Les anglonautes

About | Search | Grammar | Vocapedia | Learning | News podcasts | Videos | History | Arts | Science | Translate and listen

 Previous Home Up Next

 

History > America, English America, USA > 20th century > USA > Civil rights > Timeline in pictures

 

White supremacist massacre        Tulsa, Oklahoma        31 May 1921

 

 

 

Tulsa, Oklahoma, US

Darius Kirk looks at a mural depicting the Tulsa Race Massacre

in the historic Greenwood neighbourhood

ahead of centennial commemorations of the massacre.

 

The area, originally known as Black Wall Street,

was destroyed a hundred years ago

when a murderous white mob laid waste to what was the nation’s

most prosperous Black-owned business district

and residential neighbourhood.

 

Photograph: John Locher/AP

 

20 photographs of the week

The aftermath of the conflict in Gaza and Israel,

the one-year anniversary of George Floyd’s death,

the Nyiragongo volcano erupts near Goma, and Covid deaths in India:

the most striking images from around the world this week

G

Fri 28 May 2021    19.22 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2021/may/28/
20-photographs-of-the-week

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“I was there when it happened,”

said Hughes Van Ellis, who is 100 years old. “I’m still here.”

 

Photograph: Stefani Reynolds for The New York Times

 

At 107, 106 and 100,

Remaining Tulsa Massacre Survivors Plead for Justice

The three known survivors, who were all children in 1921,

offered their firsthand accounts of the race massacre

at a hearing in Washington.

NYT

May 20, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/20/
us/tulsa-massacre-survivors.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lessie Benningfield Randle,

a 106-year-old survivor of the Tulsa massacre.

 

Photograph: Rahim Fortune for The New York Times

 

100 Years After the Tulsa Massacre, What Does Justice Look Like?

In 1921,

a white mob attacked the Greenwood district of Tulsa,

killing hundreds of Black people and destroying the neighborhood.

Justice has never been served. Can it still be today?

NYT

May 25, 2021    5:00 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/25/
magazine/tulsa-race-massacre-1921-greenwood.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Survivors of the 1921 riot,

which left hundreds of Black residents dead,

shared their stories before a House Judiciary subcommittee

and asked members of Congress to help them secure justice.

 

Photograph: Stefani Reynolds for The New York Times

 

At 107, 106 and 100,

Remaining Tulsa Massacre Survivors Plead for Justice

The three known survivors, who were all children in 1921,

offered their firsthand accounts of the race massacre

at a hearing in Washington.

May 20, 2021    Updated 10:03 a.m. ET

NYT

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/20/
us/tulsa-massacre-survivors.html


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Trump’s Tulsa Rally Put the City’s Black Residents on Edge    NYT    22 june 2020

 

 

 

 

Why Trump’s Tulsa Rally Put the City’s Black Residents on Edge        Video        NYT News        The New York Times        22 june 2020

 

President Trump’s rally in Tulsa, Okla.,

the site of one of the country’s

worst episodes of racial violence in 1921,

angered the city’s black residents.

 

In this news analysis,

we explain what this moment could mean

for Mr. Trump’s re-election bid.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jdps9MiVKqA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mt. Zion Baptist Church was burned by white mobs

during the 1921 Tulsa race riot.

 

Photograph:

Greenwood Cultural Center, via Associated Press

 

Tulsa’s Prayers, and Past Scars,

Softened Reaction to Police Shooting

NYT

Sept. 23, 2016

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/24/
us/tulsa-police-shooting-reaction.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smoke rises from buildings during the 1921 race riot

in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

 

Photograph:

Library Of Congress/Reuters

 

Tulsa still haunted by memory of white supremacist massacre

on eve of Trump visit

G

Fri 19 Jun 2020    14.11 BST

Last modified on Fri 19 Jun 2020    15.11 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/19/
tulsa-oklahoma-white-supremacist-massacre-trump-rally

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tulsa on fire in 1921,

after a white mob laid waste to its thriving Greenwood district,

a commercial area developed by leaders of the city’s Black population.

 

Hundreds were killed

by the white mob and thousands left homeless.

 

Photograph: Library of Congress

 

Review: The Tulsa Massacre, Remembered by Those Who Survived

“Goin’ Back to T-Town,”

the 1993 PBS documentary about the mass murder of a city’s Black residents

and the destruction of their community, returns.

NYT

February 7, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/07/
arts/television/review-tulsa-massacre-remembered.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some of the ruins

from the Tulsa Race Massacre in June 1921,

when white vigilantes set the Oklahoma city’s

African-American district ablaze.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

 

The Burning of Black Wall Street, Revisited

Nearly a century after the Tulsa Race Massacre,

the search for the dead continues.

