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History > 20th century > USA > John Fitzgerald Kennedy / JFK    1917-1963

 

35th president of the United States    1961-1963
 

 

 

 

Prees (sic) John F. Kennedy and wife Jackie

greeting crowd at Love Field

upon arrival for campaign tour

on day of his assassination.

 

Location: Dallas, TX, US

Date taken: November 22, 1963

 

Photographer: Art Rickerby

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/dc757604965caaf6.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pres. John F. Kennedy

and First Lady Jacqueline

arriving for a tour of the city

on the morning of Kennedy's assassination.

 

Location: Dallas, TX, US

Date taken: November 22, 1963

 

Photographer: Art Rickerby

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/9823847d00bff22f.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Friday, Nov. 22, 1963,

at 12:30 p.m. CST in Dallas, Texas,

John F. Kennedy,

the 35th president of the United States,

was riding in the back of a car

as his presidential motorcade

wound its way through Dealey Plaza.

 

A second later,

a bullet entered his head

and ended his life.

 

JFK's assassination

shook the world,

but that was only the beginning

of a series of bizarre events.

 

Almost an hour later,

Lee Harvey Oswald,

JFK's assassin,

was arrested in a movie theater

for the murder

of Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit,

whom he had shot on a local street.

 

However, Oswald never

had his day in court

because a nightclub owner

named Jack Ruby killed him

 while the police officers

were transferring him.

https://www.npr.org/2021/06/04/
1003190634/jack-rubys-trial-moves-from-side-stage-to-center-in-kennedys-avenger

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2021/06/04/
1003190634/jack-rubys-trial-moves-from-side-stage-to-center-in-kennedys-avenger

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commuters reading of John F. Kennedy's assassination.

 

Location: NY, US

Date taken: November 1963

 

Photographer: Carl Mydans

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commuters reading of John F. Kennedy's assassination.

 

Location: NY, US

Date taken: November 1963

 

Photographer: Carl Mydans

 

Life Image

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/f?imgurl=c2b997ce529f47d6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cover of LIFE magazine dated 11-24-1967

w. pic of Texas Gov. John Connally

by John Dominis & inset of Pres. Kennedy & entourage

during motorcade prior to assassination (by Zingraff)

& legends "Last Seconds of the Motorcade"

& "Why Kennedy Went to Dallas."

 

Date taken: November 24, 1967

 

Photographer: John Dominis

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/d2685f2ddacb8e73.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mark Lane    1927-2016

 

defense lawyer,

social activist and author

who concluded

in a blockbuster book

in the mid-1960s

that Lee Harvey Oswald

could not have acted alone

in killing President

John F. Kennedy,

a thesis supported in part

by the House Select Committee

on Assassinations in 1979

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/13/us/
mark-lane-who-asserted-that-kennedy-was-killed-in-conspiracy-dies-at-89.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/13/us/
mark-lane-who-asserted-that-kennedy-was-killed-in-conspiracy-dies-at-89.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Lemuel Johns    1925-2014

 

Secret Service agent who guarded

Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson

when President John F. Kennedy

was assassinated in Dallas

and who became a high-ranking

Secret Service official

during Johnson’s administration

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/11/
us/lem-johns-who-guarded-vice-president-lyndon-b-johnson-in-dallas-dies-at-88.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/11/
us/lem-johns-who-guarded-vice-president-lyndon-b-johnson-in-dallas-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Dallas policeman

holds up the rifle used to kill President John F. Kennedy.

 

Photograph: Bettmann Archive

 

Observer archive - Lee Harvey Oswald, 30 November 1963

Following the assassination of JFK on 22 November 1963,

the Observer sent photographer Stuart Heydinger

and reporters Joyce Egginton and Cyril Dunn

to Dallas, Texas,

to investigate the life and motives of the killer.

O

Sat 24 Nov 2018    18.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2018/nov/24/
observer-archive-lee-harvey-oswald-30-november-1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Zapruder film

of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy

 

The 8-mm footage

of the Kennedy motorcade

— one of the earliest instances

of a citizen capturing images

of an extraordinary event —

was once called

the most important 26 seconds

in celluloid history.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/22/
business/media/richard-stolley-dead.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/22/
business/media/richard-stolley-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy / JFK        1917 -  November 22,1963

 

 

 

 

Kennedy Campaign

Dem. Pres. cand. John Kennedy

speaking fr. podium to crowd in street.

