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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > Segregationists    1940s-1960s

 

 

2005

 

Edgar Ray Killen

 

'Mississippi Burning' trial

 

 

guilty of manslaughter

in the deaths

of three young and idealistic

civil rights workers

 

(...)

 

the disappearance

of the three men,

Andrew Goodman, 20,

Michael Schwerner, 24,

and James Earl Chaney, 21,

on June 21, 1964,

drew the national news media

and hundreds of searchers

to Neshoba County,

while Mississippi officials

said publicly

that the disappearance

was a hoax intended

to draw attention.

 

When the three bodies

- two white, one black -

were found under

15 feet of earth

on a nearby farm,

the nation's horror

helped galvanize

the civil rights movement.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/national/22civil.html

 

 

https://edition.cnn.com/2005/LAW/06/13/miss.killings/index.html

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-06-23-
opinionline_x.htm

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/
national/22civil.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Governor George C. Wallace        1919-1998

 

 

 

George Wallace

at a 1970 rally for governor in Arab, Ala.

 

Photograph: D. Gorton

 

Photographing the White South in the Turbulence of the 1960s

Doy Gorton, a son of the Mississippi Delta

who joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee,

returned to Mississippi to embark on a project

photographing his fellow white Southerners.

The New York Times

Sept. 13, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/13/
lens/photographing-the-white-south-in-the-turbulence-of-the-1960s.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 George C. Wallace,

addressing a campaign rally in 1968.

 

Photograph:

Howard Sochurek/The LIFE Images Collection, Getty Images

 

What Donald Trump Owes George Wallace

NYT

JAN. 8, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/10/opinion/campaign-stops/what-donald-trump-owes-george-wallace.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Wallace surrounded by journalists, Oct. 29, 1968.

 

Photograph: Preston Stroup/Associated Press

 

What the Tumultuous Year 1968 Can Teach Us About Today

NYT

Oct.24, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/24/
books/review/what-the-year-1968-can-teach-us-about-todays-divisions-jon-meacham.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gov. Alabama, George C. Wallace,

conducting racist political campaign.

 

Location: Cambridge, MD, US

Date taken: May 1964

 

Photographer: Stan Wayman

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After pledging,

‘‘Segregation now!

Segregation tomorrow!

Segregation forever!’’

in his 1963 inaugural address,

Alabama Governor

George Wallace

gained national notoriety

by standing at the entrance

to the University of Alabama

to denounce the enrollment

of two African American

students.

 

Martin Luther King

described Wallace

as ‘‘perhaps the most dangerous

racist in America today’’

(King, ‘‘Interview’’).

 

In a 1965 interview King said:

‘‘I am not sure that he believes

all the poison that he preaches,’’

King said in 1965,

‘‘but he is artful enough

to convince others that he does’’

(King, ‘‘Interview’’).

 

Wallace was born

on 25 August 1919,

in Clio, Alabama.

 

The son of a farmer,

he worked his way

through the University of Alabama,

earning his law degree in 1942.

 

After a brief time

in the Air Force,

Wallace returned to Alabama

to work as the state’s

assistant attorney general.

 

He was elected

to the state legislature in 1947,

and served as a district judge

from 1953 to 1959.

 

In his early political career

he maintained

a moderate stance

on integration;

but after losing his first

gubernatorial campaign

to a candidate

who was endorsed

by the Ku Klux Klan,

Wallace became an outspoken

defender of segregation.

 

In 1962

Wallace won the governorship

on a segregationist platform,

receiving the largest vote

of any gubernatorial candidate

in Alabama’s history

until that time.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/kingweb/about_king/encyclopedia/wallace_george.htm - broken URL

 

 

 

"In the name

of the greatest people

that have ever trod this earth,

I draw a line in the dust

and toss the gauntlet

before the feet of tyranny

and I say segregation now,

segregation tomorrow,

and segregation forever!"

– George Wallace, 1963

 

To many, George Wallace

was the embodiment of racism

in America.

 

To others,

he was a champion

of Southern pride

and a defender

of the working class.

 

He rose to power

as the nation’s

best-known segregationist

in the early 1960s,

but later in his career

he was elected

governor of Alabama

with overwhelming

black support.

 

A Golden Gloves fighter,

he battled his way

into the national spotlight

and came close to deadlocking

the 1968 presidential election

as a third-party candidate

-- then was shot down

by a would-be assassin

on the eve

of his greatest political victory.