NYT

June 19, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/19/
opinion/tulsa-race-riot-massacre-graves.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The remains of the Greenwood district in June 1921.

 

Photograph: via The Library of Congress

 

100 Years After the Tulsa Massacre, What Does Justice Look Like?

In 1921,

a white mob attacked the Greenwood district of Tulsa,

killing hundreds of Black people and destroying the neighborhood.

Justice has never been served. Can it still be today?

NYT

May 25, 2021    5:00 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/25/
magazine/tulsa-race-massacre-1921-greenwood.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A group of National Guard troops,

carrying rifles with bayonets attached,

escort unarmed African-American men

to a detention center

after the Tulsa Race Massacre

in June 1921.

 

Photograph:

Oklahoma Historical Society/Getty Images

 

The Burning of Black Wall Street, Revisited

Nearly a century after the Tulsa Race Massacre,

the search for the dead continues.

NYT

June 19, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/19/
opinion/tulsa-race-riot-massacre-graves.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black detainees are led to Convention Hall following the race riot

in Tulsa, Okla., in 1921.

 

Photograph:

Tulsa Historical Society & Museum

 

Tulsa’s Prayers, and Past Scars, Softened Reaction to Police Shooting

NYT

Sept. 23, 2016

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/24/
us/tulsa-police-shooting-reaction.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 May, 1921

 

 Tulsa, Oklahoma

 

White supremacist massacre

 

 

on June 1,

(...)

the neighborhood of Greenwood,

home to a business district

known as Black Wall Street,

was destroyed by a white mob.

 

The mob looted

and set fire to the businesses,

and historians estimate

up to 300 people were killed,

8,000 left homeless,

23 churches burned

and more than 1,200 homes

destroyed.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/20/
us/tulsa-massacre-survivors.html

 

 

 

As African American

economic successes,

especially business

and property ownership,

mounted,

fear and jealousy swelled

within the white community.

 

White corporate

and railroad interests

coveted the land on which

the Greenwood district sat.

 

The Ku Klux Klan

made its presence known.

 

The media fanned

the flames of racial discord.

 

And, of course, systemic racism

continued unchecked.

 

On 31 May,

thousands of armed white men,

some deputized

by local law enforcement,

invaded the Greenwood district

and savaged Tulsa’s

burgeoning black community.

 

They gunned people down

and set fires

throughout the district.

 

Planes, likely privately owned,

dropped incendiary devices

on the Greenwood district.

 

In less than 24 hours,

a white mob reduced a vibrant,

35-block area

to rubble and dead bodies.

 

Hundreds of people,

as many as 300, died,

with many others injured.

 

Most were black.

 

Some African Americans

fled Tulsa, never to return.

 

Property damage,

conservatively estimated,

ranged from $1.5m to $2m,

well over $25m in present value.

 

The massacre

depleted black wealth

to an inestimable degree.

 

Black prosperity

slowly returned,

peaking in the 1940s,

but was hobbled

by insurance redlining,

discrimination,

and the challenges

that accompanied integration

and “urban renewal”.

 

- Guardian, June 19, 2020

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/19/
tulsa-1921-massacre-trump-violence-legacy

 

 

 

A white mob rampaged

through a wealthy

black business district

in Tulsa, Okla., in 1921,

in a spate of violence

that destroyed

more than 1,200 homes

and left up to 300 people dead.

 

- NYT, October 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
us/mass-graves-tulsa-race-massacre.html

 

 

 

Police

are still investigating (in 2012)

whether the weekend

shooting spree in Tulsa, Okla.,

was racially motivated.

 

A massive riot there in 1921

left about

three dozen people dead.

- NPR, April 10, 2012

https://www.npr.org/2012/04/10/
150335245/history-of-tulsas-race-riot

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/
tulsa-race-massacre

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/jul/31/
bodies-tulsa-race-massacre-oklahoma-reinterred

 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2021/jul/08/
i-work-with-the-dead-but-this-can-help-the-living-
the-anthropologist-investigating-the-tulsa-race-massacre

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/09/
us/tulsa-burial-race-massacre.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/04/
opinion/tom-hanks-tulsa-race-massacre-history.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/06/01/
1001380354/biden-to-visit-tulsa-to-mark-the-1921-race-massacre-that-wrecked-black-wall-stre

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/06/01/
1002080611/nyc-gallery-hosting-a-tulsa-race-massacre-exhibition-was-vandalized-with-white-p

