

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United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

U.S. Constitution > High Court / U.S. Supreme Court

Justices > Thurgood Marshall    1908-1993

 

 

U.S. Constitution, U.S. Supreme Court

 

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations,

racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Fred Baldwin

 

 

Doy Gorton

 

 

Danny Lyon

 

 

Matt Herron    1931-2020

 

 

Daniel James Charles    1938-2017

 

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

 

Leonard Freed    1929-2006

 

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

Ed Clark    1911-2000

 

 

Robert W. Kelley    1920-1991

 

 

 

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