 

Location: New York, NY, US

Date taken: October 1960

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/john-fitzgerald-kennedy

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7X0LKts7k4FT498Id_x5sg

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/world/asia/
eroni-kumana-who-saved-kennedy-and-his-shipwrecked-crew-dies-at-96.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/11/us/
politics/roger-hilsman-adviser-to-kennedy-on-vietnam-dies-at-94.html

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/john-f-kennedy

https://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/2013/11/
the-legacy-of-president-john-f-kennedy-50-years-later/

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/jfk-assassination-timeline

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2013/11/50th_anniversary_of_the_jfk_as.html

https://www.cagle.com/news/jfk-50/ 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kq1PbgeBoQ4

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/09/
books/review/jeff-shesol-mercury-rising.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/08/
books/review/jfk-fredrik-logevall.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/sep/05/
jfk-volume-one-by-fredrik-logevall-review-the-kennedys-and-the-trumps

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/aug/23/
the-big-picture-a-tender-family-moment-with-jfk

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/
us/the-militarys-discrimination-problem-was-so-bad-in-the-1960s-kennedy-formed-a-committee.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2018/nov/24/
observer-archive-lee-harvey-oswald-30-november-1963

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/video/
us/100000005516126/jfk-papers-conspiracy-theory.html - 2017

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/10/26/
559799857/final-jfk-assassination-files-due-to-be-released

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/25/
us/jfk-assassination-files-questions.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/oct/26/
john-f-kennedy-asssassination-documents-national-archives

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2017/may/29/
john-f-kennedy-at-100-in-pictures

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/29/
opinion/john-f-kennedy-an-idealist-without-illusions.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/11/us/
jfk-letter-to-lover-to-be-auctioned.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/13/us/
mark-lane-who-asserted-that-kennedy-was-killed-in-conspiracy-dies-at-89.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/19/
us/politics/air-force-one-a-cherished-perk-awaiting-an-upgrade.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/24/upshot/baseballs-role-in-jfks-life.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/jfk-assassination-dallas-arlington-ceremony

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/jfk-50th-anniversary-assassination-live

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/jfk-assassination-timeline

http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2013/nov/23/jfk-news-of-a-shooting-tv-review

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/cia-kennedy-assassination-conspiracy-judge

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/22/kennedy-assassination-50-years-jfk

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/22/john-kennedy-conspiracy-theories

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/opinion/kennedys-legacy-of-inspiration.html

https://www.npr.org/2013/11/16/
245550528/jfk-wrote-the-book-on-modern-presidential-campaigns

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/11/us/textbooks-reassess-kennedy-putting-camelot-under-siege.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/kennedy-has-been-shot-memories-from-nov-22-1963.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/opinion/nov-22-memories-of-that-awful-day.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/once-at-kennedys-side-now-at-one-anothers.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/in-kennedys-death-a-turning-point-for-a-nation-already-torn.html

http://apps.beta620.nytimes.com/john-f-kennedy-assassination-coverage/issue.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/us/obama-presents-top-honor-to-bill-clinton.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/arts/design/recalling-kennedys-death-or-life.html

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/jfk-through-the-pages-of-the-new-york-times/

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2013/11/12/us/20131114_DALLAS.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/opinion/morris-november-22-1963.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/jfk-dallas-reckon-past-hate

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/nov/21/jfk-jackie-kennedy-camelot-myth

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/dallas-jfk-commemoration-conspiracy-theorists-left-out

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/20/jfk-art-president-pictures

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/nov/20/jkf-asassination-history-victims-northern-ireland

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2013/nov/20/john-f-kennedy-anniversary-photography-exhibition

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/19/john-f-kennedy-assassination-racial-equality-jfk

http://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2013/nov/19/the-parallax-view-kennedy-assassination

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/17/opinion/sunday/dallass-role-in-kennedys-murder.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/15/jfk-death-conspiracy-theories-50-years

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/15/arts/television/we-interrupt-this-generation.html

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/nov/14/abraham-zapruder-film-kennedy-killing-parkland

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/11/10/us/politics/evolving-portraits-of-jfk.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/10/john-f-kennedy-jfk-50-years-photographs

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/nov/10/kennedy-jfk-letters-clarke-review

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/nov/01/john-f-kennedy-assassination-50-years-conspiracy-books-film

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/nov/01/10-best-books-inspired-by-jfk

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/books/review/the-elusive-president.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/books/review/jfk-a-sampler.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/books/review/the-interloper-by-peter-savodnik-and-more.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/12/jfk-dallas-kennedy-assassination-oswald

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/10/nyregion/ralph-a-dungan-aide-in-kennedy-white-house-dies-at-90.html

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/sep/27/
john-f-kennedy-jacques-lowe-photography 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/31/jfk-to-move-the-world