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/06/01/
1001380354/biden-to-visit-tulsa-to-mark-the-1921-race-massacre-that-wrecked-black-wall-stre

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/31/
1001855753/how-tulsa-riots-shaped-todays-most-successful-black-ceos

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/31/
1000215563/artists-black-wall-street-project-is-about-tulsa-100-years-ago-and-today

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/31/
opinion/tulsa-race-massacre-teaching-history.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/30/
insider/greenwood-tulsa-massacre-3d.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2021/05/29/
1000351028/in-both-fact-and-fiction-the-truth-of-tulsa-is-hard-to-stomach

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2021/may/31/
1921-tulsa-race-massacre-remembered-in-pictures

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/may/31/
tulsa-massacre-descendants-callout-stories

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/may/31/
tulsa-race-massacre-at-100-act-of-terrorism

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/video/2021/may/31/
an-act-of-terrorism-america-tried-to-forget-360-video

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/30/
arts/television/tulsa-race-massacre-documentaries.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/30/
1000923192/3-documentaries-you-should-watch-about-the-tulsa-race-massacre

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/may/30/
tulsa-race-massacre-scott-ellsworth-historian

 

https://www.gocomics.com/stevebenson/2021/05/29

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/28/
us/tulsa-race-massacre-commission.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/28/
994616024/in-the-wake-of-the-tulsa-race-massacres-centennial-a-communal-hip-hop-album-emer

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2021/05/27/
1000983483/code-switchs-recommended-tulsa-reads

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/26/
books/review-ground-breaking-tulsa-massacre-scott-ellsworth.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/25/
1000118546/tulsa-100-years-later

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/25/
magazine/tulsa-race-massacre-1921-greenwood.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/05/24/
us/tulsa-race-massacre.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/24/
998683497/a-century-after-the-race-massacre-tulsa-confronts-its-bloody-past

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/20/
us/tulsa-massacre-survivors.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/05/19/
998225207/survivors-of-1921-tulsa-race-massacre-share-eyewitness-accounts

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/14/
us/Oklahoma-critical-race-theory-Tulsa-massacre.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/07/
arts/television/review-tulsa-massacre-remembered.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/26/
opinion/tulsa-race-massacre-mass-grave.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/live-updates-protests-for-racial-justice/2020/09/03/
909151983/oklahoma-lawsuit-seeks-reparations-in-connection-to-1921-tulsa-massacre

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/07/17/
us/tulsa-massacre-mass-graves.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/live-updates-protests-for-racial-justice/2020/07/14/
890785747/excavation-begins-for-possible-mass-grave-from-1921-tulsa-race-massacre

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/13/
us/tulsa-massacre-graves-excavation.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Jdps9MiVKqA - video - NYT - 22 June 2020

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/19/
opinion/tulsa-race-riot-massacre-graves.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/audio/2020/jun/19/
why-is-trumps-comeback-rally-in-tulsa-the-site-of-a-massacre

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/18/
opinion/tulsa-race-massacre-racism.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/18/
trumps-visit-tulsa-sp

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/02/28/
809759133/before-making-military-history-she-witnessed-one-of-historys-worst-race-riots

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/11/
opinion/tulsa-race-massacre.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/05/
us/tulsa-race-massacre-mass-grave.htm

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/12/17/
789015343/new-research-identifies-possible-mass-graves-from1921-tulsa-race-massacre

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/23/
obituaries/olivia-hooker-dead.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
us/mass-graves-tulsa-race-massacre.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2018/05/31/
615546965/meet-the-last-surviving-witness-to-the-tulsa-race-riot-of-1921

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/24/
us/tulsa-police-shooting-reaction.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2012/04/10/
150335245/history-of-tulsas-race-riot

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/
us/20tulsa.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1921/06/02/
archives/85-whites-and-negroes-die-in-tulsa-riots-as-3000-armed-men-battle.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > USA > 20th century

 

Civil rights

 

 

Race riots

in Detroit, Milwaukee,

Los Angeles, Newark and Chicago    1967-1968

 

 

Chicago's race riots / red summer - 1919

 

 

breaking the color barrier

in arts, media, science and sports

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > America, USA > 17th - 20th century

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

English America, America, USA

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > UK

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations,

racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

past

 

 

past > memories, remembrance

 

 

past > history, historians, archives,

historiography

 

 

Confederacy,

Confederate monuments / statues / emblems / flag

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Fred Baldwin

 

 

Doy Gorton

 

 

Matt Herron    1931-2020

 

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

 

Leonard Freed    1929-2006

 

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

Ed Clark    1911-2000

 

 

 

home Up