 

Wallace would spend

his remaining years

seeking redemption

for the divisiveness

he had once preached

and asking forgiveness

from those he had scorned

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/wallace/ - Aired April 23, 2000

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
wallace-george-corley-jr

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/24/
books/review/what-the-year-1968-can-teach-us-about-todays-divisions-jon-meacham.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/13/
lens/photographing-the-white-south-in-the-turbulence-of-the-1960s.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/01/
us/george-wallace-tapped-into-racial-fear-decades-later-its-force-remains-potent.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/10/
opinion/campaign-stops/what-donald-trump-owes-george-wallace.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2013/06/11/
190387908/a-daughters-struggle-to-overcome-a-legacy-of-segregation

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/10/us/
nicholas-katzenbach-1960s-political-shaper-dies-at-90.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/oct/18/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/nov/30/
usa.schoolsworldwide

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-09-14-
bombings-pain_x.htm

http://www.npr.org/2003/06/11/1294680/
wallace-in-the-schoolhouse-door

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Ernest Avants

and two fellow Ku Klux Klansman

abduct and kill Ben Chester White,

a black farmhand,

in the hope

that the heinousness of the crime

would lure

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

to Natchez, Miss.

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/us/
21kornblum.html

 

https://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=2826063&page=4  - 26 January 2007

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/17/us/
ernest-avants-72-plotter-against-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Selma-to-Montgomery Voting Rights March

 

George C. Wallace

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/
wallace-george-wallace-and-his-circle/ 

 

https://archives.alabama.gov/govs_list/g_wallac.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1964

 

Michael Schwerner,

James Chaney

and Andrew Goodman,

three civil-rights campaigners

beaten and shot dead

by Ku Klux Klan members

in Philadelphia, Mississippi

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2014/06/19/
323343703/still-learning-from-pearl-harbor-of-the-civil-rights-movement

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/16/us/
cartha-d-deloach-no-3-in-fbi-is-dead-at-92.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/22/us/
22mayor.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/apr/11/usa.
suzannegoldenberg1 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/18/us/mississippi-
reveals-dark-secrets-of-a-racist-time.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ku Klux Klan's May 2, 1964,

abduction and slayings

of Henry Hezekiah Dee

and Charles Eddie Moore

 

 

Klansman James Seale

 

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-01-24
-miss-deputy-arrest_x.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll"

is a topical song written by

the American musician Bob Dylan.

 

Recorded

on October 23, 1963,

the song was released

on Dylan's 1964 album

'The Times They Are a-Changin'

and gives a generally factual account

of the killing of 51-year-old

barmaid Hattie Carroll

by the wealthy young tobacco farmer

from Charles County, Maryland,

William Devereux "Billy" Zantzinger

(whom the song calls

"William Zanzinger"),

and his subsequent sentence

to six months in a county jail.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lonesome_Death_of_Hattie_Carroll

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lonesome_Death_of_Hattie_Carroll

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alabama Governor George C. Wallace        June 11, 1963

 

At his inauguration

as governor of Alabama

in January that year,

Wallace vowed to maintain

"segregation forever",

fulfilling the promise

by barring the students.

 

When the moment came,

his willingness to enforce

the pledge proved nominal;

a carefully scripted performance,

choreographed by the governor's office

and the federal authorities in Washington,

led by President John F Kennedy's

attorney general brother Robert,

allowed Wallace to state his position,

while avoiding confrontation.

 

Making the gesture, however,

catapulted him

on to the national scene

and assured his re-election

as a populist Democrat.

 

In 1996,

two years before his death,

he apologised to Jones

(Vivian Malone Jones)

and asked for her forgiveness.


June 11 1963

was an oppressively hot day

in Tuscaloosa, Alabama,

the heat and humidity

soaring to more than 100F

- an apt metaphor

for the climate of US race relations

at the time.

 

Vivian Malone and James Hood,

the other black student wishing to enroll,

waited in a car,

while state troopers surrounded

the university's Foster Auditorium,

and Wallace stood in the doorway.

 

Deputy attorney general

Nicholas Katzenbach,

flanked by federal marshals,

went up to Wallace and asked him

to abide by a federal court order.

 

Wallace read his statement

citing states' rights to organise education,

while Katzenbach telephoned the president,

who federalised the Alabama national guard.

 

The governor then left

and the students,

now under national guard protection,

were admitted.

 

Later that night,

the black civil rights leader Medgar Evers

was gunned down outside his house

in Jackson, Mississippi.

 

President Kennedy

had just delivered his landmark speech

explaining the "moral crisis" facing America,

and the need for intervention

on behalf of the black students.

 

His public confrontation

with the south's

most stringent segregationist

put the Democratic party squarely

on the side of the civil rights movement

and changed the course of US politics

for decades.

 

Dr Martin Luther King's

"I have a dream" speech

came two months later

at a civil rights march

in Washington.

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/oct/18/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/wallace/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/oct/18/
guardianobituaries.usa 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George C. Wallace (L)

by Richard Avedon (R)

Avedon obituary        The Guardian        2.10.2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1963

 

Birmingham church bombing

 

George C. Wallace

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/nov/30/usa.schoolsworldwide

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-09-14-bombings-pain_x.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White segregationist demonstrators protesting

in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1959.

 

Photograph:

Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images

 

The secret history of Trumpism

G

16 August 2016

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2016/aug/16/
secret-history-trumpism-donald-trump

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Related

 

 

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