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/19/us/steuart-pittman-head-of-fallout-shelter-program-dies-at-93.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/16/booming/in-a-time-of-hidden-crisis-president-visits-main-street.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/16/opinion/the-eyeball-to-eyeball-myth-and-the-cuban-missile-crisiss-legacy.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/12/us/gaeton-fonzi-76-investigated-kennedy-assassination.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/03/us/earl-rose-coroner-when-jfk-was-shot-dies-at-85.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/04/22/magazine/winogrand-look.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/05/us/stan-stearns-who-caught-jfk-jrs-salute-on-film-dies-at-76.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/opinion/sunday/jfks-intern.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/27/opinion/sunday/Douthat-The-Enduring-Cult-of-Kennedy.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/13/books/review/11-22-63-by-stephen-king-book-review.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/11/books/a-first-rate-madness-by-nassir-ghaemi-review.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/27/opinion/sunday/Douthat-The-Enduring-Cult-of-Kennedy.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/26/us/tom-wicker-journalist-and-author-dies-at-85.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/22/opinion/the-umbrella-man.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2011/nov/22/john-f-kennedy-us-politics

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/30/us/archbishop-philip-m-hannan-dies-at-98.html

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2011/apr/28/
jfk-oliver-stone-john-f-kennedy

 

 

 

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/11/the_presidency_of_jfk_50_years.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/01/us/01sorensen.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/oct/07/rat-pack-kennedy-election-50-years

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/23/arts/design/23warnecke.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/09/us/09kennedy.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/apr/13/jacqueline-kennedy-interviews-released-jfk

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/feb/22/kennedy.assassination

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/sep/04/usa.mainsection

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/22/opinion/remembering-john-f-kennedy.html

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/jun/22/fiction.features

http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/25653/J-F-K-/overview

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/16/us/
john-connally-of-texas-a-power-in-2-political-parties-dies-at-76.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/20/
movies/review-film-jfk-when-everything-amounts-to-nothing.html

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/07/28/
movies/film-oliver-stone-under-fire-over-the-killing-of-jfk.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/29/books/reverberations-of-dallas.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/november-22/ 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/witness/november/22/
newsid_3211000/3211055.stm

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1968/06/06/
archives/kennedy-is-dead-victim-of-assassin-surgery-in-vain-president-calls.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1968/06/05/
archives/kennedy-shot-and-gravely-wounded-after-winning-california-primary.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 June 1963

 

Kennedy: 'Ich bin ein Berliner'

 

 

John F Kennedy

madea ground-breaking speech

in Berlin

offering American solidarity

to the citizens of West Germany.

 

A crowd of 120,000 Berliners

gathered in front

of the Schöneberg Rathaus

(City Hall) to hear

President Kennedy speak

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/26/newsid_3379000/3379061.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/26/
newsid_3379000/3379061.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 June 1963

 

Kennedy’s civil rights speech

 

 

An epochal moment for civil rights

in a single day

 

three seminal events

– a standoff with Alabama's governor,

a presidential speech

and the murder of Medgar Evers –

left an indelible mark

on American history

 

(...)

 

In the early morning

of 11 June 1963,

Attorney General Robert Kennedy

examined maps

of the University of Alabama's

Tuscaloosa campus

as his three young children

played by his feet.

 

Within 18 hours,

his brother, the president,

had given an impromptu

national address on civil rights,

the Alabama governor

had confronted

the federal authorities

on national television

and blinked,

and one of the movement's

most prominent leaders

had been gunned down

outside his home.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

 

 

 

June 11, 1963,

may not be a widely

recognized date these days,

but it might have been

the single most important day

in civil rights history.

 

That morning,

Gov. George Wallace,

in an effort to block the integration

of the University of Alabama,

made his futile

“stand at the schoolhouse door.”

 

That evening,

Boston N.A.A.C.P. leaders engaged

in their first public confrontation

with Louise Day Hicks, the chairwoman

of the Boston School Committee,

over de facto public school segregation,

beginning a decade-long struggle

that would boil over

into spectacular violence

during the early 1970s.

 

And just after midnight

in Jackson, Miss.,

a white segregationist murdered

the civil rights leader

Medgar Evers.

 

But the most important event

was one that almost didn’t happen:

a hastily arranged speech

that evening by President

John F. Kennedy.

 

Kennedy had dabbled

with the idea of going on TV

should the Alabama crisis drag out,

so when it ended,

his staff assumed the plan was off.

 

But that afternoon

he surprised them

by calling the three networks

and personally requesting airtime

at 8 p.m.

 

He told his speechwriter

Theodore Sorensen

to start drafting the text,

but shortly before he went on air

the president was still editing it.

 

The president had been routinely

criticized by black leaders

for being timid on civil rights,

and no one knew just what to expect

when the cameras started filming.

 

Kennedy began slowly

and in a matter-of-fact manner,

with an announcement

that the National Guard

had peacefully enrolled

two black students

at the University of Alabama

over Wallace’s vociferously

racist objections.

 

But he quickly spun that news

into a plea for national unity

behind what he, for the first time,

called a “moral issue.”

 

It seems obvious today

that civil rights

should be spoken of

in universal terms,

but at the time

many white Americans

still saw it as a regional,

largely political question.

 

And yet here was

the leader of the country,

asking “every American,

regardless of where he lives,”

to “stop and examine

his conscience.”

 

Then he went further.

 

Speaking

during the centennial

of the Emancipation Proclamation

— an anniversary

he had assiduously

avoided commemorating,

earlier that year —

Kennedy eloquently linked

the fate of African-American

citizenship

to the larger question

of national identity and freedom.

 

America, “for all its hopes

and all its boasts,”

observed Kennedy,

“will not be fully free

until all its citizens are free.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/
opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kennedy's

Committee on Equal Opportunity in the Armed Forces,

known as the Gesell Committee.

 

 

 

John F. Kennedy

meets with Gerhard Gesell (on his right),

Whitney Young (on his left)

and other members of the President’s Committee

on Equal Opportunity in the Armed Forces.

 

Jan. 23, 1963.

 

Photograph: Cecil Stoughton/

White House Photographs/

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston

 

The Military’s Discrimination Problem Was So Bad in the 1960s,

Kennedy Formed a Committee

The group of lawyers and activists

toured the country, interviewing soldiers.

NYT

July 16, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/
us/the-militarys-discrimination-problem-was-so-bad-in-the-1960s-kennedy-formed-a-committee.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1962

 

Cuban Missile Crisis

 

 

On October 22, 1962,

President John F. Kennedy

informed the world

that the Soviet Union

was building secret missile bases

on the island of Cuba,

90 miles off the shores of Florida.

 

The events

of the next tension-filled 13 days,

known as

the Cuban Missile Crisis,

struck fear across the globe

as the world teetered

on the edge of nuclear disaster.

 

The fate of the planet

ultimately lay in the hands

of three powerful men:

Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy.

 

 

 

Cuban Missile Crisis:

 

Three Men Go to War

explores the roles

the three leaders played

during some of the most

dangerous moments in history,

set against the human stories

of ordinary men in the field

such as the Soviet man

who shot down the U2 piloted by

U.S. Air Force Major

Rudolf Anderson

on the worst day of the crisis.

http://www.pbs.org/program/three-men/

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/show/three-men-go-war/

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/
john-kennedy-and-foreign-policy/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We go to the Moon,

and do the other things,

not because they are easy,

but because they are hard."

 

--John F. Kennedy,

speaking at Rice University,

September 12, 1962.

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2013/09/this-day-in-history-jfk-gives-moon-speech.html - broekn link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Space program        First American orbital spaceflight        Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6)        February 20, 1962

 

 

 

John Glenn and John Kennedy inspect the Friendship 7 capsule.

 

Photograph:

Vincent P. Connolly/Associated Press

 

Was the Space Program Worth the Cost?

NYT

June 9, 2021

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/09/
books/review/jeff-shesol-mercury-rising.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6)

was the first American

orbital spaceflight,

which took place

on February 20, 1962.

 

Piloted by astronaut John Glenn

and operated by NASA

as part of Project Mercury,

it was the fifth human spaceflight,

preceded by Soviet orbital flights

Vostok 1 and 2

and American sub-orbital flights

Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4.

 

The Mercury spacecraft,

named Friendship 7,

was carried to orbit

by an Atlas LV-3B launch vehicle

lifting off from Launch Complex 14

at Cape Canaveral, Florida.

 

After three orbits,

the spacecraft re-entered

the Earth's atmosphere,

splashed down

in the North Atlantic Ocean,

and was safely taken aboard

USS Noa.

 

Total mission flight time

was four hours 55 minutes

and 23 seconds.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_6 - June 12, 2021

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/09/
books/review/jeff-shesol-mercury-rising.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kennedy's foreign policy

 

Vietnam

 

in November 1961

(Kennedy)sanctioned

the use of defoliants

in a covert operation

code-named Ranch Hand,

every mission flown signed off

by the president himself

and managed in Saigon

by the secret Committee 202

- the call sign

for defoliating forests

being "20"

and for spraying fields

"2".

 

(...)

 

When US troops

became directly embroiled

in Vietnam in 1964,

the Pentagon  signed contracts

worth $57m (£36m)

with eight US chemical companies

to produce defoliants,

including Agent Orange,

named after the coloured band

painted around the barrels

in which it was shipped.

 

The US would target

the Ho Chi Minh trail

- Viet Cong supply lines

made invisible

by the jungle canopy

along the border with Laos -

as well as the heavily wooded

Demilitarised Zone (DMZ)

that separated

the North from the South,

and also the Mekong Delta,

a maze of overgrown

swamps and inlets

that was a haven

for communist insurgents.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/mar/29/usa.adrianlevy

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/mar/29/
usa.adrianlevy 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kennedy's foreign policy

 

Vietnam

 

On April 29, (1961)

Kennedy approved the deployment

of 400 Special Forces troops

to South Vietnam,

where they would train

and advise local soldiers

against the Communist North.

 

Within two years,

more than 16,000 American troops

would arrive in Vietnam.

 

U.S. involvement in Vietnam

may be Kennedy’s

most lasting legacy

in American foreign policy,

but at the time,

not many Americans

understood the depth

of involvement that lay ahead.

 

Scholars continue to debate

what Kennedy’s intentions

would have been had he lived.

 

Aides to the president

have said that he felt

an American withdrawal from Vietnam

would tarnish him as an appeaser

— which would have been

political suicide —

but that he would have withdrawn

after a re-election in 1964.

 

Historian Robert Dallek says,

“Kennedy was really doubtful

about the wisdom

of escalating the war,”

and was developing

a plan as early as 1962

to remove all troops in stages.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/john-kennedy-and-foreign-policy/

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/
john-kennedy-and-foreign-policy/
 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/06/robert-mcnamara-obituary

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/06/robert-mcnamara-dies

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2004/feb/08/usa.awardsandprizes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 January 1961

 

Inaugural Address

 

 

Motion picture

of President John F. Kennedy's

Inaugural Address

in Washington, D.C.

 

Supreme Court

Chief Justice Earl Warren

administers the oath of office

to President Kennedy.

 

Former President

Dwight D. Eisenhower

and former Vice President

Richard M. Nixon

congratulate

President Kennedy.

 

In his speech

President Kennedy urges

American citizens

to participate in public service

and "ask not what your country

can do for you

--ask what you can do

for your country."

http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/BqXIEM9F4024ntFl7SVAjA.aspx

 

 

https://www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/historic-speeches/
inaugural-address

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8 November 1960

 

Kennedy is elected President

 

 

On Nov. 8, 1960,

Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts

defeated

Vice President Richard M. Nixon

for the presidency

in one of the closest

and most contentious elections

in American history.

 

Mr. Kennedy would end up

defeating Mr. Nixon

by just 0.1 percent

in the popular vote,

and the results of the election

were still uncertain

on Tuesday night.

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/08/nov-8-1960-john-f-kennedy-elected-president/

 

 

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/08/
nov-8-1960-john-f-kennedy-elected-president/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 September 1960

 

Kennedy and Nixon clash in TV debate

 

 

More than 60 million Americans

tuned in to watch

the first-ever televised debate

between the two candidates

running for the White House.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/26/newsid_3104000/3104393.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/26/
newsid_3104000/3104393.stm 

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/a147210f6bfaac7d.html

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/c300aa5b39d46f39.html

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/ffd7219ad56f2a54.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 21st, 20th century > USA

 

Lyndon Baines Johnson    1908-1973

36th President of the United States    1963-1969

 

 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy    1917-November 22,1963

 

 

Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy    1925-1968

 

 

Kennedy dynasty

 

 

late 1940s - late 1980s

Cold war > USA, world

 

 

1962-1975

Cold War > Vietnam War > USA

 

 

20th century > USA > Civil rights

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > America, USA

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

English America, America, USA

Racism, Slavery,

Abolition, Civil war,

Abraham Lincoln,

Reconstruction

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th century

English America, America, USA

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations,

racial divide, racism,

segregation, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

beliefs > conspiracy theories

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Fred Baldwin

 

 

Doy Gorton

 

 

Danny Lyon

 

 

Matt Herron    1931-2020

 

 

Don Hogan Charles (born Daniel James Charles)    1938-2017

 

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

 

Leonard Freed    1929-2006

 

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

Ed Clark    1911-2000

 

 

Robert W. Kelley    1920-1991

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

Kennedy Family Tree: Three Generations of Politics

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/08/26/
us/kennedy-family-tree.html

 

 

Guardian > The Kennedys

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/kennedys

 

 

 

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